Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry

A Derivative of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition

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Author: John H. Steele,Karl K. Turekian,Steve A. Thorpe

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780080964836

Category: Science

Page: 631

View: 3106

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. The selected articles—all written by experts in their field—fall into several categories, including: chemistry of sea water, tracers in the sea, natural radioactive species in the ocean, cycles of the nuclides, marine deposits and air sea exchanges. Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles on marine chemistry and geochemistry to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview of marine chemistry and geochemistry and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference

50 Years of Ocean Discovery

National Science Foundation 1950-2000

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309172578

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 650

This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF’s Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and career staff over the past 50 years.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

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Author: Karl A. Gschneidner,L. Eyring

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444503466

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 8618

Even at the beginning of the new millenium the rare earths still remain, to a certain extent, a mystery. The chapters in this volume will help to unravel some of these. In the filling of the 4f electronic orbitals the lanthanides defy the elementary aufbau principle that underlies the periodic sequence of the elements, and the authors of the first chapter introduce the readers to the basic physics of the orbital collapse leading to that failure. Furthermore an explanation is offered in terms of double-well potentials. The phenomenon is illustrated using the valence transitions observed in some of the rare earth atoms, including Sm group metals and the higher oxides of cerium, praseodymium and terbium. In the second chapter the synthesis and structure of the many types of rare earth halides are described. They have been described as simple, complex, binary, ternary and multinuclear complex, and other categories needed to deal with the most studied of the rare earth compounds. The structure types are skillfully illustrated to show the elementary architecture of each type. In chapter three the authors discuss the science and applications of rare earth super ionic conductors as solid electrolytes. Conduction by oxygen and fluorine anions as well as hydrogen and other cations associated with these electrolytes is emphasized. They deal with extrinsic and intrinsic types together with their associated structures and structural types including structural defects. The chapter concludes with an outline of the many applications of solid electrolytes. Chapter four introduces the reader to the principles that underlie thermoluminescence and its application to dosimetry and provides detailed information on the R-activated phosphors that support dosimetry. This is a selective review of detailed literature based on the areas making most progress. The final chapter elaborates on the data gained by the studies and interpretation around the analytical separation of the individual rare earth elements utilizing chromatographic techniques. The authors describe the fundamental chemistry that underpins contemporary analytical separation techniques for lanthanide separation and analysis. This is done after a description of the rich assortment of separation methods in use has been introduced.

Chemical Ecology

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Author: Jorg D. Hardege

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848261799

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 6978

Chemical Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Chemical Ecology provides the essential aspects of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. It deals with studies involving defensive chemicals which are utilized to deter potential predators, which may attack a wide variety of species, animal interaction, aquatic ecosystems, chemical ecology and pest management, relation to medicine and pharmaceuticals. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

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Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139471619

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1855

The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

Marine Geochemistry

Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

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Author: Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191091413

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1523

Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences

Fundamentals and Applications

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Author: George W. Luther

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118851374

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 1136

Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the structure, bonding and reactivity of molecules and solids of environmental interest, bringing the reactivity of non-metals and metals to inorganic chemists, geochemists and environmental chemists from diverse fields. Understanding the principles of inorganic chemistry including chemical bonding, frontier molecular orbital theory, electron transfer processes, formation of (nano) particles, transition metal-ligand complexes, metal catalysis and more are essential to describe earth processes over time scales ranging from 1 nanosec to 1 Gigayr. Throughout the book, fundamental chemical principles are illustrated with relevant examples from geochemistry, environmental and marine chemistry, allowing students to better understand environmental and geochemical processes at the molecular level. Topics covered include: • Thermodynamics and kinetics of redox reactions • Atomic structure • Symmetry • Covalent bonding, and bonding in solids and nanoparticles • Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory • Acids and bases • Basics of transition metal chemistry including • Chemical reactivity of materials of geochemical and environmental interest Supplementary material is provided online, including PowerPoint slides, problem sets and solutions. Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences is a rapid assimilation textbook for those studying and working in areas of geochemistry, inorganic chemistry and environmental chemistry, wishing to enhance their understanding of environmental processes from the molecular level to the global level.

The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry

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Author: H. Elderfield

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080451015

Category: Science

Page: 646

View: 3542

The Treatise on Geochemistry is the first work providing a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of geochemistry. It deals with all the major subjects in the field, ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The Treatise on Geochemistry has drawn on the expertise of outstanding scientists throughout the world, creating the reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. Each volume consists of fifteen to twenty-five chapters written by recognized authorities in their fields, and chosen by the Volume Editors in consultation with the Executive Editors. Particular emphasis has been placed on integrating the subject matter of the individual chapters and volumes. Elsevier also offers the Treatise on Geochemistry in electronic format via the online platform ScienceDirect, the most comprehensive database of academic research on the Internet today, enhanced by a suite of sophisticated linking, searching and retrieval tools.

Marine Geochemistry

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Author: Roy Chester,Tim D. Jickells

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118349091

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 9326

Marine Geochemistry offers a fully comprehensive andintegrated treatment of the chemistry of the oceans, theirsediments and biota. The first edition of the book received strongcritical acclaim and was described as ‘a standard text foryears to come.’ This third edition of MarineGeochemistry has been written at a time when the role of theoceans in the Earth System is becoming increasingly apparent. Following the successful format adopted previously, thisnew edition treats the oceans as a unified entity, and addressesthe question ‘how do the oceans work as a chemicalsystem?’ To address this question, the text hasbeen updated to cover recent advances in our understanding oftopics such as the carbon chemistry of the oceans, nutrient cyclingand its effect on marine chemistry, the acidification of sea water,and the role of the oceans in climate change. In addition, theimportance of shelf seas in oceanic cycles has been re-evaluated inthe light of new research. Marine Geochemistry offers both undergraduate andgraduate students and research workers an integrated approach toone of the most important reservoirs in the Earth System. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/chester/marinegeochemistry"www.wiley.com/go/chester/marinegeochemistry/a.

Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems

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Author: Kenneth D. Black,Graham B. Shimmield

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405147792

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 8996

Marine systems vary in their sensitivities to perturbation.Perturbation may be insidious – such as increasingeutrophication of coastal areas – or it may be dramatic– such as a response to an oil spillage or some otheraccident. Climate change may occur incrementally or it may beabrupt, and ecosystem resilience is likely to be a complex functionof the interactions of those assemblages or species mediating keybiogeochemical processes. Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems considers issues ofmarine system resilience, focusing on a range of marine systemsthat exemplify major global province types but are also interestingand topical in their own right, on account of their sensitivity tonatural or anthropogenic change or their importance as ecologicalservice providers. Authors concentrate on advances of the lastdecade.

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

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Author: David J. Burdige

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069109506X

Category: Science

Page: 609

View: 9274

"This is undoubtedly a major contribution to the field. David Burdige's scholarship is cutting edge."--Bernard P. Boudreau, Dalhousie University "Burdige has written a wonderfully exhaustive review spanning all aspects of marine sedimentary geochemistry. Generous background welcomes the newcomer, while ample depth and breadth stimulate the savvy expert. The discussions are built from the latest work in biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. And in the tradition of Robert Berner's classic treatment of early diagenesis, Burdige handles reaction pathways and transport processes rigorously and quantitatively. This nicely written, well-illustrated survey suits both the reference shelf and the classroom."--Timothy W. Lyons, University of California, Riverside "This book fills a gaping hole in our field. While certain to be used by specialists, it also provides background and ancillary information so as to reach allied fields. Burdige has done a remarkable job in providing the right balance of background theory, real-world implementation, and examples from the literature."--Rick Murray, Boston University "David Burdige's book reviews and develops the ideas that emerged in the field of geochemistry over the last twenty-five years. It is a significant contribution. The scholarship is clearly sound, with excellent and comprehensive references to the latest work. I have no doubt it will be useful to any students who wish to learn the subject."--Michael Krom, Leeds University Earth and Biosphere Institute

Isotope Marine Chemistry

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Author: Edward D. Goldberg,Yoshio Horibe,Katsuko Saruhashi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Chemical oceanography

Page: 500

View: 598

The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers

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Author: Pete Burnard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642288367

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 2942

The twelve chapters of this volume aim to provide a complete manual for using noble gases in terrestrial geochemistry, covering applications which range from high temperature processes deep in the Earth’s interior to tracing climatic variations using noble gases trapped in ice cores, groundwaters and modern sediments. Other chapters cover noble gases in crustal (aqueous, CO2 and hydrocarbon) fluids and laboratory techniques for determining noble gas solubilities and diffusivities under geologically relevant conditions. Each chapter deals with the fundamentals of the analysis and interpretation of the data, detailing sampling and sampling strategies, techniques for analysis, sources of error and their estimation, including data treatment and data interpretation using recent case studies.

An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea

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Author: Michael E. Q. Pilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887070

Category: Science

Page: 533

View: 8464

Engagingly introduces marine chemistry and the ocean's geochemical interactions with the solid earth and atmosphere, for students of oceanography.

Chemical Oceanography, Fourth Edition

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Author: Frank J. Millero

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466512555

Category: Science

Page: 591

View: 5595

Over the past ten years, a number of new large-scale oceanographic programs have been initiated. These include the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR) and the recent initiation of the Geochemical Trace Metal Program (GEOTRACES). These studies and future projects will produce a wealth of information on the biogeochemistry of the world’s oceans. Authored by Frank J. Millero, an acknowledged international authority in the field, the fourth edition of Chemical Oceanography maintains the stellar insight that has made it a favorite of students, instructors, researchers, and other professionals in marine science, geochemistry, and environmental chemistry. Reflecting the latest updates on issues affecting the health of our environment, this text: Supplies an in-depth treatment of ocean acidification, a key emerging environmental problem Provides updated coverage on the carbonate system in the ocean Presents expanded information on oceanic organic compounds Contains updates on dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, and metals in the ocean Offers a new definition of salinity and a new equation of the state of seawater based on recent, original research Describes the new thermodynamic equation of the state of seawater Includes full-color graphs and photographs to assist readers in visualizing the concepts presented For more than two decades, this book has served as the "classic" textbook for students and a valuable reference for researchers in the fields of oceanography, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. Designed for both classroom use and self-study, this comprehensive survey of essential concepts incorporates a wealth of state-of-the-art reference data discovered on large-scale oceanographic studies sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

Modeling Methods for Marine Science

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Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500716

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1070

This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

The Role of Fluids in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Processes

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Author: Daniel Harlov,Hakon Austrheim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642283934

Category: Science

Page: 806

View: 9023

Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle.

Marine Surface Films

Chemical Characteristics, Influence on Air-Sea Interactions and Remote Sensing

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Author: Martin Gade,Heinrich Hühnerfuss,Gerald M. Korenowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540332715

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 9925

Since the late 1960s, various groups have investigated the influence of marine surface films on mechanisms dominating energy and mass transfer across the ocean/atmosphere interface. However, a compendium summarizing the state-of-the-art research in this field is still missing. The book fills this gap and transfers the accumulated knowledge to the scientific community. After a brief historical chapter basic chemical insights are presented, followed by theoretical and experimental approaches carried out in laboratory facilities. Air-sea interaction experiments are then described and finally, remote sensing applications with sea slicks and crude oil spills are presented.

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

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Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124071538

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 7913

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM