Margaret Mead gegen Derek Freeman: Meads Samoa, ein Mythos?

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Author: N.A

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638426637

Category: Social Science

Page: 25

View: 1542

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2004 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Kultur, Technik und Völker, Note: 1,3, Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Veranstaltung: Klassiker der Ethnologie, 12 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der sogenannten Mead-Freeman-Debatte, die Anfang der achtziger Jahre aufkam und eine heftige Diskussion bezüglich ethnologischer Feldforschung entfachte. Zwei Werke unterschiedlicher Forscher standen sich gegenüber, die beide dieselbe Kultur beschrieben, jedoch zu völlig konträren Ergebnissen und Theorien gelangten. Diese Widersprüchlichkeit erregte damals großes Aufsehen; nicht nur wissenschaftliche Kreise, sondern auch die Öffentlichkeit zeigten großes Interesse an jener Angelegenheit, was wiederum die Diskussion vor einem breiten Publikum mit sich brachte. Um die Mead-Freeman-Debatte verständlich zu machen, werden in der folgenden Abhandlung die Werke von Margaret Mead „Kindheit und Jugend in Samoa“ und „Liebe ohne Aggression- Margaret Meads Legende von der Friedfertigkeit der Naturvölker“ von Derek Freeman vorgestellt. Eine einleitende Kurzbiographie zur Person Margaret Meads, gibt Einblick in das Leben und Werk eines jungen Mädchens, das über Umwege zum Fach Ethnologie gelangte und dabei eine Leidenschaft für sich entdeckte. Im Folgenden wird auf den Entstehungsprozess der Fragestellung, sowie auf die Entscheidung für das Zielland eingegangen und auf die Bedeutung von Franz Boas hingewiesen, einem angesehenen Professor und Vertreter des Kulturdeterminismus, der die junge Studentin während ihrer gesamten Forschungszeit betreute. Hierbei wird gleichermaßen ein besonderes Augenmerk auf die Auseinandersetzung zwischen Vertretern des Kulturdeterminismus und der Eugenik geworfen, welche für den späteren Streitpunkt in den achtziger Jahren maßgeblich war. Im weiteren Verlauf wird Meads Feldforschung auf Samoa beschrieben, zu der die Vorbereitung, die Durchführung auf der Insel selbst, sowie die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Besonderheiten zählen, die in ihrem Buch „Kindheit und Jugend auf Samoa“ veröffentlicht wurden. Im darauf folgenden Abschnitt wird Derek Freeman als Kritiker präsentiert. Er führte über Jahrzehnte hinweg eine Restudy auf Samoa durch und stellte dabei Meads Resultate in Frage. Bei der Überprüfung von Meads Theorien stellte er deren Fehlerhaftigkeit fest und widerlegte mit seiner Publikation „Liebe ohne Aggression“ sämtliche Erkenntnisse seiner Forscherkollegin. Zum Vergleich der beiden Studien werden deshalb ebenfalls Freemans Feldforschung, seine damit verbundene Absicht, die Vorbereitung und Durchführung, sowie seine Ergebnisse vorgestellt.

Margaret Mead und Derek Freeman, Ethnologische Autoritäten in der Krise

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Author: Ilka Borchardt

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 363814237X

Category: Social Science

Page: 28

View: 7511

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 1998 im Fachbereich Ethnologie / Volkskunde, Note: sehr gut, Freie Universität Berlin (Institut für Ethnologie), Veranstaltung: Geschichte und Entwicklung der amerikanischen Ethnologie, 10 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Margaret Mead wird in der Literatur oft als eine Wissenschaftlerin beschrieben, deren Arbeit wegweisend für Ethnologen und Soziologen nicht nur der ersten Hälfte dieses Jahrhunderts war. Durch die Bedeutung, die ihrer Forschung zugemessen wurde und wird, erhält auch sie selbst etwas wie einen Glorienschein, der jede Art von Kritik zu Blasphemie erklärt. Der Mythos “Margaret Mead” wurde 1983 von Derek Freeman als einem der ersten öffentlich in seinem Buch “Liebe ohne Aggression” in Frage gestellt. In meiner Arbeit werde ich im ersten Kapitel Meads persönliche und wissenschaftliche Umfeld skizzieren, um damit ihre Glorifizierung als Wissenschaftlerin wenigstens teilweise zu erklären. Im zweiten Kapitel lege ich einige der wichtigsten Thesen Meads dar, auf die sich auch Derek Freeman bezog. Anschließend stelle ich das bereits genannte Werk “Liebe ohne Aggression” vor. Die Wirkung und die Reaktionen darauf untersuche ich anhand von Rezensionen. Leider kann ich persönlich kein Urteil abgeben, wieweit Freemans Kritik nun gerechtfertigt ist, da ich selber viel zu wenig über die untersuchte Region Samoa weiß. Deshalb beschränke ich mich auf die Beschreibung und den Vergleich beider Forschungen. Wichtig ist mir die Wirkung beider Arbeiten in der Öffentlichkeit, da sie den Grad an Mystifizierung M.Meads verdeutlichen. Die genannten Rezensionen fand ich zufällig durch Hinweise in anderen Artikeln. Ich suchte bewußt eine Freeman bejahende und eine ablehnende aus, da in dieser Arbeit der Platz fehlt, sich mit mehr differenzierten Positionen zu befassen. Zitate aus englischsprachigen Texten habe ich nicht übersetzt, um eine möglichst hohe Genauigkeit zu gewährleisten.

Margaret Mead

The Making of an American Icon

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Author: Nancy C. Lutkehaus

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691190275

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 374

View: 4411

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world."--Margaret Mead This quotation--found on posters and bumper stickers, and adopted as the motto for hundreds of organizations worldwide--speaks to the global influence and legacy of the American anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-78). In this insightful and revealing book, Nancy Lutkehaus explains how and why Mead became the best-known anthropologist and female public intellectual in twentieth-century America. Using photographs, films, television appearances, and materials from newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals, Lutkehaus explores the ways in which Mead became an American cultural heroine. Identifying four key images associated with her--the New Woman, the Anthropologist/Adventurer, the Scientist, and the Public Intellectual--Lutkehaus examines the various meanings that different segments of American society assigned to Mead throughout her lengthy career as a public figure. The author shows that Mead came to represent a new set of values and ideas--about women, non-Western peoples, culture, and America's role in the twentieth century--that have significantly transformed society and become generally accepted today. Lutkehaus also considers why there has been no other anthropologist since Mead to become as famous. Margaret Mead is an engaging look at how one woman's life and accomplishments resonated with the issues that shaped American society and changed her into a celebrity and cultural icon.

Margaret Mead and Samoa

The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth

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Author: Derek Freeman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 379

View: 4021

Analyzes Margaret Mead's study of the culture of the Samoan Islands and argues that the findings of her research are in error

Margaret Mead

A Biography

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Author: Mary Bowman-Kruhm

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313322679

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 160

View: 7363

Describes the life and career the the anthropoligist, including her childhood in Pennsylvania, her tutelage under Franz Boas, and her fieldwork in the South Pacific.

Euphoria

Roman

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Author: Lily King

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406682049

Category: Fiction

Page: 262

View: 9734

Von realen Ereignissen im Leben der berühmten Ethnologin Margaret Mead inspiriert, erzählt Lily King in diesem grandiosen, spannenden und sinnlichen Roman ebenso anschaulich wie klug von Besitz und Begierde, Entdeckung und Macht, Liebe und Herrschaft. Neuguinea, Anfang der 1930er Jahre. Drei junge Ethnologen – die schon berühmte und faszinierende Amerikanerin Nell Stone, ihr Mann Fen und der Brite Andrew Bankson – stoßen nach Jahren einsamer Feldforschung aufeinander und entwickeln eine leidenschaftliche Dreiecksbeziehung. Erschöpft von den Versuchen, etwas Verwertbares über die Stämme am Sepikfluss herauszufinden, gelangen die drei Forscher zu den Tam, einem weiblich dominierten Stamm mit ungewohnten Ritualen. Während sie immer tiefer in das Leben der Tam eindringen, werden auch ihre unterschiedlichen Wünsche und Interessen immer deutlicher, die erotische Anziehung zwischen Nell Stone und Andrew Bankson immer intensiver. Schließlich schreitet Fen zu einer dramatischen Aktion mit tragischem Ausgang für alle.

The World Ahead

An Anthropologist Anticipates the Future

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Author: Margaret Mead,Robert B. Textor

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571818188

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 2280

Born in the first year of the 20th century, it is fitting that Margaret Mead should have been one of the first anthropologists to use anthropological analysis to study the future course of human civilization. This volume collects, for the first time, her writings on the future of humanity and how humans can shape that future through purposeful action. For Mead, the study of the future was born out of her lifelong interest in processes of change. Many of these papers were originally published as conference proceedings or in limited-circulation journals, testimony before government bodies and chapters in works edited by others. They show Mead's wisdom, prescience and concern for the future of humanity.

And Keep Your Powder Dry

An Anthropologist Looks at America

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Author: Margaret Mead

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571812186

Category: History

Page: 214

View: 2498

Margaret Mead wrote this comprehensive sketch of the culture of the United States - the first since de Tocqueville - in 1942 at the beginnning of the Second World War, when Americans were confronted by foreign powers from both Europe and Asia in a particularly challenging manner. Mead's work became an instant classic. It was required reading for anthropology students for nearly two decades, and was widely translated. It was revised and expanded in 1965 for a second generation of readers. Among the more controversial conclusions of her analysis are the denial of class as a motivating force in American culture, and her contention that culture is the primary determinant for individual character formation. Her process remains lucid, vivid, and arresting. As a classic study of a complex western society, it remains a monument to anthropological analysis.

Continuities in Cultural Evolution

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Author: Margaret Mead

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351526081

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 8138

Margaret Mead once said, "I have spent most of my life studying the lives of other peoples--faraway peoples--so that Americans might better understand themselves." Continuities in Cultural Evolution is evidence of this devotion. All of Mead's efforts were intended to help others learn about themselves and work toward a more humane and socially responsible society. Scientist, writer, explorer, and teacher, Mead brought the serious work of anthropology into the public consciousness. This volume began as the Terry Lectures, given at Yale in 1957 and was not published until 1964, after extensive reworking. The time she spent on revision is evidence of the importance Mead attached to the subject: the need to develop a truly evolutionary vision of human culture and society. This was desirable in her eyes both in order to reinforce the historical dimension in our ideas about human culture, and to preserve the relevance of historical and cultural diversity to social, economic, and political action. Given the present state of academic and public discourse alike, this volume speaks to us in a language we badly need to recover.

Margaret Mead

The Complete Bibliography 1925–1975

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Author: Joan Gordan

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311081904X

Category: Psychology

Page: 202

View: 987

Margaret Mead

Contributions to Contemporary Education

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Author: Kate Maguire

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401793093

Category: Education

Page: 96

View: 7352

This book makes a case for Margaret Mead's contributions to education discourses, which in retrospect appear visionary and profoundly democratic, non judgemental and transdisciplinary, and for their relevance for education today at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Mead combined her substantial skills and knowledge as a linguist, anthropologist and psychologist to draw attention to the primary role of culture and society in identity formation, privileging against sterner perspectives, the idea that the conditions that support the emergence of balanced personalities, able to contribute to society and to progress themselves as individuals, starts with observation of self before that of others. This observation of and reflection on self was for her a necessary demonstration of transparency while close observation of others was ‘an act of love’, much as the artist contemplates his/her subject, that dissolved negative differences of culture, belief and status.

Margaret Mead, some personal views

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Author: Margaret Mead,Rhoda Bubendey Métraux

Publisher: Angus & Robertson

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 286

View: 2879

Russian Culture

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Author: Margaret Mead,John Rickman,Geoffrey Gorer

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571812308

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 6903

This volume brings together two classic works on the culture of the Russian people which have been long out of print. Gorer's Great Russian Culture and Mead's Soviet Attitudes towards Authority: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Problems of Soviet Character were among the first attempts by anthropologists to analyze Russian society. They were influential both for several generations of anthropologists and in shaping American governmental attitudes toward the Soviet Union during the Cold War period. Additionally they offer fascinating insights into the early anthropological use of psychological data to analyze cultural patterns. Read as part of the history of the anthropology of complex contemporary societies, they are as fascinating for their more questionable conclusions as for their accurate characterizations of Russian life.

Margaret Mead

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Author: Geoffrey M. Horn

Publisher: Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP

ISBN: 9780836850994

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 9531

Examines the life and work of the woman who became one of the twentieth-century's most respected and foremost anthropologists through her studies of various peoples and cultures. Includes a timeline and glossary.

Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, and Highland Bali

Fieldwork Photographs of Bayung Gede, 1936-1939

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Author: Gerald Sullivan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226384344

Category: Photography

Page: 213

View: 6194

"In a substantial introductory essay, Gerald Sullivan, who selected the photographs, uses excerpts from fieldnotes and correspondence to illuminate Mead and Bateson's ethnographic work."--BOOK JACKET.

Male and Female

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Author: Margaret Mead

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0060934964

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 5204

Mead's anthropological examination of seven Pacific island tribes analyzes the dynamics of primitive cultures to explore the evolving meaning of "male" and "female" in modern American society. On its publication in 1949, the New York Times declared, "Dr. Mead's book has come to grips with the cold war between the sexes and has shown the basis of a lasting sexual peace." This edition, prepared for the centennial of Mead's birth, features introductions by Helen Fisher and Mead's daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson. Male & Female remains an extraordinary document of great relevance, while Mead's research methods and fieldwork offer a blueprint for scholars in future generations.

Confronting Margaret Mead

Scholarship, Empire, and the South Pacific

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Author: Lenora Foerstel,Angela Gilliam

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1566392616

Category: Social Science

Page: 302

View: 2287

The legendary Margaret Mead changed Americans' views of themselves by relating information collected from remote peoples to our society--a society that she did not consider necessarily to be the pinnacle of human development. However, Mead and her followers have been criticized for promulgating sensationalized and inaccurate images of Melanesian societies, including savagery, cannibalism, and wanton sexuality. This book deals with the consequences of such Western condescension. Destined to be highly controversial, this book for the first time brings a multicultural outlook to bear on Margaret Mead, scrutinizing her role and impact on Western anthropology, colonialism, and strategic and business interests in the South Pacific. The contributors, most of them avowedly activist supporters of the concept of a nuclear-free and independent Pacific, include Warilea Iamo, Papua New Guinea's first anthropologist; John D. Waiko, Director of the New Guinea Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research; Nahau Rooney, the daughter of one of Mead's informants, and; Susanna Ounei, a leader of a New Caledonian independence front. Author note: Lenora Foerstel is an instructor in Ethnohistory at the Maryland College of Art. She was a member of the 1953 American Museum of Natural History Expedition to Manus Island, led by Dr. Margaret Mead. Angela Gilliam teaches at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. She has served as adviser to the Papua New Guinea Permanent Mission to the United Nations on New Caledonia.

Margaret Mead

a voice for the century

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Author: Robert Cassidy

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780896215269

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 309

View: 8485

Margaret Mead

Coming of Age in America

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Author: Joan Mark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190283491

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 7428

The American anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-1978) was barely 24 years old when she left New York to study the natives of Samoa, New Guinea, and other remote Pacific islands. Anthropological research to her was not a dull academic discipline but an adventure in which every little detail, from Balinese ritual dances to Polynesian tattooing, held enormous fascination. Her 1928 book--Coming of Age in Samoa--made her both famous and controversial. She boldly challenged the most deeply ingrained principles of the Western way of life: family structure, education, and child-rearing. When she died in 1978, a Pacific tribe she befriended held a five-day ceremony in her honor normally reserved for their greatest chiefs. Joan Mark guides us through the most exciting anthropological discoveries of the 20th century while following Margaret Meads many triumphs around the globe in quick-paced, engrossing prose that reads like an adventure story. Oxford Portraits in Science is an ongoing series of scientific biographies. Written by top scholars and writers, each biography examines the personality of its subject as well as the thought process leading to his or her discoveries. These illustrated biographies combine accessible technical information with compelling personal stories to portray the scientists whose work has shaped our understanding of the natural world.