Mammoth Cave

A Human and Natural History

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Author: Horton H. Hobbs III,Rickard A. Olson,Elizabeth G. Winkler,David C. Culver

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319537180

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 763

This book reveals the science and beauty of Mammoth Cave, the world's longest cave, which has played an important role in the natural sciences. It offers a comprehensive and interdisciplinary treatment of the cave, combining insights from leading experts in fields ranging from archeology and cultural history to life science and geosciences. The first animals specialized for cave life in North America, including beetles, spiders, crayfish, and fish, were discovered in Mammoth Cave in the 1840s. It has also been used and explored by humans, including Native Americans, who mined its sulfate minerals and later African-American slaves, who made a map of the cave. More recent stories include 'wars' between commercial cave owners, epic exploration trips by modern cave explorers, and of course tourism. The first section of the book is an extensive description including maps and photos of the cave, its basic structural pattern, and how it relates to the surface landscape. The second section covers the human history of utilization and exploration of the cave, including mining, tourism, and medical experiments. Cave science is the topic of the third section, including geology, hydrology, mineralogy, climatology, paleontology, ecology, biodiversity, and microbiology. The fourth section looks to the future, with an overview of environmental issues facing Mammoth Cave managers. The book is intended for anyone interested in caves in general and Mammoth Cave in particular, experts in one discipline seeking information about other areas, and researchers and students interested in the many avenues of pursuit possible in Mammoth Cave.

Beyond Mammoth Cave

A Tale of Obsession in the World's Longest Cave

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Author: James D. Borden,Roger W. Brucker

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809390388

Category: Nature

Page: 392

View: 5586

In Beyond Mammoth Cave: A Tale of Obsession in the World’ s Longest Cave, James D. Borden and Roger W. Brucker provide gripping first-person accounts of the discoveries, including Roppel Cave, that made Kentucky’ s Mammoth Cave three times longer than any other cave in the world. Borden, a relative newcomer, and Brucker, a veteran explorer, bring a personal and sometimes conflicting view of their roles as adversaries in a race that lasted from 1972 through 1983 to find “ big cave.” They describe hazardous adventures, precarious climbs, and close calls from falling rocks. The perils are many and the trek arduous as they squirm through muddy tubes, wade in neck-deep cold water, and crawl over sharp rocks and gritty sand. Theirs is a tale of agonizing endurance spiced by spectacular discoveries. But the cave was not the sole obstacle. The explorations were complicated by political intrigue and the rivalry between the Kentucky-based Cave Research Foundation and the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition, each seeking to make discoveries and hide secrets. Extreme stress, of course, evoked extreme behavior, ranging from selfishness to sacrifice, from outrageous humor to the deadly serious response. Beyond Mammoth Cave includes maps by Patricia Kambesis that show the progression of cave discoveries in relation to the topography. Original line drawings by well-known illustrator Linda Heslop capture the dark mystery of the exploration. The book features five black and white photographs as a color gallery of photographs. A sequel to The Longest Cave by Brucker and Richard A. Watson, this book is a comprehensive update of the speleological investigations in the Mammoth Cave region. Brucker’ s involvement provides continuity to the investigation.

Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science

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Author: John Gunn

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1579583997

Category: Reference

Page: 902

View: 5904

The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science contains 350 alphabetically arranged entries. The topics include cave and karst geoscience, cave archaeology and human use of caves, art in caves, hydrology and groundwater, cave and karst history, and conservation and management. The Encyclopedia is extensively illustrated with photographs, maps, diagrams, and tables, and has thematic content lists and a comprehensive index to facilitate searching and browsing.

Cave and Karst Systems of Romania

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Author: Gheorghe M. L. Ponta,Bogdan P. Onac

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319907476

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 7458

This book focuses on Romania’s more than 12,000 caves, which developed in limestone (including thermal water caves), salt, gypsum, and occasionally in sandstone. It examines these caves and related topics in a format suitable for cavers, while also addressing a broad range of aspects useful for students and researchers. Since the Institute of Speleology was first established by Emil Racovita in 1920, a great deal of research has been conducted on all cave and karst types. As such, the book examines a variety of scientific fields, including karst geology, hydrogeology, biospeleology, paleoclimatology, mineralogy and archaeology.

Great Caves of the World

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Author: Tony Waltham

Publisher: Firefly Books Limited

ISBN: 9781554074136

Category: Nature

Page: 112

View: 9336

More than twenty-five amazing caves around the world are examined, including Kentucky's Mammoth Cave and New Zealand's Waitomo Cave, in a colorfully illustrated tour of their environments, special features, unique inhabitants, and geological histories.

Hypogene Karst Regions and Caves of the World

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Author: Alexander Klimchouk,Arthur N. Palmer,Jo De Waele,Augusto S. Auler,Philippe Audra

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319533487

Category: Science

Page: 911

View: 8355

This book illustrates the diversity of hypogene speleogenetic processes and void-conduit patterns depending on variations of the geological environments by presenting regional and cave-specific case studies. The cases include both well-known and newly recognized hypogene karst regions and caves of the world. They all focus on geological, hydrogeological, geodynamical and evolutionary contexts of hypogene speleogenesis. The last decade has witnessed the boost in recognition of the possibility, global occurrence, and practical importance of hypogene karstification (speleogenesis), i.e. the development of solutional porosity and permeability by upwelling flow, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. Hypogene karst has been identified and documented in many regions where it was previously overlooked or misinterpreted. The book enriches the basis for generalization and categorization of hypogene karst and thus improves our ability to adequately model hypogene karstification and predict related porosity and permeability. It is a book which benefits every researcher, student, and practitioner dealing with karst.

Natural Processes and Human Impacts

Interactions between Humanity and the Environment

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Author: Sergey M. Govorushko

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400714243

Category: Nature

Page: 657

View: 9555

This highly topical book comes at a time when the two-way relationship between humankind and the environment is moving inexorably to the top of the agenda. It covers both sides of this delicate balancing act, explaining how various natural processes influence humanity, including its economic activities and engineering structures, while also illuminating the ways in which human activity puts pressure on the natural environment. Chapters analyze a varied selection of phenomena that directly affect people’s lives, from geological processes such as earthquakes and tsunamis to cosmic events such as magnetic storms. The author moves on to consider the effect we have on nature, ranging from the impact of heavy industry to the environmental consequences of sport and recreational pastimes. Complete with maps, photographs and detailed case studies, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the biggest issue we face as a species—the way we relate to the natural world around us. This book includes more than 100 maps showing the global distribution of different natural processes/human activities and more that 450 photographs from many countries and all oceans. It will provide a valuable resource for both graduate students and researchers in many fields of knowledge. Sergey Govorushko is a chief research scholar at the Pacific Geographical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. He is also Professor at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok). Sergey Govorushko received his PhD from the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences. His research activities focus on the interaction between humanity and the environment, including the impact of nature on humanity; the impact of humanity on the environment; and assessment of the interaction (environmental impact assessment, environmental audit, etc.). He has authored eight and co-authored seven monographs.

Of Caves and Shell Mounds

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Author: Patty Jo Watson,Southeastern Archeological Conference

Publisher: University of Alabama Press

ISBN: 0817308059

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 3968

Ancient human groups in the Eastern Woodlands of North America were long viewed as homogeneous and stable hunter-gatherers, changing little until the late prehistoric period when Mesoamerican influences were thought to have stimulated important economic and social developments. The authors in this volume offer new, contrary evidence to dispute this earlier assumption, and their studies demonstrate the vigor and complexity of prehistoric peoples in the North American Midwest and Midsouth. These peoples gathered at favored places along midcontinental streams to harvest mussels and other wild foods and to inter their dead in the shell mounds that had resulted from their riverside activities. They created a highly successful, pre-maize agricultural system beginning more than 4,000 years ago, established far-flung trade networks, and explored and mined the world's longest cave—the Mammoth Cave System in Kentucky. Contributors include: Kenneth C. Carstens, Cheryl Ann Munson, Guy Prentice, Kenneth B. Tankersley, Philip J. DiBlasi, Mary C. Kennedy, Jan Marie Hemberger, Gail E. Wagner, Christine K. Hensley, Valerie A. Haskins, Nicholas P. Herrmann, Mary Lucas Powell, Cheryl Claassen, David H. Dye, and Patty Jo Watson

The Longest Cave

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Author: Roger W. Brucker,Richard A. Watson

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809313228

Category: History

Page: 331

View: 5604

In 1925 the geological connection between Flint Ridge and Mammoth Cave was proved when dye placed in a Flint Ridge spring showed up in Echo River at Mammoth Cave. That tantalizing swirl of dye confirmed specula­tions that were to tempt more than 650 cavers over half a century with the thrill of being the first to make human passage of the cave connection. Roger Brucker and Richard Watson tell not only of their own twenty-year effort to complete the link but the stories of many others who worked their way through mud-choked crawlways less than a foot high only to find impenetrable blockages. Floyd Collins died a grisly death in nearby Sand Cave in 1925, after being trapped there for 15 days. The wide press coverage of the rescue efforts stirred the imagination of the public and his body was on macabre display in a glass-topped coffin in Crystal Cave into the 1940s. Agents of a rival cave owner once even stole his corpse, which was re­covered and still is in a coffin in the cave. Modern cavers still have a word with Floyd as they start their downward treks. Brucker and Watson joined the parade of cavers who propelled themselves by wiggling kneecaps, elbows, and toes through quarter-mile long crawlways, clinging by fingertips and boot toes across mud-slick walls, over bottomless pits, into gur­gling streams beneath stone ceilings that descend to water level, down crumbling crevices and up mountainous rockfalls, into wondrous domed halls, and straight ahead into a blackness inten­sified rather than dispelled by the carbide lamps on their helmets. Over two decades they explored the passages with others who sought the final connection as vigorously as themselves. Pat Crowther, a young mother of two, joined them and because of her thinness became the member of the crew to go first into places no human had ever gone before. In that role, in July 1972, she wiggled her way through the Tight Spot and found the route that would link the Flint Ridge and Mammoth Cave systems into one cave extending 144.4 miles through the Kentucky limestone. In a new afterword to this edition the authors summarize the subsequent explorations that have more than doubled the established length of the cave system. Based upon geological evidence, the authors predict that new discoveries will add an­other 200 miles to the length of the world's longest cave, making it over 500 miles long.

Encyclopedia of Caves

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Author: William B. White,David C. Culver

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123838320

Category: Science

Page: 945

View: 9940

Encyclopedia of Caves is a self-contained, beautifully illustrated work dedicated to caves and their unique environments. It includes more than 100 comprehensive articles from leading scholars and explorers in 15 different countries. Each entry is detailed and scientifically sound, yet accessible for students and non-scientists. This large-format reference is enchanced with hundreds of full-color photographs, maps, and drawings from the authors' own work, which provide unique images of the underground environment. Global in reach--authors are an international team of experts covering caves from around the world Includes 24 new articles commissioned especially for this 2nd edition Articles contain extensive bibliographies cross-referencing related essays Hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations of cave features and biota A-Z sequence and a comprehensive index allow for easy location of topics Glossary presents definitions of all key vocabulary items

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Three Volume Set

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Author: John A Matthews

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446264882

Category: Nature

Page: 1496

View: 2697

Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Geological Monitoring

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Author: Rob Young,Lisa Norby

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813760321

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 1038

"Geologic Monitoring is a practical, nontechnical guide for land managers, educators, and the public that synthesizes representative methods for monitoring short-term and long-term change in geologic features and landscapes. A prestigious group of subject-matter experts has carefully selected methods for monitoring sand dunes, caves and karst, rivers, geothermal features, glaciers, nearshore marine features, beaches and marshes, paleontological resources, permafrost, seismic activity, slope movements, and volcanic features and processes. Each chapter has an overview of the resource; summarizes features that could be monitored; describes methods for monitoring each feature ranging from low-cost, low-technology methods (that could be used for school groups) to higher cost, detailed monitoring methods requiring a high level of expertise; and presents one or more targeted case studies."--Publisher's description.

Living with karst

a fragile foundation

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Author: George Veni,American Geological Institute,National Speleological Society

Publisher: Amer Geological Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 64

View: 6730

The Key to Music’s Genetics

Why Music is Part of Being Human

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Author: Christian Lehmann

Publisher: Thames River Press

ISBN: 1783080280

Category: Music

Page: 154

View: 6853

Christian Lehmann brings his experience as a musicologist, singer and academic to this fascinating journey through the origins of music and its role in human development, culture and society. Few books on music are as rewarding as this one. Technical terms are clearly described in a way that appeals to both the musically well-informed and the musically inexperienced. Well-chosen examples and amusing asides help to make this a highly informative and extremely readable book – a must for anyone interested in the development of music and how integral it is to the human condition.

Exploring Mammoth Cave National Park

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Author: Johnny Molloy

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1493015338

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 160

View: 5313

DIVExploring Mammoth Cave National Park, 2nd covers in detail all of the aboveground and belowground activities in this 50,000-acre national park, including hiking, biking, scenic driving, camping, paddling, fishing, and of course, caving. /div

Electromagnetic Seabed Logging

A new tool for geoscientists

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Author: Stéphane Sainson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319453556

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 2566

Seabed logging (SBL) gathers the electromagnetic methods of marine subsoil exploration and more specifically those dedicated to the exploration of oil and gas at sea. Appeared in 2000, these techniques, with more than 500 industrial jobs, present after 15 years of commercial success a discovery record rate of nearly 90 % and seem now to turn the world in the offshore exploration field. Proposing a serious index of the presence of hydrocarbons , electromagnetic SBL coupled with seismic reflection survey is probably the first reliable method for direct detection of hydrocarbons. Complementing the structural concepts of oil exploration used since the 1920s, the SBL now radically modifies the approach and the philosophies of exploration especially those then including drilling and well logging activities. Electromagnetic Seabed Logging: a new tool for oil and gas prospecting, which original publication in French was in 2012, presents these methods, its principles, advantages, limitations, instruments, modeling and applications. It is also designed to be a tool for a reflection on the use of electromagnetic energy for the exploration in a conductive medium as sea water thus setting the theoretical and practical limits of these investigations for future developments. “/p> This book is intended of course for the geophysicists and the petroleum geologists, but also for the earth scientists, the reservoir engineers and the log analysts

Glaciers of the Karakoram Himalaya

Glacial Environments, Processes, Hazards and Resources

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Author: Kenneth Hewitt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400763115

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 4707

The Karakoram contains the greatest concentration of glaciers and most of the largest ice masses outside high latitudes. They comprise major stores and sources of fresh water in an otherwise extreme, continental, dry region. As many as 200 million people living downstream, in the valleys of the Indus and Yarkand Rivers, depend on melt waters from snow and ice. They are at risk from climate-change impacts on glaciers and water supply, and from hazards such as glacial lake outburst floods. Useful research initiatives go back to the nineteenth century, but coverage has generally been limited geographically and has not been continuous over time. It is almost 80 years since a monograph was devoted to the Karakoram glaciers. The book presents a comprehensive overview, including statistics for the ice cover, glacier mass balance and dynamics, glacierized landscapes, rock glaciers, water resources and environmental hazards. Published glaciological and related research is surveyed along with expedition reports and archival materials in several languages. The expanding potential of satellite coverage is exploited, but conditions and processes reported from field investigations are the main focus. Previously unpublished observations by the author are presented, based on some 45 years of work in the region. Broad understanding of the glacial environment is used to address emerging concerns about the High Asian cryosphere and the fate of its glaciers. These are discussed in relation to the pressing issues of water supply, environmental risk and sustainability. Questions of what is not known help identify much needed monitoring and research. The book is of interest to researchers, professionals, and those studying glaciers, mountain environments, water resources and environmental hazards. The topics discussed should be of concern for anyone involved in regional development and global change in South and Inner Asia.