Machine Ethics


Author: Michael Anderson,Susan Leigh Anderson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949774X

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 7590

The new field of machine ethics is concerned with giving machines ethical principles, or a procedure for discovering a way to resolve the ethical dilemmas they might encounter, enabling them to function in an ethically responsible manner through their own ethical decision making. Developing ethics for machines, in contrast to developing ethics for human beings who use machines, is by its nature an interdisciplinary endeavor. The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ethical dimension to machines that function autonomously, what is required in order to add this dimension, philosophical and practical challenges to the machine ethics project, various approaches that could be considered in attempting to add an ethical dimension to machines, work that has been done to date in implementing these approaches, and visions of the future of machine ethics research.

Programming Machine Ethics


Author: Luís Moniz Pereira,Ari Saptawijaya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319293540

Category: Philosophy

Page: 175

View: 6593

This book addresses the fundamentals of machine ethics. It discusses abilities required for ethical machine reasoning and the programming features that enable them. It connects ethics, psychological ethical processes, and machine implemented procedures. From a technical point of view, the book uses logic programming and evolutionary game theory to model and link the individual and collective moral realms. It also reports on the results of experiments performed using several model implementations. Opening specific and promising inroads into the terra incognita of machine ethics, the authors define here new tools and describe a variety of program-tested moral applications and implemented systems. In addition, they provide alternative readings paths, allowing readers to best focus on their specific interests and to explore the concepts at different levels of detail. Mainly written for researchers in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, robotics, philosophy of technology and engineering of ethics, the book will also be of general interest to other academics, undergraduates in search of research topics, science journalists as well as science and society forums, legislators and military organizations concerned with machine ethics.

Rethinking Machine Ethics in the Age of Ubiquitous Technology


Author: White, Jeffrey

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 146668593X

Category: Computers

Page: 332

View: 7435

As the utilization of intelligent machines spreads to numerous realms, the discourse of machine ethics has also developed and expanded. Concerns over machine intelligence and the role of automata in everyday life must be addressed before artificial intelligence and robotic technologies may be fully integrated into human society. Rethinking Machine Ethics in the Age of Ubiquitous Technology blends forward-looking, constructive, and interdisciplinary visions of ethical ideals, aims, and applications of machine technology. This visionary reference work incorporates ethical conversations in the fields of technology, computer science, robotics, and the medical industry, creating a vibrant dialogue between philosophical ideals and the applied sciences. With its broad scope of relevant topics, this book serves as an excellent tool for policymakers, academicians, researchers, advanced-level students, technology developers, and government officials. This timely publication features thoroughly researched articles on the topics of artificial moral agency, cyber-warfare, transhumanism, organic neural nets, human worker replacement, automaticity and global governance, security and surveillance, military drones, and more.

Machine Medical Ethics


Author: Simon Peter van Rysewyk,Matthijs Pontier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331908108X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 715

The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and science, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine, what design features are necessary in order to achieve this, philosophical and practical questions concerning justice, rights, decision-making and responsibility in medical contexts, and accurately modeling essential physician-machine-patient relationships. In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for empathy and emotion detection necessary? What about consciousness? This collection is the first book that addresses these 21st-century concerns.

Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics


Author: Wendell Wallach,Peter Mario Asaro

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781472430397


Page: 536

View: 5072

Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas of study, as well as important recent articles. The research articles selected focus on the control and governance of computational systems; the exploration of ethical and moral theories using software and robots as laboratories or simulations; inquiry into the necessary requirements for moral agency and the basis and boundaries of rights; and questions of how best to design systems that are both useful and morally sound. Collectively the articles ask what the practical ethical and legal issues, arising from the development of robots, will be over the next twenty years and how best to address these future considerations.

Handbuch Maschinenethik


Author: Oliver Bendel

Publisher: Springer VS

ISBN: 9783658174828

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 7578

Durch die Entwicklung der Informationstechnologie ist die Menschheit erstmals und rasant steigend mit nichtmenschlichen "Akteuren" befasst, deren "Handeln" moralische Folgen haben kann. Dieses Handbuch wird umfassend und systematisch die sehr aktuelle Fragen behandeln, die sich aus der Existenz von moralischen Maschinen ergeben.

Künstliche Tugend

Roboter als moralische Akteure


Author: Lukas Brand

Publisher: Verlag Friedrich Pustet

ISBN: 3791772163

Category: Religion

Page: 152

View: 5570

Künstliche Intelligenz tritt gegenwärtig aus dem Reich der Science-Fiction in den Bereich des Möglichen und läutet damit die Roboterrevolution ein. Selbstfahrende Autos, autonome Staubsauger oder Pflegeroboter gewinnen mit Hilfe künstlicher Gehirne an Selbstständigkeit und werden zunehmend mit moralisch komplexen Problemen konfrontiert. Noch gibt es keine Lösung für den Umgang einer autonomen Maschine mit unvorhergesehenen Problemen. Welche Anforderungen stellt die Maschinenethik an solche künstlichen Akteure? Welche Möglichkeiten bietet die neue KI-Technologie, aus intelligenten Maschinen moralische Agenten zu machen?

Robot Ethics 2. 0

New Challenges in Philosophy, Law, and Society


Author: Keith Abney

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190652950

Category: Philosophy

Page: 440

View: 6451

The robot population is rising on Earth and other planets. (Mars is inhabited entirely by robots.) As robots slip into more domains of human life--from the operating room to the bedroom--they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This makes it all the more urgent to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts. To help the robotics industry and broader society, we need to not only press ahead on a wide range of issues, but also identify new ones emerging as quickly as the field is evolving. For instance, where military robots had received much attention in the past (and are still controversial today), this volume looks toward autonomous cars here as an important case study that cuts across diverse issues, from liability to psychology to trust and more. And because robotics feeds into and is fed by AI, the Internet of Things, and other cognate fields, robot ethics must also reach into those domains, too. Expanding these discussions also means listening to new voices; robot ethics is no longer the concern of a handful of scholars. Experts from different academic disciplines and geographical areas are now playing vital roles in shaping ethical, legal, and policy discussions worldwide. So, for a more complete study, the editors of this volume look beyond the usual suspects for the latest thinking. Many of the views as represented in this cutting-edge volume are provocative--but also what we need to push forward in unfamiliar territory.

Robot Ethics

The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics


Author: Patrick Lin,Keith Abney,George A. Bekey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262297752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 3685

Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society -- and ethics -- change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration.Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.

Moral Machines

Teaching Robots Right from Wrong


Author: Wendell Wallach,Colin Allen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199737975

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 1521

"Moral Machines is a fine introduction to the emerging field of robot ethics. There is much here that will interest ethicists, philosophers, cognitive scientists, and roboticists." ---Peter Danielson, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews --

Ethical Data Mining Applications for Socio-Economic Development


Author: Hakikur Rahman,Isabel Ramos

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466640790

Category: Computers

Page: 349

View: 9752

"This book provides an overview of data mining techniques under an ethical lens, investigating developments in research best practices and examining experimental cases to identify potential ethical dilemmas in the information and communications technology sector"--Provided by publisher.

Grundfragen der Maschinenethik

Reclams Universal-Bibliothek


Author: Catrin Misselhorn

Publisher: Reclam Verlag

ISBN: 3159613828

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 7876

Maschinen werden immer selbständiger, autonomer, intelligenter. Ihr Vormarsch ist kaum mehr zu stoppen. Dabei geraten sie in Situationen, die moralische Entscheidungen verlangen. Doch können Maschinen überhaupt moralisch handeln, sind sie moralische Akteure – und dürfen sie das? Mit diesen und ähnlichen Fragen beschäftigt sich der völlig neue Ansatz der Maschinenethik. Catrin Misselhorn erläutert die Grundlagen dieser neuen Disziplin an der Schnittstelle von Philosophie, Informatik und Robotik sachkundig und verständlich, etwa am Beispiel von autonomen Waffensystemen, Pflegerobotern und autonomem Fahren: das grundlegende Buch für die neue Disziplin. E-Book mit Seitenzählung der gedruckten Ausgabe: Buch und E-Book können parallel benutzt werden.

Ethics and Emerging Technologies


Author: Ronald L. Sandler

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137235217

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 9320

Technology shapes every aspect of human experience and is the primary driver of social and environmental change. Given this, it is perhaps surprising that so little time is spent studying, analysing and ethically assessing new technologies. Occasionally, an issue attracts public attention – for example, the use of human embryonic stem cells in medical research or the online file sharing of music and movies. However, these are the exceptions. For the most part, each new technology and application is enthusiastically embraced with little critical reflection on how it will impact people's lives or the world. Moreover, when an issue raised by an emerging technology is attended to, the language, concepts and critical perspectives to properly address it are frequently found to be lacking. The aim of this textbook is to introduce students and other readers to the ethical issues associated with a broad array of emerging technologies, as well as to help them develop the analytical skills and perspectives necessary for effectively evaluating novel technologies and applications. The technologies discussed include nanotechnology, synthetic biology, robotics, genetic engineering, human enhancement, geoengineering, cultured meat, virtual reality, information technologies, sex selection, and many more. Key features include: • Comprehensive coverage from thirty six chapters written by leading thinkers in the field • An extensive introduction that presents a framework for analysing the ethical dimensions of emerging technologies • Section overviews and chapter summaries that help students master the book's content • Discussion questions that provoke reflection on the issues discussed in each chapter Ethics and Emerging Technologies is ideal for undergraduate courses on technology and society and technology and ethics. It is also appropriate for technology-oriented modules in environmental ethics and bioethics, as well as ethics modules in engineering and information technology courses.

The Machine Question

Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics


Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304511

Category: Philosophy

Page: 270

View: 9564

One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental challenge to moral thinking, questioning the traditional philosophical conceptualization of technology as a tool or instrument to be used by human agents. Gunkel begins by addressing the question of machine moral agency: whether a machine might be considered a legitimate moral agent that could be held responsible for decisions and actions. He then approaches the machine question from the other side, considering whether a machine might be a moral patient due legitimate moral consideration. Finally, Gunkel considers some recent innovations in moral philosophy and critical theory that complicate the machine question, deconstructing the binary agent--patient opposition itself. Technological advances may prompt us to wonder if the science fiction of computers and robots whose actions affect their human companions (think of HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey) could become science fact. Gunkel's argument promises to influence future considerations of ethics, ourselves, and the other entities who inhabit this world.

Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare - 3


Author: Margarita Sordo,Sachin Vaidya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540776613

Category: Mathematics

Page: 257

View: 1450

This volume details the latest state-of-the-art research on computational intelligence paradigms in healthcare in the intelligent agent environment. The book presents seven chapters selected from the rapidly growing application areas of computational intelligence to healthcare systems. These include intelligent synthetic characters, man-machine interface, menu generators, analysis of user acceptance, pictures archiving and communication systems.

Morality and Machines

Perspectives on Computer Ethics


Author: Stacey L. Edgar

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763717674

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 522

View: 368

Morality and Machines, Second Edition examines the moral issues that emerge from the influence of computers and technology on society today. The text provides an ethical foundation upon which readers can develop informed opinions about software piracy, computer crimes, artificial intelligence and more. With in-depth analysis of current moral and social problems, this text is an ideal resource for readers interested in philosophy, technological sciences, and computer ethics. This book is unique in that it takes seriously the need to lay a sound ethical basis for dealing with the technology of computers. The first two chapters of the book take on various positions that challenge the possibility of ethics and meet them head-on with counterarguments. The possibility of a viable ethics having been defended, Chapter 3 examines the most promising approaches to ethics, so that the explorer in the new realm with have appropriate tools and, if necessary, weapons at hand. At the end of the chapter, suggestions are given for approaching any ethical problem. Once armed, the adventurer is ready to investigate the various parts of the new country, described in the remaining chapters of the book.

Ethical Problems in Dialysis and Transplantation


Author: C. M. Kjellstrand,J. B. Dossetor

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401579695

Category: Medical

Page: 238

View: 9836

Ethical Problems in Dialysis and Transplantation presents an overview of issues with which nephrologists and decision makers are confronted in their daily practice. The search for a universal system of ethics and theories of justice are addressed. Furthermore the work provides a normative ethical discussion of ways of distributing resources with a view to selection and commercialization. Others chapters discuss a philosophical and religious analysis of stopping treatment and the clinical and ethical aspects of stopping treatment in dialysis. Different views from different countries on the subject of dialysis and transplantation are covered including the views expressed by contributors from India, Africa, Japan, Great Britain and China. The work presents the clinician with a guide to the ethical considerations underlying the treatment of dialysis and renal transplantation patients.