Logic Primer


Author: Colin Allen,Michael Hand,Michael Robert Hand

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262511266

Category: Computers

Page: 191

View: 6888

Logic Primer presents a rigorous introduction to natural deduction systems of sentential and first-order logic. Logic Primer presents a rigorous introduction to natural deduction systems of sentential and first-order logic. The text is designed to foster the student-instructor relationship. The key concepts are laid out in concise definitions and comments, with the expectation that the instructor will elaborate upon them. New to the second edition is the addition of material on the logic of identity in chapters 3 and 4. An innovative interactive Web site, consisting of a "Logic Daemon" and a "Quizmaster," encourages students to formulate their own proofs and links them to appropriate explanations in the book.

Logic Primer


Author: Elihu Carranza

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781479116379

Category: Philosophy

Page: 150

View: 4012

Logic Primer is a classroom and laboratory for students engaged in the study of logic. From the writings of Dr. Gordon H. Clark, logic is defined as "the science of necessary inference." The Primer divides into seven chapters. Chapter 1 defines necessary basic terms to enable the reader to begin the investigation. Chapter 2 describes the four standard propositional forms, their formal properties, and methods for translating nonstandard into standard form propositions. Chapter 3 discusses immediate inferences. Chapter 4 examines the syllogism by describing its elements, valid moods and figures, and methods for determining validity. Chapter 5 introduces the student to additional valid argument forms and two important formal fallacies. Chapter 6 covers truth-table analyses of extended arguments. Chapter 7 examines informal fallacies, their classification, and the need for strict definition as a means for avoiding informal fallacies. Each chapter ends with questions for review and exercises to test the student's progress. Exercises/Answers are provided in an Appendix. A glossary of terms with corresponding chapter numbers serves as an index.

The Logic Primer

Reprinted from the Unique Original of 1672


Author: John Eliot

Publisher: N.A


Category: Massachuset language

Page: 94

View: 9857

Substructural Logics: A Primer


Author: F. Paoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402006050

Category: Philosophy

Page: 305

View: 2244

The aim of the present book is to give a comprehensive account of the ‘state of the art’ of substructural logics, focusing both on their proof theory (especially on sequent calculi and their generalizations) and on their semantics (both algebraic and relational. It is for graduate students in either philosophy, mathematics, theoretical computer science or theoretical linguistics as well as specialists and researchers.

An Introduction to Formal Logic


Author: Peter Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008044

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 3045

Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.

Set Theory

Centre de Recerca Matemàtica Barcelona, 2003-2004


Author: Joan Bagaria,Stevo Todorcevic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3764376929

Category: Mathematics

Page: 406

View: 6710

Contains survey papers on some of the mainstream areas of set theory and research. This book covers topics such as Omega-logic, applications of set theory to lattice theory and Boolean algebras, real-valued measurable cardinals, complexity of sets and relations in continuum theory, weak subsystems of axiomatic set theory, and more.

Judaic Logic

A Formal Analysis of Biblical, Talmudic and Rabbinic Logic


Author: Avi Sion

Publisher: Avi Sion

ISBN: 2970009110

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 5577

Judaic logic: A Formal Analysis of Biblical, Talmudic and Rabbinic Logic is an original inquiry into the forms of thought determining Jewish law and belief, from the impartial perspective of a logician. Judaic Logic attempts to honestly estimate the extent to which the logic employed within Judaism fits into the general norms, and whether it has any contributions to make to them.



Author: John 1604-1690 Eliot,Wilberforce 1855-1937 Eames, Tr

Publisher: Wentworth Press

ISBN: 9781363769193

Category: History

Page: 104

View: 5383

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.


A Primer on Localization


Author: Phillip L. Pearl, MD,Helene Emsellem, MD

Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing

ISBN: 1620700417

Category: Medical

Page: 155

View: 488

NEURO-LOGIC is a foundational text about localization in the nervous system-the fundamental skill of clinical neurology. Written in an easily understandable and entertaining expanded outline format, the book integrates basic neuroscience information, the art of neurological examination, and disease-based knowledge. Over 95 crystal-clear illustrations illuminate topography, anatomic relationships, and clinical concepts. The material in this book is field-tested, and evolved from a syllabus the authors developed over many years of teaching introductory neurology to medical students. With a logical approach to the nervous system, the book takes readers step-by-step from the basics of the cerebral hemispheres and Brodmann areas to complex details about brainstem stroke syndromes, basal ganglia pathways, and brachial/lumbosacral plexi. It also contains a neuropsychiatry section exploring the relationship of frontal lobes and psychiatric disorders, and includes a section on special applications covering coma, epilepsy, movement, vertigo, cord compression, and autonomics. Written by renowned neurological educators, this concise primer will serve students throughout medical school rotations, post-graduate residency training, and medical practice during the lifelong learning task of evaluating patients with neurological problems. It is also a useful aid for neurology residents for reviewing the basics or preparing for their Residency In Service Training Exam (RITE), and for clinicians in related specialties who want to sharpen their neurological acumen. Key Features of NEURO-LOGIC: Teaches the fundamentals of localization and how to apply examination findings to sound clinical reasoning Written in a clear, accessible outline format that reflects how neurologists think Presents a logical approach to localization of lesions in the nervous system based on knowledge of neuroanatomy and clinical concepts Includes over 95 original drawings that make localization understandable

A primer of logic


Author: Henry C. Byerly

Publisher: N.A


Category: Philosophy

Page: 560

View: 6336

Windows PowerShell 2 For Dummies


Author: Steve Seguis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470535784

Category: Computers

Page: 416

View: 3531

Prepare for the future of Microsoft automation with this no-nonsense guide Windows PowerShell 2 is the scripting language that enables automation within the Windows operating system. Packed with powerful new features, this latest version is complex, and Windows PowerShell 2 For Dummies is the perfect guide to help system administrators get up to speed. Written by a Microsoft MVP with direct access to the program managers and developers, this book covers every new feature of Windows PowerShell 2 in a friendly, easy-to-follow format. Windows PowerShell 2 is the updated scripting language that enables system administrators to automate Windows operating systems System administrators with limited scripting experience will find this book helps them learn the fundamentals of Windows PowerShell 2 quickly and easily Translates the jargon and complex syntax of Windows PowerShell 2 Covers script debugging improvements, the ability to invoke commands remotely, and the new user interface Uses real-world applications to clarify the theory, fundamentals, and techniques of the scripting language Written by a Microsoft MVP with direct access to the developers of Windows PowerShell 2 Windows PowerShell 2 For Dummies makes this tool easily accessible to administrators of every experience level.

Sentence logic


Author: Paul Teller

Publisher: N.A


Category: Logic.

Page: 176

View: 9320

Two-volume introduction to formal logic. Volume I presents sentence logic and Volume II covers predicate logic and metatheory. Features easy-to-understand explanations and graded exercises.

A Computational Logic Handbook

Formerly Notes and Reports in Computer Science and Applied Mathematics


Author: Robert S. Boyer,J Strother Moore

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148327778X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 426

View: 9445

Perspectives in Computing: A Computational Logic Handbook contains a precise description of the logic and a detailed reference guide to the associated mechanical theorem proving system, including a primer for the logic as a functional programming language, an introduction to proofs in the logic, and a primer for the mechanical theorem. The publication first offers information on a primer for the logic, formalization within the logic, and a precise description of the logic. Discussions focus on induction and recursion, quantification, explicit value terms, dealing with features and omissions, elementary mathematical relationships, Boolean operators, and conventional data structures. The text then takes a look at proving theorems in the logic, mechanized proofs in the logic, and an introduction to the system. The text examines the processes involved in using the theorem prover, four classes of rules generated from lemmas, and aborting or interrupting commands. Topics include executable counterparts, toggle, elimination of irrelevancy, heuristic use of equalities, representation of formulas, type sets, and the crucial check points in a proof attempt. The publication is a vital reference for researchers interested in computational logic.

Semiotics and Linguistic Structure

A Primer of Philosophic Logic


Author: Richard Milton Martin

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780873953818

Category: Philosophy

Page: 321

View: 2253

This book is devoted to elementary formal logic and metalogic, and their applications to language.

Linked Data Management


Author: Andreas Harth,Katja Hose,Ralf Schenkel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466582405

Category: Computers

Page: 576

View: 3430

Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Despite the publication of many papers since Tim Berners-Lee developed the Linked Data principles in 2006, the field lacks a comprehensive, unified overview of the state of the art. Suitable for both researchers and practitioners, this book provides a thorough, consolidated account of the new data publishing and data integration paradigm. While the book covers query processing extensively, the Linked Data abstraction furnishes more than a mechanism for collecting, integrating, and querying data from the open Web—the Linked Data technology stack also allows for controlled, sophisticated applications deployed in an enterprise environment.

W.S. Jevons

Critical Responses


Author: Sandra Peart

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415143363

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 410

View: 1033

Uncertain Rule-based Fuzzy Logic Systems

Introduction and New Directions


Author: Jerry M. Mendel

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 9780130409690

Category: Computers

Page: 555

View: 8491

Preface Uncertainty is the fabric that makes life interesting. For millenia human beings have developed strategies to cope with a plethora of uncertainties, never absolutely sure what the consequences would be, but hopeful that the deleterious effects of those uncertainties could be minimized. This book presents a complete methodology for accomplishing this within the framework of fuzzy logic (FL). This is not the original FL, but is an expanded and richer FL, one that contains the original FL within it. The original FL, founded by Lotfi Zadeh, has been around for more than 35 years, as of the year 2000, and yet it is unable to handle uncertainties. Byhandle, I meanto model and minimize the effect of. That the original FL—type-1 FL—cannot do this sounds paradoxical because the word fuzzy has the connotation of uncertainty. The expanded FL—type-2 FL—is able to handle uncertainties because it can model them and minimize their effects. And, if all uncertainties disappear, type-2 FL reduces to type-1 FL, in much the same way that if randomness disappears, probability reduces to determinism. Although many applications were found for type-1 FL, it is its application torule-based systemsthat has most significantly demonstrated its importance as a powerful design methodology. Such rule-based fuzzy logic systems (FLSs), both type-1 and type-2, are what this book is about. In it I show how to use FL in new ways and how to effectively solve problems that are awash in uncertainties. FL has already been applied in numerous fields, in many of which uncertainties are present (e.g., signal processing, digital communications, computer and communication networks, diagnostic medicine, operations research, financial investing, control, etc.). Hence, the results in this book can immediately be used in all of these fields. To demonstrate the performance advantages for type-2 FLSs over their type-1 counterparts, when uncertainties are present, I describe and provide results for the following applications in this book: forecasting of time series, knowledge-mining using surveys, classification of video data working directly with compressed data, equalization of time-varying nonlinear digital communication channels, overcoming co-channel interference and intersymbol interference for time-varying nonlinear digital communication channels, and connection admission control for asynchronous transfer mode networks. No control applications have been included, because to date type-2 FL has not yet been applied to them; hence, this book is not about FL control, although its methodologies may someday be applicable to it. I have organized this book into four parts. Part 1—Preliminaries— contains four chapters that provide background materials about uncertainty, membership functions, and two case studies (forecasting of time-series and knowledge mining using surveys) that are carried throughout the book. Part 2—Type-1 Fuzzy Logic Systems—contains two chapters that are included to provide the underlying basis for the new type-2 FLSs, so that we can compare type-2 results for our case studies with type-1 results. Part 3—Type-2 Fuzzy Sets—contains three chapters, each of which focuses on a different aspect of such sets. Part 4—Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems—which is the heart of the book, contains five chapters, four having to do with different architectures for a FLS and how to handle different kinds of uncertainties within them, and one having to do primarily with four specific applications of type-2 FLSs. This book can be read by anyone who has an undergraduate BS degree and should be of great interest to computer scientists and engineers who already use or want to use rule-based systems and are concerned with how to handle uncertainties about such systems. I have included many worked-out examples in the text, and have also included homework problems at the end of most chapters so that the book can be used in a classroom setting as well as a technical reference. Here are some specific ways that this book can be used: For the person totally unfamiliar with FL who wants a quick introduction to it, read the Supplement to Chapter 1 and Chapter 5 (Sections 5.1-5.8). For the person who wants an in-depth treatment of type-1 rule-based FLSs, read the Supplement to Chapter 1 and Chapters 4-6. For the person who is only interested in type-2 fuzzy set theory, read Chapters 3, 7-9, and Appendices A and B. For a person who wants to give a course on rule-based fuzzy logic systems, use Chapters 1-12 and 13 (if time permits). Chapter 14 should be of interest to people with a background in digital communications, pattern recognition, or communication networks and will suggest projects for a course. For a person who is a proponent of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy systems and wants to see what their type-2 counterparts look like, read Chapters 3, 7-9, and 13. For a person who is interested in forecasting of time-series and wants to get a quick overview of the benefits to modeling uncertainties on forecasting performance when using rule-based forecasters, read Chapters 4 (Section 4.2), 5 (Section 5.10), 6 (Section 6.7), 10 (Section 10.11), 11 (Section 11.5), and 12 (Section 12.5). For a person who is interested in knowledge mining and wants to get a quick overview of the benefits to modeling uncertainties on judgment making when using rule-based advisors, read Chapters 4 (Section 4.3), 5 (Section 5.11), and 10 (Section 10.12). So that people will start using type-2 FL as soon as possible, I have made free software available online for implementing and designing type-1 and type-2 FLSs. It is MATLAB-based (MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.), was developed by my former PhD students Nilesh Karnik and Qilian Liang, and can be reached at:http://sipi.usc.edu/. A computation section, which directs the reader to very specific M-files, appears at the end of most chapters of this book. Appendix C summarizes all of the M-files so that the reader can see the forest from the trees.