Life and Death in the Iron Age

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Author: Jennifer Foster

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 46

View: 3172

This is an introduction for the general reader, looking at the archaeology of Europe in the last prehistoric period before the Roman conquest (from c800 BC to AD 43). The archaeological collections of the Ashmolean Museum are used to illustrate a serie

The Life and Death of Querns

The Deposition and Use-Contexts of Querns in South-Western England from the Neolithic to the Iron Age

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Author: Susan R. Watts

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780992633615

Category: History

Page: 189

View: 5613

Querns are special artefacts as they are concerned with subsistence and supporting life in a manner which few other artefacts can emulate: they transform raw material into a usable consumable commodity. Their association with women, the production of food and the movement of the upper stone, suggests symbolical links between querns and life cycles - agricultural, human and building. They can also be read in terms of gender relations and the turning of the heavens. It is not surprising therefore that they have a special symbolic role in early societies.In 1995 JD Hill published his seminal thesis that many of the rubbish pits commonly found on Wessex Iron Age sites, were carefully 'structured' deposits, with meaning reaching far beyond the mere disposal of refuse. He mentioned the special role of querns, but as his thesis focussed on animal bones this idea was not followed up - until now. This book analyses the deposition of querns in prehistoric south-western England, cataloguing how and where they are buried, the associated artefacts and their possible significance. The discussion is broader, however, exploring the object biography and symbolism of querns, taking the reader to unfamiliar territories around the world. This is a new ground-breaking work, which with its full bibliography will stimulate fresh studies and at the same time set the agenda for a new field of investigation. A long standing interest in querns led to the author taking a degree in archaeology as a mature student at the University of Exeter. This was followed by the in-depth research presented in this book, which formed the basis of a thesis for which she was awarded her doctorate at Exeter in 2012. She has studied and reported on querns from a wide range of sites, from Wharram Percy in Yorkshire to Dichin in Bulgaria, and has presented papers at both national and international conferences on the object biography and the function and symbolism of querns and millstones. She compiled the Data Sheet on querns for the Finds Research Group and has written and co-authored several articles. She lives in Devon with her husband, Martin, a leading molinologist, and two black cats.

The Human Body in Early Iron Age Central Europe

Burial Practices and Images of the Hallstatt World

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Author: Katharina Rebay-Salisbury

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351998722

Category: History

Page: 332

View: 2503

Identities and social relations are fundamental elements of societies. To approach these topics from a new and different angle, this study takes the human body as the focal point of investigation. It tracks changing identities of early Iron Age people in central Europe through body-related practices: the treatment of the body after death and human representations in art. The human remains themselves provide information on biological parameters of life, such as sex, biological age, and health status. Objects associated with the body in the grave and funerary practices give further insights on how people of the early Iron Age understood life and death, themselves, and their place in the world. Representations of the human body appear in a variety of different materials, forms, and contexts, ranging from ceramic figurines to images on bronze buckets. Rather than focussing on their narrative content, human images are here interpreted as visualising and mediating identity. The analysis of how image elements were connected reveals networks of social relations that connect central Europe to the Mediterranean. Body ideals, nudity, sex and gender, aging, and many other aspects of women’s and men’s lives feature in this book. Archaeological evidence for marriage and motherhood, war, and everyday life is brought together to paint a vivid picture of the past.

The Cultural Life of Images

Visual Representation in Archaeology

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Author: Brian Leigh Molyneaux

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134546300

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 8704

Pictures are often admired for their aesthetic merits but they are rarely treated as if they had as much to offer as the written word. They are often overlooked as objects of analysis themselves, and tend to be seen simply as adjuncts to the text. Images, however, are not passive, and have a direct impact that engages attention in ways independent of any specific text. Advertising, entertainment and propaganda have realised the extent of this power to shape ideas, but the scientific community has hitherto neglected the ways in which visual material conditions the ways in which we think. With subjects including prehistoric artworks, excavation illustrations, artists' impressions of ancient sites and peoples and contemporary landscapes, photographs and drawings, this study explores how pictures shape our perceptions and our expectations of the past. This volume is not concerned with the accuracy of pictures from the past or directly about the past itself, but is interested instead in why certain subjects are selected, why they are depicted the way they are, and what effects such images have on our idea of the past. This collection constitutes a ground-breaking study in historiography which radically reassesses the ways that history can be written.

Gender and the Archaeology of Death

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Author: Bettina Arnold,Nancy L. Wicker

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759101371

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 9987

Edited volume on what archaeological mortuary analysis can tell researchers about gender relations in the ancient world.

Seahenge

A Quest for Life and Death in Bronze Age Britain

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Author: Francis Pryor

Publisher: Harpercollins Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 337

View: 6223

One of the most haunting and enigmatic archaeological discoveries of recent times was the uncovering in 1998 at low tide of the so-called Seahenge on the north coast of Norfolk. This circle of wooden planks set vertically in the sand, with a large inverted tree-trunk in the middle, likened to a ghostly "hand reaching up from the underworld", has now been dated to around 2020 BC. It focused national attention on archaeology to an extent not seen for many years, and the issues raised by its removal and preservation made it a "cause celebre". Francis Pryor has been at the centre of British archaeological fieldwork for nearly 30 years, piecing together the way of life of Bronze Age people, their settlement of the landscape, their religion and rituals. "Seahenge" demonstrates how much Western civilization owes to the prehistoric societies that existed in Europe in the last four millennia BC.

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean

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Author: A. Bernard Knapp,Peter van Dommelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131619406X

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6897

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean offers new insights into the material and social practices of many different Mediterranean peoples during the Bronze and Iron Ages, presenting in particular those features that both connect and distinguish them. Contributors discuss in depth a range of topics that motivate and structure Mediterranean archaeology today, including insularity and connectivity; mobility, migration, and colonization; hybridization and cultural encounters; materiality, memory, and identity; community and household; life and death; and ritual and ideology. The volume's broad coverage of different approaches and contemporary archaeological practices will help practitioners of Mediterranean archaeology to move the subject forward in new and dynamic ways. Together, the essays in this volume shed new light on the people, ideas, and materials that make up the world of Mediterranean archaeology today, beyond the borders that separate Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

A Forged Glamour

Landscape, Identity and Material Culture in the Iron Age

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Author: Melanie Giles

Publisher: Windgather Press

ISBN: 1909686034

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5345

A Forged Glamour, which takes its title from a poem, is an exploration of the lives and deaths of ironworking communities renowned for their spectacular material culture, who lived in modern-day East and North Yorkshire, between the 4th and 1st centuries BC. It evaluates settlement and funerary evidence, analyses farming and craftwork, and explores what some of their ideas and beliefs might have been. It situates this regional material within the broader context of Iron Age Britain, Ireland and the near Continent, and considers what manner of society this was. In order to do this it makes use of theoretical ideas on personhood, and relationships with material culture and landscape, arguing that the making of identity always takes work. It is the character, scale and extent of this work (revealed through objects as small as a glass bead, or as big as a cemetery; as local as an earthenware pot or as exotic as coral-decoration) which enables archaeologists to investigate the web of relations which made up their lives, and explore the means of power which distinguished their leaders.

Die Schläfer im Moor

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Author: Peter Vilhelm Glob

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Iron age

Page: 172

View: 8659

Om Tollund- og Grauballemanden og andre moselig fra ældre jernalder

Flag Fen

Life and Death of a Prehistoric Landscape

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Author: Francis Pryor

Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 6636

The Fens of eastern England form a very distinct environment which has produced particular patterns of prehistoric occupation. Dr Francis Pryor, the Director of the Flag Fen Archaeological Trust, gives his own personal account of his discovery and excavation of this now-famous Bronze Age site near Peterborough. In addition to the Bronze Age ditched field systems, the massive timber platform and the avenue of posts with votive deposits, Dr Pryor describes the Neolithic pit grave on the site and the later Iron Age village. This is an updated, expanded and re-illustrated edition of a book first published over 10 years ago.

Animals in Celtic Life and Myth

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Author: Miranda Green

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134665318

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 9991

Animals played a crucial role in many aspects of Celtic life: in the economy, hunting, warfare, art, literature and religion. Such was their importance to this society, that an intimate relationship between humans and animals developed, in which the Celts believed many animals to have divine powers. In Animals in Celtic Life and Myth, Miranda Green draws on evidence from early Celtic documents, archaeology and iconography to consider the manner in which animals formed the basis of elaborate rituals and beliefs. She reveals that animals were endowed with an extremely high status, considered by the Celts as worthy of respect and admiration.

Women, Pain and Death

Rituals and Everyday Life on the Margins of Europe and Beyond

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Author: Evy Johanne Håland

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443815179

Category: History

Page: 235

View: 303

“Women, Pain and Death: Rituals and Everyday-Life on the Margins of Europe and Beyond” is a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary collection of articles representing different perspectives and topics related to the general theme Women and Death from different periods and parts of Europe, as well as the Middle East and Asia, i.e. areas where, through the ages, there have been a constant interaction and discourse between a variety of people, often with different ethnic backgrounds. The studies illustrate many parallels between the various societies and religious groupings, despite of many differences, both in time and space. The theme, death, is mostly seen from what have been regarded as the geographical margins of society as well as concerning the people involved: women. Thus, the articles, most of them presenting original material from areas which are not very known for English readers, offer new perspectives on the processes of cultural changes. The collection has important ramification for current research surrounding the shaping of a “European identity”, the marketing of regional and national heritages. In connection with the present-day aim of connecting the various European heritages, and developing a vision of Europe and its constituent elements that is both global and rooted, the work has great relevance. One may also mention the new international initiative on intangible heritage, spearheaded by UNESCO.

A Companion to Women in the Ancient World

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Author: Sharon L. James,Sheila Dillon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355007

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 704

View: 5687

Selected by Choice as a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title Awarded a 2012 PROSE Honorable Mention as a Single Volume Reference/Humanities & Social Sciences A Companion to Women in the Ancient World presents an interdisciplinary, methodologically-based collection of newly-commissioned essays from prominent scholars on the study of women in the ancient world. The first interdisciplinary, methodologically-based collection of readings to address the study of women in the ancient world Explores a broad range of topics relating to women in antiquity, including: Mother-Goddess Theory; Women in Homer, Pre-Roman Italy, the Near East; Women and the Family, the State, and Religion; Dress and Adornment; Female Patronage; Hellenistic Queens; Imperial Women; Women in Late Antiquity; Early Women Saints; and many more Thematically arranged to emphasize the importance of historical themes of continuity, development, and innovation Reconsiders much of the well-known evidence and preconceived notions relating to women in antiquity Includes contributions from many of the most prominent scholars associated with the study of women in antiquity

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

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Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650390

Category: Social Science

Page: 872

View: 9219

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.

Children, Death and Burial

Archaeological Discourses

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Author: Eileen Murphy,Mélie Le Roy

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1785707159

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 1336

Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.

The Real Middle Earth

Exploring the Magic and Mystery of the Middle Ages, J.R.R. Tolkien, and "The Lord of the Rings"

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Author: Brian Bates

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1466891092

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1427

J.R.R. Tolkien claimed that he based the land of Middle Earth on a real place. The Real Middle Earth brings alive, for the first time, the very real civilization in which those who lived had a vision of life animated by beings beyond the material world. Magic was real to them and they believed their universe was held together by an interlaced web of golden threads visible only to wizards. At its center was Middle Earth, a place peopled by humans, but imbued with spiritual power. It was a real realm that stretched from Old England to Scandinavia and across to western Europe, encompassing Celts, Anglo Saxons and Vikings. Looking first at the rich and varied tribes who made up the populace of this mystical land, Bates looks at how the people lived their daily lives in a world of magic and mystery. Using archaeological, historical, and psychological research, Brian Bates breathes life into this civilization of two thousand years ago in a book that every Tolkien fan will want.

The Iron Age in Lowland Britain

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Author: D.W. Harding

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317602854

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 2081

This book was written at a time when the older conventional diffusionist view of prehistory, largely associated with the work of V. Gordon Childe, was under rigorous scrutiny from British prehistorians, who still nevertheless regarded the ‘Arras’ culture of eastern Yorkshire and the ‘Belgic’ cemeteries of south-eastern Britain as the product of immigrants from continental Europe. Sympathetic to the idea of population mobility as one mechanism for cultural innovation, as widely recognized historically, it nevertheless attempted a critical re-appraisal of the southern British Iron Age in its continental context. Subsequent fashion in later prehistoric studies has favoured economic, social and cognitive approaches, and the cultural-historical framework has largely been superseded. Routine use of radiocarbon dating and other science-based applications, and new field data resulting from developer-led archaeology have revolutionized understanding of the British Iron Age, and once again raised issues of its relationship to continental Europe.

The materiality of death

bodies, burials, beliefs

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Author: Fredrik Fahlander,European Association of Archaeologists. Meeting

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 3116

16 papers presented from an EAA session held at Krakow in 2006, exploring various aspects of the archaeology of death. Contents: Chapter 1. The Materiality of Death: Bodies, Burials, Beliefs (Fredrik Fahlander & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 2. More than Metaphor: Approaching the Human Cadaver in Archaeology (Liv Nilsson Stutz); Chapter 3. A Piece of the Mesolithic. Horizontal Stratigraphy and Bodily Manipulations at Skateholm (Fredrik Fahlander); Chapter 4. Excavating the KingsAe Bones: The Materiality of Death in Practice and Ethics Today 9Anders Kaliff & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 5. From Corpse to Ancestor: The Role of Tombside Dining in the Transformation of the Body in Ancient Rome (Regina Gee); Chapter 6. Cremations, Conjecture and Contextual Taphonomies: Material Strategies during the 4th to 2nd Millennia BC in Scotland (Paul R J Duffy and Gavin MacGregor); Chapter 7. Ritual and Remembrance at Archaic Crustumerium. The Transformations of Past and Modern Materialities in the Cemetery of Cisterna Grande (Rome, Italy) (Ulla Rajala); Chapter 8. Reuse in Finnish Cremation Cemeteries under Level Ground - Examples of Collective Memory (Anna Wickholm); Chapter 9. Life and Death in the Bronze Age of the NW of Iberian Peninsula (Ana M. S. Bettencourt); Chapter 10. Norwegian Face-Urns: Local Context and Interregional Contacts (Malin Aasbe); Chapter 11. The Use of Ochre in Stone Age Burials of the East Baltic (Ilga Zagorska); Chapter 12. oDeath Mythso: Performing of Rituals and Variation in Corpse Treatment during the Migration Period in Norway (Siv Kristoffersen and Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 13. Reproduction and Relocation of Death in Iron Age Scandinavia (Terje Gansum); Chapter 14. A Road for the VikingAes Soul (Ake Johansson); Chapter 15. A Road to the Other Side (Camilla Gr); Chapter 16. Stones and Bones: The Myth of Ymer and Mortuary Practises with an Example from the Migration Period in Uppland, Central Sweden (Christina Lindgren).

The Making of the British Landscape

How We Have Transformed the Land, from Prehistory to Today

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Author: Francis Pryor

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 014194336X

Category: History

Page: 832

View: 3287

This is the changing story of Britain as it has been preserved in our fields, roads, buildings, towns and villages, mountains, forests and islands. From our suburban streets that still trace out the boundaries of long vanished farms to the Norfolk Broads, formed when medieval peat pits flooded, from the ceremonial landscapes of Stonehenge to the spread of the railways - evidence of how man's effect on Britain is everywhere. In The Making of the British Landscape, eminent historian, archaeologist and farmer, Francis Pryor explains how to read these clues to understand the fascinating history of our land and of how people have lived on it throughout time. Covering both the urban and rural and packed with pictures, maps and drawings showing everything from how we can still pick out Bronze Age fields on Bodmin Moor to how the Industrial Revolution really changed our landscape, this book makes us look afresh at our surroundings and really see them for the first time.