Liberal Democracies at War

Conflict and Representation

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Author: Andrew Knapp,Hilary Footitt

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441168710

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7699

Liberal democracies have always accepted the need to go to war, despite the fact that war can undermine liberal values. Wars may be won or lost, not only on the battlefield, but in the perceptions of the publics who pay for them. Presentation is therefore increasingly important. Starting with the First World War, the first major war fought by liberal democracies after the emergence on mass media, Liberal Democracies at War explores the relationship between representations of liberal violence and the ways in which the liberal state understands 'rights' in war. Experts in the field explore crucial questions such as: · How have the violences of war perpetrated in their names been communicated to publics of liberal democracies? · How have representations of conflict changed over time? · How far have the victims of liberal wars been able to insert their stories into the record?

In War's Wake

International Conflict and the Fate of Liberal Democracy

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Author: Elizabeth Kier,Ronald R. Krebs

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521157706

Category: Political Science

Page: 314

View: 9309

This landmark interdisciplinary volume brings together distinguished historians, sociologists, and political scientists to examine the impact of war on democracy.

Democracies at War

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Author: Dan Reiter,Allan C. Stam

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400824458

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 5109

Why do democracies win wars? This is a critical question in the study of international relations, as a traditional view--expressed most famously by Alexis de Tocqueville--has been that democracies are inferior in crafting foreign policy and fighting wars. In Democracies at War, the first major study of its kind, Dan Reiter and Allan Stam come to a very different conclusion. Democracies tend to win the wars they fight--specifically, about eighty percent of the time. Complementing their wide-ranging case-study analysis, the authors apply innovative statistical tests and new hypotheses. In unusually clear prose, they pinpoint two reasons for democracies' success at war. First, as elected leaders understand that losing a war can spell domestic political backlash, democracies start only those wars they are likely to win. Secondly, the emphasis on individuality within democratic societies means that their soldiers fight with greater initiative and superior leadership. Surprisingly, Reiter and Stam find that it is neither economic muscle nor bandwagoning between democratic powers that enables democracies to win wars. They also show that, given societal consent, democracies are willing to initiate wars of empire or genocide. On the whole, they find, democracies' dependence on public consent makes for more, rather than less, effective foreign policy. Taking a fresh approach to a question that has long merited such a study, this book yields crucial insights on security policy, the causes of war, and the interplay between domestic politics and international relations.

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können

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Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641222915

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 1733

Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Victorious and Vulnerable

Why Democracy Won in the 20th Century and how it is Still Imperiled

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Author: Azar Gat

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442201149

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 3820

Azar Gat provides a politically and strategically vital understanding of the peculiar strengths and vulnerabilities that liberal democracy brings to the formidable challenges ahead. Arguing that the democratic peace is merely one manifestation of much more sweeping and less recognized pacifist tendencies typical of liberal democracies, Gat offers a panoramic view of their distinctive way in conflict and war.

Theories of War and Peace

An International Security Reader

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Author: Michael E. Brown,Owen R. Cote,Sean M. Lynn-Jones,Steven E. Miller

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262522526

Category: Political Science

Page: 566

View: 1661

What causes war? How can wars be prevented? Scholars and policymakers have sought the answers to these questions for centuries. Although wars continue to occur, recent scholarship has made progress toward developing more sophisticated and perhaps more useful theories on the causes and prevention of war. This volume includes essays by leading scholars on contemporary approaches to understanding war and peace. The essays include expositions, analyses, and critiques of some of the more prominent and enduring explanations of war. Several authors discuss realist theories of war, which focus on the distribution of power and the potential for offensive war. Others examine the prominent hypothesis that the spread of democracy will usher in an era of peace. In light of the apparent increase in nationalism and ethnic conflict, several authors present hypotheses on how nationalism causes war and how such wars can be controlled. Contributors also engage in a vigorous debate on whether international institutions can promote peace. In a section on war and peace in the changing international system, several authors consider whether rising levels of international economic independence and environmental scarcity will influence the likelihood of war. Contributors: Dale C. Copeland, Charles L. Glaser, Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, Carl Kaysen, Robert O. Keohane, Charles A. Kupchan, Clifford A. Kupchan, David A. Lake, Christopher Layne, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Edward D. Mansfield, Lisa L. Martin, John J. Mearsheimer, John Orme, John M. Owen, Donald Rothchild, John Gerard Ruggie, Jack Snyder, Stephen Van Evera, Alexander Wendt.

Liberal Peace, Liberal War

American Politics and International Security

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Author: John M. Owen

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801486906

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 6944

Liberal democracies very rarely fight wars against each other, even though they go to war just as often as other types of states do. John M. Owen IV attributes this peculiar restraint to a synergy between liberal ideology and the institutions that exist within these states. Liberal elites identify their interests with those of their counterparts in foreign states, Owen contends. Free discussion and regular competitive elections allow the agitations of the elites in liberal democracies to shape foreign policy, especially during crises, by influencing governmental decision makers. Several previous analysts have offered theories to explain liberal peace, but they have not examined the state. This book explores the chain of events linking peace with democracies. Owen emphasizes that peace is constructed by democratic ideas, and should be understood as a strong tendency built upon historically contingent perceptions and institutions. He tests his theory against ten cases drawn from over a century of U.S. diplomatic history, beginning with the Jay Treaty in 1794 and ending with the Spanish-American War in 1898. A world full of liberal democracies would not necessarily be peaceful. Were illiberal states to disappear, Owen asserts, liberal states would have difficulty identifying one another, and would have less reason to remain at peace.

At War's End

Building Peace After Civil Conflict

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Author: Roland Paris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521541978

Category: Political Science

Page: 289

View: 6056

This book explores the challenge of rehabilitating countries after civil wars. It finds that attempting to transform war-shattered states into liberal democracies with market economies can backfire badly. If democracy and capitalism are introduced too quickly, and in the absence of effective institutions, they can increase rather than decrease the danger of renewed fighting. A more effective approach to post-conflict peacebuilding would be to introduce political and economic reform in a more gradual and controlled manner.

After War

The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy

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Author: Christopher J. Coyne

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804754392

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 238

View: 6902

Post-conflict reconstruction is one of the most pressing political issues today. This book uses economics to analyze critically the incentives and constraints faced by various actors involved in reconstruction efforts. Through this analysis, the book will aid in understanding why some reconstructions are more successful than others.

Die neuen Paten

Trump, Putin, Erdogan, Orbán & Co. - Wie die autoritären Herrscher und ihre mafiosen Clans uns bedrohen

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Author: Jürgen Roth

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641220513

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 762

Wenn Mafiamethoden offizielle Regierungspolitik werden Sie sind die »neuen Paten«: rechtspopulistische und rechtsradikale Politiker wie Viktor Orbán in Ungarn, Recep Tayyip Erdogan in der Türkei, Wladimir Putin in Russland, Donald Trump in den USA. Ihr Ziel: eine neue politische Ordnung. Ihr ideologisches Arsenal: Nationalismus, Rassismus und Religion. Sie sind demokratisch gewählt, doch sie unterwerfen den Staat und seine Institutionen, um sich selbst, ihre Familien und Gefolgsleute hemmungslos zu bereichern – mit Mafiamethoden. Die Grenze zwischen den klassischen Aktivitäten des Staates und denen des organisierten Verbrechens verschwimmt, Mafia-Staaten entstehen. Weit nach Deutschland hinein reichen die Verbindungen: Hier werden Allianzen geschmiedet, Geschäfte gemacht, Profite eingestrichen. Erstmals deckt Jürgen Roth die Strukturen und Hintergründe auf – und die Verflechtungen dieser autoritären Herrscher mit der Mafia und der organisierten Kriminalität.

Faschismus

Eine Warnung

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Author: Madeleine Albright

Publisher: Dumont Buchverlag

ISBN: 3832184104

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3657

»Manche mögen dieses Buch und besonders seinen Titel alarmierend finden. Gut!« MADELEINE ALBRIGHT Weltweit kommt es zu einem Wiedererstarken anti-demokratischer, repressiver und zerstörerischer Kräfte. Die ehemalige amerikanische Außenministerin Madeleine Albright zeigt, welche großen Ähnlichkeiten diese mit dem Faschismus des 20. Jahrhunderts haben. Die faschistischen Tendenzen treten wieder in Erscheinung und greifen in Europa, Teilen Asiens und den Vereinigten Staaten um sich. Albrights Familie stammt aus Prag und floh zweimal: zuerst vor den Nationalsozialisten, später vor dem kommunistischen Regime. Auf Grundlage dieser Erlebnisse und der Erfahrungen, die sie im Laufe ihrer diplomatischen Karriere sammelte, zeichnet sie die Gründe für die Rückkehr des Faschismus nach. Sie identifiziert die Faktoren, die zu seinem Aufstieg beitragen und warnt eindringlich vor den Folgen. Doch Madeleine Albright bietet auch klare Lösungsansätze an, etwa die Veränderung der Arbeitsbedingungen und das Verständnis für die Bedürfnisse der Menschen nach Kontinuität und moralischer Beständigkeit. Sie zeigt, dass allein die Demokratie politische und gesellschaftliche Konflikte mit Rationalität und offenen Diskussionen lösen kann.

Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies

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Author: Martin Harrop

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521347983

Category: Political Science

Page: 303

View: 9954

This textbook, first published in 1992, integrates the field of policy studies with more traditional approaches to comparative politics.

Transnational Torture

Law, Violence, and State Power in the United States and India

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Author: Jinee Lokaneeta

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814752802

Category: Law

Page: 301

View: 9161

Evidence of torture at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq and harsh interrogation techniques at Guantánamo Bay beg the question: has the “war on terror” forced liberal democracies to rethink their policies and laws against torture? Transnational Torture focuses on the legal and political discourses on torture in India and the United States—two common-law based constitutional democracies—to theorize the relationship between law, violence, and state power in liberal democracies. Analyzing about one hundred landmark Supreme Court cases on torture in India and the United States, memos and popular imagery of torture, Jinee Lokaneeta compellingly demonstrates that even before recent debates on the use of torture in the war on terror, the laws of interrogation were much more ambivalent about the infliction of excess pain and suffering than most political and legal theorists have acknowledged. Rather than viewing the recent policies on interrogation as anomalous or exceptional, Lokaneeta effectively argues that efforts to accommodate excess violence—a constantly negotiated process—are long standing features of routine interrogations in both the United States and India, concluding that the infliction of excess violence is more central to democratic governance than is acknowledged in western jurisprudence.

Inside Out India and China

Local Politics Go Global

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Author: William Antholis

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815726465

Category: Political Science

Page: 235

View: 3393

One third of humanity is governed by two capitals, New Delhi and Beijing. Increasingly, these two countries are being led not from the top down, but rather from the Inside Out. In 2014, India overwhelmingly elected Narendra Modi minister, a man who rose to national prominence as chief minister of Gujarat, India's fastest growing state. Likewise, in 2013, Xi Jinping took over as president of China, having served as top official in Zhejiang and Shanghai, two of China's most prosperous provinces. Anticipating these trends and leadership transitions, William Antholis spent five months in 2012 traversing twenty Indian states and Chinese provinces, conducting over three hundred interviews, including with Narendra Modi. Antholis's detailed narratives show what both Modi and Xi Jinping learned firsthand: that local successes—and failures—will determine the future of the world's largest two nations. And his new forward, prepared for this edition, lays out key takeaways from the transitions of 2013 and 2014.

Israel and the Struggle over the International Laws of War

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Author: Peter Berkowitz

Publisher: Hoover Press

ISBN: 0817914366

Category: Political Science

Page: 112

View: 8512

The author argues that Israel stands on the frontlines of a new struggle over the international laws of war and exposes abuses of law that have been promulgated by international human rights lawyers, UN bodies, and intellectuals to illegitimately circumscribe the right of liberal democracies to defend themselves against transnational terrorists. The Goldstone Report, which was published by the United Nations in September 2009, and the Gaza flotilla controversy, which erupted at the end of May 2010, are examples of those abuses. This book criticizes the flawed assumptions and defective claims arising from both the Goldstone Report and the Gaza flotilla controversy, showing how the legal principles and conclusions advanced by many of Israel's critics threaten not only Israel's national security interests but the United States' as well.

The Story of Pain

From Prayer to Painkillers

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Author: Joanna Bourke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191003557

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 6409

Everyone knows what is feels like to be in pain. Scraped knees, toothaches, migraines, giving birth, cancer, heart attacks, and heartaches: pain permeates our entire lives. We also witness other people - loved ones - suffering, and we 'feel with' them. It is easy to assume this is the end of the story: 'pain-is-pain-is-pain', and that is all there is to say. But it is not. In fact, the way in which people respond to what they describe as 'painful' has changed considerably over time. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, for example, people believed that pain served a specific (and positive) function - it was a message from God or Nature; it would perfect the spirit. 'Suffer in this life and you wouldn't suffer in the next one'. Submission to pain was required. Nothing could be more removed from twentieth and twenty-first century understandings, where pain is regarded as an unremitting evil to be 'fought'. Focusing on the English-speaking world, this book tells the story of pain since the eighteenth century, addressing fundamental questions about the experience and nature of suffering over the last three centuries. How have those in pain interpreted their suffering - and how have these interpretations changed over time? How have people learnt to conduct themselves when suffering? How do friends and family react? And what about medical professionals: should they immerse themselves in the suffering person or is the best response a kind of professional detachment? As Joanna Bourke shows in this fascinating investigation, people have come up with many different answers to these questions over time. And a history of pain can tell us a great deal about how we might respond to our own suffering in the present - and, just as importantly, to the suffering of those around us.

Christian Faith and Social Justice: Five Views

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Author: Vic McCracken

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1623562414

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 7727

The Judeo-Christian tradition testifies to a God that cries out, demanding that justice "roll down like waters, righteousness like an ever-flowing stream" (Amos 5:24). Christians agree that being advocates for justice is critical to the Christian witness. And yet one need not look widely to see that Christians disagree about what social justice entails. What does justice have to do with healthcare reform, illegal immigration, and same-sex marriage? Should Christians support tax policies that effectively require wealthy individuals to fund programs that benefit the poor? Does justice require that we acknowledge and address the inequalities borne out of histories of gender and ethnic exclusivity? Is the Christian vision distinct from non-Christian visions of social justice? Christians disagree over the proper answer to these questions. In short, Christians agree that justice is important but disagree about what a commitment to justice means. Christian Faith and Social Justice makes sense of the disagreements among Christians over the meaning of justice by bringing together five highly regarded Christian philosophers to introduce and defend rival perspectives on social justice in the Christian tradition. While it aspires to offer a lucid introduction to these theories, the purpose of this book is more than informative. It is purposefully dialogical and is structured so that contributors are able to model for the reader reasoned exchange among philosophers who disagree about the meaning of social justice. The hope is that the reader is left with a better understanding of range of perspectives in the Christian tradition about social justice.

The West at War

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Author: Bradley C. S. Watson

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739116128

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

View: 1099

In The West at War, Bradley C. S. Watson brings together renowned scholars and public policy experts to reflect on perhaps the most pressing problem of our time--the West's increasingly bloody conflict with forces that seek nothing less than its destruction. In eleven provocative chapters, contributors deal with the internal challenges and external conflicts facing Western civilization in the context of the "war on terror." Ranging from the nature of Islam and the West, to ethics and terror, to the western way of warfare, the volume deals thematically with major issues raised by this conflict in a way that no other single-volume does. Contributors bring to bear arguments on the philosophic, political, religious, ethical, and policy dimensions of the war. As the title of the book suggests, this conflict implicates all of Western civilization, demonstrating that this not merely an "American" concern.

The Ethics and Politics of Asylum

Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees

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Author: Matthew J. Gibney

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521009379

Category: Law

Page: 287

View: 1035

Over the last two decades, asylum has become a highly charged political issue across developed countries. This book draws upon political and ethical theory and an examination of the experiences of the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom and Australia to consider how to respond to the challenges of asylum. In addition to explaining why asylum has emerged as such a key political issue, it provides a compelling account of how states could move towards implenting morally defensible responses to refugees.