Kuhn Vs Popper

The Struggle for the Soul of Science

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781840467222

Category: Science

Page: 239

View: 2750

Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper, a young historian and an old philosopher, met just once to discuss the nature of science. Yet, for the last half-century Kuhn’s triumph has dominated public discussions on the topic.But could the million copies sold of Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions betray an error in collective judgement? Steve Fuller says yes: not only have we judged wrongly, but we have also radically misunderstood the parties in the process.The future of science itself depends on understanding the philosophical, political and even religious basis of what separated Kuhn and Popper. Drawing on his own original examination of the Kuhn archives at MIT, Fuller provides an exhilarating tour of a battle that goes to heart of what we think science is. A provocative account of a landmark confrontation in which ‘the wrong guy’ won.

Kuhn Vs Popper

The Struggle for the Soul of Science

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Icon Books

ISBN: 1840465336

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 5941

In 1965 Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper met at the University of London to stage what became the most momentous philosphical debate of the century. At stake was the soul of science itself. Popper pinned the future of science on scientists having the freedom to test their theories to the point of being false. But this required an 'open society' that tolerate error, even in the established authorities. Kuhn, in contrast, reflected heads-down Cold War mentality that scientists should not question authority in their own fields or society at large - unless absolutely necessary. Those rare occasions count as proper 'scientific revolutions'. Kuhn painted as the young radical against Popper as the conservative, won the battle. His Structure of Scientific Revolutions sold a million copies. Steve Fuller argues forcefully, however, that these caricatures of Kuhn and Popper's positions are fundamentally flawed - and that the wrong man won. The first popular account of this landmark confrontation, Kuhn vs Popper retells the story of the clash, the background behind it, and its legacy to our understanding of science.

Kuhn Vs. Popper

The Struggle for the Soul of Science

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231134286

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 143

View: 8827

Although Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper debated the nature of science only once, the legacy of this encounter has dominated intellectual and public discussions on the topic ever since. Kuhn's relativistic vision of science as just another human activity, like art or philosophy, triumphed over Popper's more positivistic belief in revolutionary discoveries and the superiority of scientific provability. Steve Fuller argues that not only has Kuhn's dominance had an adverse impact on the field but both thinkers have been radically misinterpreted in the process.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 1944

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971307

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 9283

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

The Logic of Scientific Discovery

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134470029

Category: Philosophy

Page: 480

View: 7279

Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.

Thomas Kuhn

A Philosophical History for Our Times

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226268965

Category: Philosophy

Page: 472

View: 2988

This work discusses whether Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was revolutionary. Steve Fuller argues that Kuhn held a profoundly conservative view of science and how one ought to study its history.

Rethinking Popper

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Author: Zuzana Parusniková,Robert S. Cohen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402093381

Category: Philosophy

Page: 431

View: 9354

In September 2007, more than 100 philosophers came to Prague with the determination to approach Karl Popper’s philosophy as a source of inspiration in many areas of our intellectual endeavor. This volume is a result of that effort. Topics cover Popper’s views on rationality, scientific methodology, the evolution of knowledge and democracy; and since Popper’s philosophy has always had a strong interdisciplinary influence, part of the volume discusses the impact of his ideas in such areas as education, economics, psychology, biology, or ethics. The concept of falsification, the problem of demarcation, the ban on induction, or the role of the empirical basis, along with the provocative parallels between historicism, holism and totalitarianism, have always caused controversies. The aim of this volume is not to smooth them but show them as a challenge. In this time when the traditional role of reason in the Western thought is being undermined, Popper’s non-foundationist model of reason brings the Enlightenment message into a new perspective. Popper believed that the open society was vulnerable, due precisely to its tolerance of otherness. This is a matter of great urgency in the modern world, as cultures based on different values gain prominence. The processes related to the extending of the EU, or the increasing economic globalization also raise questions about openness and democracy. The volume’s aim is to show the vitality of critical rationalism in addressing and responding to the problems of this time and this world.

The Poverty of Historicism

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135972214

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 341

On its publication in 1957, The Poverty of Historicism was hailed by Arthur Koestler as 'probably the only book published this year which will outlive the century.' A devastating criticism of fixed and predictable laws in history, Popper dedicated the book to all those 'who fell victim to the fascist and communist belief in Inexorable Laws of Historical Destiny.' Short and beautifully written, it has inspired generations of readers, intellectuals and policy makers. One of the most important books on the social sciences since the Second World War, it is a searing insight into the ideas of this great thinker.

Theories of Scientific Method

an Introduction

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Author: Robert Nola,Howard Sankey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317493494

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 7109

What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.

Popper and After

Four Modern Irrationalists

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Author: D. C. Stove

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483157016

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 2093

Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists focuses on a tendency in the philosophy of science, of which the leading representatives are Professor Sir Karl Popper, the late Professor Imre Lakatos, and Professors T. S. Kuhn and P. K. Feyerabend. Their philosophy of science is in substance irrationalist. They doubt, or deny outright, that there can be any reason to believe any scientific theory; and a fortiori they doubt or deny, for example, that there has been any accumulation of knowledge in recent centuries. The book is composed of two parts and Part One explains how these writers succeeded in making irrationalism about science acceptable to readers. Part Two explores the intellectual influence that led these writers to embrace irrationalism about science.

Science Vs. Religion

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745641210

Category: Philosophy

Page: 179

View: 8220

For centuries, science and religion have been portrayed as diametrically opposed. In this provocative new book, Steve Fuller examines the apparent clash between science and religion by focusing on the heated debates about evolution and intelligent design theory. In so doing, he claims that science vs. religion is in fact a false dichotomy. For Fuller, supposedly intellectual disputes, such as those between creationist and evolutionist accounts of life, often disguise other institutionally driven conflicts, such as the struggle between State and Church to be the source of legitimate authority in society. Nowadays many conservative anti-science groups support intelligent design theory, but Fuller argues that the theory's theological roots are much more radical, based on the idea that humans were created to fathom the divine plan, perhaps even complete it. He goes on to examine the unique political circumstances in the United States that make the emergence of intelligent design theory so controversial, yet so persistent. Finally, he considers the long-term prognosis, arguing that the future remains very much undecided as society reopens the question of what it means to be human. This book will appeal to all readers intrigued by the debates about creationism, intelligent design and evolution, especially those looking for an intellectually exciting confrontation with the politics and promise of intelligent design theory.

Mystery of Mysteries

Is Evolution a Social Construction?

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Author: Professor Michael Ruse

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674042988

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 547

With the recent Sokal hoax--the publication of a prominent physicist's pseudo-article in a leading journal of cultural studies--the status of science moved sharply from debate to dispute. Is science objective, a disinterested reflection of reality, as Karl Popper and his followers believed? Or is it subjective, a social construction, as Thomas Kuhn and his students maintained? Into the fray comes "Mystery of Mysteries," an enlightening inquiry into the nature of science, using evolutionary theory as a case study. Michael Ruse begins with such colorful luminaries as Erasmus Darwin (grandfather of Charles) and Julian Huxley (brother of novelist Aldous and grandson of T. H. Huxley, "Darwin's bulldog" ) and ends with the work of the English game theorist Geoffrey Parker--a microevolutionist who made his mark studying the mating strategies of dung flies--and the American paleontologist Jack Sepkoski, whose computer-generated models reconstruct mass extinctions and other macro events in life's history. Along the way Ruse considers two great popularizers of evolution, Richard Dawkins and Stephen Jay Gould, as well as two leaders in the field of evolutionary studies, Richard Lewontin and Edward O. Wilson, paying close attention to these figures' cultural commitments: Gould's transplanted Germanic idealism, Dawkins's male-dominated Oxbridge circle, Lewontin's Jewish background, and Wilson's southern childhood. Ruse explicates the role of metaphor and metavalues in evolutionary thought and draws significant conclusions about the cultural impregnation of science. Identifying strengths and weaknesses on both sides of the "science wars," he demonstrates that a resolution of the objective and subjective debate is nonetheless possible.

Knowledge

The Philosophical Quest in History

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317592476

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 4656

The theory of knowledge, or epistemology, is often regarded as a dry topic that bears little relation to actual knowledge practices. Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History addresses this perception by showing the roots, developments and prospects of modern epistemology from its beginnings in the nineteenth century to the present day. Beginning with an introduction to the central questions and problems in theory of knowledge, Steve Fuller goes on to demonstrate that contemporary epistemology is enriched by its interdisciplinarity, analysing keys areas including: Epistemology as Cognitive Economics Epistemology as Divine Psychology Epistemology as Philosophy of Science Epistemology as Sociology of Science Epistemology and Postmodernism. A wide-ranging and historically-informed assessment of the ways in which man has - and continues to - pursue, question, contest, expand and shape knowledge, this book is essential reading anyone in the Humanities and Social Sciences interested in the history and practical application of epistemology.

Understanding Philosophy of Science

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Author: James Ladyman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134597908

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 7048

Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

Understanding Psychology as a Science

An Introduction to Scientific and Statistical Inference

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Author: Zoltan Dienes

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137096055

Category: Psychology

Page: 184

View: 7879

What makes psychology a science? What is the logic underlying psychological research? In this groundbreaking book Zoltán Dienes introduces students to key issues in the philosophy of science and statistics that have a direct and vital bearing on the practice of research in psychology. The book is organised around the influential thinkers and conceptual debates which pervade psychological research and teaching but until now have not been made accessible to students. In a clear and fluid style, Dienes takes the reader on a compelling tour of the ideas of: - Popper - Kuhn& Lakatos - Neyman& Pearson - Bayes - Fisher& Royall Featuring examples drawn from extensive teaching experience to ground the ideas firmly in psychological science, the book is an ideal companion to courses and modules in psychological research methods and also to those covering conceptual and historical issues.

Killing Time

The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend

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Author: Paul Feyerabend

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226245324

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 192

View: 8519

Killing Time is the story of Paul Feyerabend's life. Finished only weeks before his death in 1994, it is the self-portrait of one of this century's most original and influential intellectuals. Trained in physics and astronomy, Feyerabend was best known as a philosopher of science. But he emphatically was not a builder of theories or a writer of rules. Rather, his fame was in powerful, plain-spoken critiques of "big" science and "big" philosophy. Feyerabend gave voice to a radically democratic "epistemological anarchism:" he argued forcefully that there is not one way to knowledge, but many principled paths; not one truth or one rationality but different, competing pictures of the workings of the world. "Anything goes," he said about the ways of science in his most famous book, Against Method. And he meant it. Here, for the first time, Feyerabend traces the trajectory that led him from an isolated, lower-middle-class childhood in Vienna to the height of international academic success. He writes of his experience in the German army on the Russian front, where three bullets left him crippled, impotent, and in lifelong pain. He recalls his promising talent as an operatic tenor (a lifelong passion), his encounters with everyone from Martin Buber to Bertolt Brecht, innumerable love affairs, four marriages, and a career so rich he once held tenured positions at four universities at the same time. Although not written as an intellectual autobiography, Killing Time sketches the people, ideas, and conflicts of sixty years. Feyerabend writes frankly of complicated relationships with his mentor Karl Popper and his friend and frequent opponent Imre Lakatos, and his reactions to a growing reputation as the "worst enemy of science."

Post-Truth

Knowledge As A Power Game

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 1783086963

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 1826

‘Post-truth’ was Oxford Dictionaries 2016 word of the year. While the term was coined by its disparagers in the light of the Brexit and US presidential campaigns, the roots of post-truth lie deep in the history of Western social and political theory. Post-Truth reaches back to Plato, ranging across theology and philosophy, to focus on the Machiavellian tradition in classical sociology, as exemplified by Vilfredo Pareto, who offered the original modern account of post-truth in terms of the ‘circulation of elites’. The defining feature of ‘post-truth’ is a strong distinction between appearance and reality which is never quite resolved and so the strongest appearance ends up passing for reality. The only question is whether more is gained by rapid changes in appearance or by stabilizing one such appearance. Post-Truth plays out what this means for both politics and science.

Beyond the Hoax

Science, Philosophy and Culture

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Author: Alan Sokal

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191623342

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 2034

In 1996, Alan Sokal, a Professor of Physics at New York University, wrote a paper for the cultural-studies journal Social Text, entitled 'Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity'. It was reviewed, accepted and published. Sokal immediately confessed that the whole article was a hoax - a cunningly worded paper designed to expose and parody the style of extreme postmodernist criticism of science. The story became front-page news around the world and triggered fierce and wide-ranging controversy. Sokal is one of the most powerful voices in the continuing debate about the status of evidence-based knowledge. In Beyond the Hoax he turns his attention to a new set of targets - pseudo-science, religion, and misinformation in public life. 'Whether my targets are the postmodernists of the left, the fundamentalists of the right, or the muddle-headed of all political and apolitical stripes, the bottom line is that clear thinking, combined with a respect for evidence, are of the utmost importance to the survival of the human race in the twenty-first century.' The book also includes a hugely illuminating annotated text of the Hoax itself, and a reflection on the furore it provoked.

Preparing for Life in Humanity 2.0

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Author: Steve Fuller

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137277068

Category: Philosophy

Page: 117

View: 8090

Preparing for Life in Humanity 2.0 is a follow-up to Fuller's widely discussed Humanity 2.0. It provides a more detailed analysis of several quite divergent futures for 'being human' in the 21st century. The book begins by discussing the philosophical foundations of Humanity 2.0, drawing attention to how recent changes in the conduct of science and its social relations reflect implicit changes in human self-understanding. Here three possible futures of 'being human' are sketched and ideologically interrelated: the ecological, the biomedical and the cybernetic. Then the book moves to Humanity 2.0's emerging political economy, which involves the redefinition of classical political and economic concepts, such as justice and productivity. Next the book turns to Humanity 2.0's 'anthropology', which means the living conditions and aspirations available to this new being. Then Humanity 2.0's ethical horizons are considered, focusing on the normative sensibility of the 'moral entrepreneur', a natural risk-taker whose blurring of traditional intuitions of 'good' and 'evil' may acquire greater significance and legitimacy in the future. Finally the book concludes with a revised general education curriculum for Humanity 2.0 that gives centre stage to changing attitudes to the brain.