Ionic Equilibrium

Solubility and PH Calculations

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: James Newton Butler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471585268

Category: Science

Page: 559

View: 9572

A celebrated classic in the field updated and expanded to include the latest computerized calculation techniques In 1964, James N. Butler published a book in which he presented some simple graphical methods of performing acid-base, solubility, and complex formation equilibrium calculations. Today, both the book and these methods have become standard for generations of students and professionals in fields ranging from environmental science to analytical chemistry. Named a "Citation Classic" by the Science Citation Index in 1990, the book, Ionic Equilibrium, continues to be one of the most widely used texts on the subject. So why tamper with near-perfection by attempting a revision of that classic? The reason is simple-- the recent rapid development and wide availability of personal computers. In the revised Ionic Equilibrium, Dr. Butler updates his 1964 work by abandoning the slide rule and graph paper for the PC spreadsheet. He also expands the original coverage with extensive material on basic principles and recent research. The first part of Ionic Equilibrium is devoted to the fundamentals of acid-base, solubility, and complex formation equilibria. In the second part, the author discusses oxidation-reduction equilibria, develops the principles of carbon dioxide equilibria, presents case studies demonstrating the ways in which carbon dioxide equilibria are used in physiology and oceanography, and explores the possibility of a pH scale for brines. The concluding chapter, written by David R. Cogley, gives examples of general computer programs that are capable of performing equilibrium calculations on systems of many components. Replete with real-world examples, details of important calculations, and practical problems, Ionic Equilibrium is an ideal course text for students of environmental chemistry, engineering, or health; analytical chemistry; oceanography; geochemistry; biochemistry; physical chemistry; and clinical chemistry. It is also a valuable working resource for professionals in those fields as well as industrial chemists involved with solution chemistry.

Ionic Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Jean-Louis Burgot

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441983813

Category: Science

Page: 772

View: 5558

This book of general analytical chemistry – as opposed to instrumental analysis or separation methods – in aqueous solutions is focuses on fundamentals, which is an area too often overlooked in the literature. Explanations abound of the chemical and physical principles of different operations of chemical analysis in aqueous solutions. Once these principle are firmly established, numerous examples of applications are also given.

Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: James N. Butler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873716246

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 9282

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It emphasizes a rigorous mathematical and thermodynamic basis for calculations and their application to realistic problems. The book's first four chapters present the basic equations, mathematical techniques for visualizing and manipulating them, and data on equilibrium constants and activity coefficients. These are presented in the general context of acid-base titration and solubility of CaCO3. The remaining chapters show how these concepts and techniques are applied to geochemistry and oceanography, in addition to their applications to water conditioning. Specific topics discussed include acid rain, freshwater, seawater, carbonate sediments in the deep oceans, the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the oceans, estuarine waters, brines, hydrothermal solutions, pH adjustment, prediction of calcium carbonate saturation, corrosion inhibition, and water softening.

Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Francis M. Mirabella

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471123590

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 5724

A complete guide to choosing and using the best analytical technique for the job at hand Today′s new generation of spectroscopic instrumentation allows for more accurate and varied measurements than ever before. At the same time, increasingly powerful, user–friendly PC hardware and software make running those instruments relative child′s play. However, although they may have solved many of the problems traditionally associated with conducting molecular spectroscopic analyses, these refinements tend to obscure inherent technical challenges which, if not taken into consideration, can seriously undermine a research initiative. Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy gives scientists and technicians the knowledge they need to address those challenges and to make optimal selection and use of contemporary molecular spectroscopic techniques and technologies. While editor Francis Mirabella and contributors provide ample background information about how and why individual techniques work, they concentrate on practical considerations of crucial concern to researchers working in industry. For each technique covered, they provide expert guidance on method selection, sample preparation, troubleshooting, data handling and analysis, and more. Adhering principally to mid–IR molecular spectroscopic techniques, they clearly describe the guiding principles behind, characteristics of, and suitable applications for transmission spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopies, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared and Raman microspectroscopy, fiber optic techniques, and emission spectroscopy. Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy is an indispensable working resource for analytical scientists and technicians working in an array of industries.

Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Trevor M. Letcher

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080481036

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 3531

Environmental problems are becoming an important aspect of our lives as industries grow apace with populations throughout the world. Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce these them. The unifying theme is Solubility – the most basic and important of thermodynamic properties. This informative book looks at the importance and applications of solubility and thermodynamics, in understanding and in reducing chemical pollution in the environment. Written by experts in their respective fields and representing the latest findings in this very important and broad area. A collection of twenty-five chapters cover a wide range of topics including; mining, polymer manufacture and applications, radioactive wastes, industries in general, agro-chemicals, soil pollution and biology, together with the basic theory and recent developments in the modelling of environmental pollutants. Latest research into solving some of the most important environmental problems Covering new technologies, new chemicals and new processes eg, biodegradable polymers, ionic liquids and green chemistry Contains the basic theories and underlying importance of solubility

Ocean Acidification:

A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030915359X

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 6527

The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.

Low-Temperature Geochemistry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Tu Guangzhi

Publisher: VSP

ISBN: 9789067642309

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 1192

Low-temperature geochemistry -- a 'hot topic' in geochemistry at present -- deals with geological and chemical processes and the geochemical evolution of elements in nature below 200C, including the geochemical behaviour of elements in the processes of their extraction, remobilization, transport and mineralization at room temperature and below 0C. This book focuses on the low-temperature geochemical behaviour of precious metals, REE, some individual dispersed elements and some non-metallic elements and their minergenesis at low-temperatures. The book deals with the following topics: 1) geochemistry of selected low-temperature deposits or prospects (horizons); 2) geochemistry of elements during diagenesis, buried metamorphism and low-grade metamorphism; 3) remobilization, transport and precipitation of some ore-forming elements under low-temperature conditions; 4) water/rock interactions in low-temperature open systems

Groundwater Geochemistry

A Practical Guide to Modeling of Natural and Contaminated Aquatic Systems

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540746683

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 3538

To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Biophysical Chemistry

Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, and the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: John T. Edsall,Jeffries Wyman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483270580

Category: Science

Page: 716

View: 7377

Biophysical Chemistry, Volume I: Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, and the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter focuses on the biological aspects of the properties of matter, putting emphasis on the chemical elements, water and carbon dioxide, complex molecules, and proteins. The publication first elaborates on biochemistry and geochemistry, water and its biological significance, and the problems of protein structure. Discussions focus on the number of peptide chains in the molecule and nature of terminal groups, latent heat of fusion, characteristics of the amino acids derived from proteins, expansion of water in freezing, and the relative abundance of chemical elements in the universe. The text then takes a look at thermodynamics and the application to polar molecules and ionic solutions of electrostatics, including free energy of a charged sphere, image charges, salting-out effect, expressions for the change of fundamental thermodynamic functions, and chemical potentials. The book examines the conductivity of electrolytes, acid-base equilibria, and polybasic acids, bases, and ampholytes, including proteins. Topics include ionization of cysteine, isoelectric points of polyvalent ampholytes, hemoglobin, nature of acids and bases, measurement of conductivity, electrolytes as conductors, and the moving boundary method of determining transference numbers. The manuscript is a dependable reference for chemists and researchers interested in thermodynamics, electrostatics, and the biological value of the properties of matter.

Formulation and Stoichiometry

A Review of Fundamental Chemistry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Emil J. Margolis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146846048X

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 4641

The purpose of this book is to interpret more sensitively some of the offerings of the standard text book of general chemistry. As a supplement thereto, it covers various aspects of formulation and stoichiometry that are frequently treated far too perfunctorily or, in many instances, are not considered at all. The inadequate attention often accorded by the comprehensive text to many topics within its proper purview arises, understandably enough, from the numerous broad and highly varied objectives set for the first year of the curriculum for modern chemistry in colleges and universities. For the serious student this means, more often than not, the frustrations of questions unanswered. The amplification that this book proffers in the immediate area of its subject covers the equations representing internal redox reactions, not only of the simple but, also, of the multiple disproportionations of which the complexities often discourage an undertaking despite the challenge they offer: distinctions to be observed in the balancing of equations in con trasting alkali-basic and ammonia-basic reaction media; quantitative contributions made by the ionization or dissociation effects of electrolytes to the colligative properties of their solutions; intensive application of the universal reaction principle of chemical equivalence to the stoichiometry of oxidation and reduction.

Water Chemistry, Laboratory Manual

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Vernon L. Snoeyink,David Jenkins

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471062721

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 8438

A first-level text stressing chemistry of natural and polluted water and its application to waste-water treatment. Discusses principles of chemical kinetics, dilute solution equilibria, effects of temperature and ionic strength, and thermodynamics in relation to water chemistry. Strong emphasis given to graphical procedures. Contains numerous example problems.

Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Michel Soustelle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1848218699

Category: Science

Page: 309

View: 451

This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been paid to the rigor of mathematical developments. This sixth volume is made up of two parts. The first part focuses on the study of ionic equilibria in water or non-aqueous solvents. The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. Part 2 discusses electrochemical thermodynamics, with the study of two groups: electrodes and electrochemical cells. The book concludes with the study of potential-pH diagrams and their generalization in an aqueous or non-aqueous medium.

Acidity and Basicity

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Eike Brunner,Harry Pfeifer,Aline Auroux,Johannes Lercher,A Jentys,Axel Brait,Edoardo Garrone,Francois Fajula

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540739647

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 4359

This is the first handbook on zeolites and other microporous materials. It is an up-to-date, highly sophisticated collection of information for those who deal with zeolites in industry or at academic institutions as well as being a guide for newcomers.

Calcium Orthophosphates

Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814364177

Category: Science

Page: 850

View: 8848

Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. A comprehensive overview of calcium orthophosphates, this book highlights their importance and biomedical uses.

Ionic Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Jean-Louis Burgot

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441983813

Category: Science

Page: 772

View: 2321

This book of general analytical chemistry – as opposed to instrumental analysis or separation methods – in aqueous solutions is focuses on fundamentals, which is an area too often overlooked in the literature. Explanations abound of the chemical and physical principles of different operations of chemical analysis in aqueous solutions. Once these principle are firmly established, numerous examples of applications are also given.

Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: John David Hem,Geological Sur U . S. Geological Survey

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781410223081

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 2470

The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from activities of man. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural fresh water. The ways in which solutes are taken up or precipitated and the amounts present in solution are influenced by many environmental factors, especially climate, structure and position of rock strata, and biochemical effects associated with life cycles of plants and animals, both microscopic and macroscopic. Taken all together and in application with the further influence of the general circulation of all water in the hydrologic cycle, the chemical principles and environmental factors form a basis for the developing science of natural-water chemistry. Fundamental data used in the determination of water quality are obtained by the chemical analysis of water samples in the laboratory or onsite sensing of chemical properties in the field. Sampling is complicated by changes in composition of moving water and the effects of particulate suspended material. Most of the constituents determined are reported in gravimetric units, usually milligrams per liter or milliequivalents per liter. More than 60 constituents and properties are included in water analyses frequently enough to provide a basis for consideration of the sources from which each is generally derived, most probable forms of elements and ions in solution, solubility controls, expected concentration ranges and other chemical factors. Concentrations of elements that are commonly present in amounts less than a few tens of micrograms per liter cannot always be easily explained, but present information suggests many are controlled by solubility of hydroxide or carbonate or by sorption on solid particles. Chemical analyses may be grouped and statistically evaluated by averages, frequency distributions, or ion correlations to summarize large volumes of data. Graphing of analyses or of groups of analyses aids in showing chemical relationships among waters, probable sources of solutes, areal water-quality regimen, and water-resources evaluation. Graphs may show water type based on chemical composition, relationships among ions, or groups of ions in individual waters or many waters considered simultaneously. The relationships of water quality to hydrologic parameters, such as stream discharge rate or ground-water flow patterns, can be shown by mathematical equations, graphs, and maps. About 75 water analyses selected from the literature are tabulated to illustrate the relationships described, and some of these, along with many others that are not tabulated, are also utilized in demonstrating graphing and mapping techniques. Relationships of water composition to source rock type are illustrated by graphs of some of the tabulated analyses. Activities of man maymodify water composition extensively through direct effects of pollution and indirect results of water development, such as intrusion of sea water in ground-water aquifiers. Water-quality standards for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use have been published by various agencies. Irrigation project requirements for water quality are particularly intricate. Fundamental knowledge of processes that control natural water composition is required for rational management of water quality.

Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: J.W. Morse,F.T. Mackenzie

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080869629

Category: Science

Page: 706

View: 2871

This book covers the more basic aspects of carbonate minerals and their interaction with aqueous solutions; modern marine carbonate formation and sediments; carbonate diagenesis (early marine, meteoric and burial); the global cycle of carbon and human intervention; and the role of sedimentary carbonates as indicators of stability and changes in the Earth's surface environment. The selected subjects are presented with sufficient background information to enable the non-specialist to understand the basic chemistry involved. Tested on classes taught by the authors, and approved by the students, this comprehensive volume will prove itself to be a valuable reference source to students, researchers and professionals in the fields of oceanography, geochemistry, petrology, environmental science and petroleum geology.

Polymers in Nanomedicine

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Shigeru Kunugi,Tetsuji Yamaoka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642278558

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 284

View: 560

Functional Polymer Conjugates for Medicinal Nucleic Acid Delivery, by Ernst Wagner Biodegradable Nanoparticles as Vaccine Adjuvants and Delivery Systems: Regulation of Immune Responses by Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, by Takami Akagi, Masanori Baba and Mitsuru Akashi Biodegradable Polymeric Assemblies for Biomedical Materials, by Yuichi Ohya, Akihiro Takahashi and Koji Nagahama PEGylation Technology in Nanomedicine, by Yutaka Ikeda and Yukio Nagasaki Cytocompatible Hydrogel Composed of Phospholipid Polymers for Regulation of Cell Functions, by Kazuhiko Ishihara, Yan Xu and Tomohiro Konno Design of Biointerfaces for Regenerative Medicine, by Yusuke Arima, Koichi Kato, Yuji Teramura and Hiroo Iwata Advances in Tissue Engineering Approaches to Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Cells and Polymeric Scaffolds for Nucleus Pulposus Regeneration, by Jeremy J. Mercuri and Dan T. Simionescu Functionalized Biocompatible Nanoparticles for Site-Specific Imaging and Therapeutics, by Ranu K. Dutta, Prashant K. Sharma, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Avinash C. Pandey