Inventing the Criminal

A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

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Author: Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807861049

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 9804

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of biological research into the causes of crime, but the origins of this kind of research date back to the late nineteenth century. Here, Richard Wetzell presents the first history of German criminology from Imperial Germany through the Weimar Republic to the end of the Third Reich, a period that provided a unique test case for the perils associated with biological explanations of crime. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources from criminological, legal, and psychiatric literature, Wetzell shows that German biomedical research on crime predominated over sociological research and thus contributed to the rise of the eugenics movement and the eventual targeting of criminals for eugenic measures by the Nazi regime. However, he also demonstrates that the development of German criminology was characterized by a constant tension between the criminologists' hereditarian biases and an increasing methodological sophistication that prevented many of them from endorsing the crude genetic determinism and racism that characterized so much of Hitler's regime. As a result, proposals for the sterilization of criminals remained highly controversial during the Nazi years, suggesting that Nazi biological politics left more room for contention than has often been assumed.

Inventing the Public Enemy

The Gangster in American Culture, 1918-1934

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Author: David E. Ruth

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226732183

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 1491

In this richly detailed account of mass media images, David Ruth looks at Al Capone and other "invented" gangsters of the 1920s and 1930s. The subject of innumerable newspaper and magazine articles, scores of novels, and hundreds of Hollywood movies, the gangster was a compelling figure for Americans preoccupied with crime and the social turmoil it symbolized. Ruth shows that the media gangster was less a reflection of reality than a projection created from Americans' values, concerns, and ideas about what would sell. We see efficient criminal executives demonstrating the multifarious uses of organization; dapper, big-spending gangsters highlighting the promises and perils of the emerging consumer society; and gunmen and molls guiding an uncertain public through the shifting terrain of modern gender roles. In this fascinating study, Ruth reveals how the public enemy provides a far-ranging critique of modern culture.

Lovable Crooks and Loathsome Jews

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Author: T. S. Kord

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476670129

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 5452

 In the years leading up to the World Wars, Germany and Austria saw an unprecedented increase in the study and depiction of the criminal. Science, journalism and crime fiction were obsessed with delinquents while ignoring the social causes of crime. As criminologists measured criminals' heads and debated biological predestination, court reporters and crime writers wrote side-splitting or heart-rending stories featuring one of the most popular characters ever created--the hilarious or piteous crook. The author examines the figure of the crook and notions of "Jewish" criminality in a range of antisemitic writing, from Nazi propaganda to court reporting to forgotten classics of crime fiction.

The Criminal Brain

Understanding Biological Theories of Crime

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Author: Nicole Rafter

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814776566

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 1193

What is the relationship between criminality and biology? Nineteenth-century phrenologists insisted that criminality was innate, a trait inherent in the offender’s brain matter. While they were eventually repudiated as pseudo-scientists and self-deluded charlatans, today the pendulum has swung back. Both criminologists and biologists have begun to speak of a tantalizing but disturbing possibility: that criminality may be inherited as a set of genetic deficits that place one at risk for theft, violence, and sexual deviance. If that is so, we may soon confront proposals for genetically modifying “at risk” fetuses or doctoring up criminals so their brains operate like those of law-abiding citizens. In The Criminal Brain, well-known criminologist Nicole Rafter traces the sometimes violent history of these criminological theories and provides an introduction to current biological theories of crime, or biocriminology, with predictions of how these theories are likely to develop in the future. What do these new theories assert? Are they as dangerous as their forerunners, which the Nazis and other eugenicists used to sterilize, incarcerate, and even execute thousands of supposed “born” criminals? How can we prepare for a future in which leaders may propose crime-control programs based on biology? Enhanced with fascinating illustrations and written in lively prose, The Criminal Brain examines these issues in light of the history of ideas about the criminal brain. By tracing the birth and growth of enduring ideas in criminology, as well as by recognizing historical patterns in the interplay of politics and science, she offers ways to evaluate new theories of the criminal brain that may radically reshape ideas about the causes of criminal behavior.

Inventing the Pinkertons; or, Spies, Sleuths, Mercenaries, and Thugs

Being a story of the nation’s most famous (and infamous) detective agency

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Author: S. Paul O'Hara

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421420570

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 786

Between 1865 and 1937, Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency was at the center of countless conflicts between capital and labor, bandits and railroads, and strikers and state power. Some believed that the detectives were protecting society from dangerous criminal conspiracies; others thought that armed Pinkertons were capital’s tool to crush worker dissent. Yet the image of the Pinkerton detective also inspired romantic and sensationalist novels, reflected shifting ideals of Victorian manhood, and embodied a particular kind of rough frontier justice. Inventing the Pinkertons examines the evolution of the agency as a pivotal institution in the cultural history of American monopoly capitalism. Historian S. Paul O’Hara intertwines political, social, and cultural history to reveal how Scottish-born founder Allan Pinkerton insinuated his way to power and influence as a purveyor of valuable (and often wildly wrong) intelligence in the Union cause. During Reconstruction, Pinkerton turned his agents into icons of law and order in the Wild West. Finally, he transformed his firm into a for-rent private army in the war of industry against labor. Having begun life as peddlers of information and guardians of mail bags, the Pinkertons became armed mercenaries, protecting scabs and corporate property from angry strikers. O’Hara argues that American capitalists used the Pinkertons to enforce new structures of economic and political order. Yet the infamy of the Pinkerton agent also gave critics and working communities a villain against which to frame their resistance to the new industrial order. Ultimately, Inventing the Pinkertons is a gripping look at how the histories of American capitalism, industrial folklore, and the nation-state converged.

Identifying the English

A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present

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Author: Edward Higgs

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441138013

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 2062

Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.

In the Shadow of Gotham

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Author: Stefanie Pintoff

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141965037

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 1833

At the dawn of the twentieth century, a deranged killer is on the prowl. New York, 1905. After losing his fiancee in the General Slocum ferry disaster, Detective Simon Ziele transferred to a country town north of Manhattan in the hope of escaping his grief. But only months later he's faced with the shocking murder of a young girl - battered to death in her bedroom on a cold winter's afternoon. And when Alistair Sinclair, one of Columbia University's most noted criminologists learns about the case, he realises it bears an uncanny resemblance to the deranged mutterings of one his research subjects. Ziele must work with Sinclair to determine whether his patient - with a terrifying history of violent behaviour and brutal fantasies - did indeed seek out this innocent young victim ... before the vicious murderer strikes again. In the Shadow of Gotham tells the atmospheric and gripping tale of a haunted man who must search for a killer, while on the run from his own demons ...

The Police Power

Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government

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Author: Markus Dirk Dubber

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231506953

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 8896

Mention the phrase Homeland Security and heated debates emerge about state uses and abuses of legal authority. This timely book is a comprehensive treatise on the constitutional and legal history behind the power of the modern state to police its citizens. Dubber explores the roots of the power to police—the most expansive and least limitable of governmental powers—by focusing on its most obvious and problematic manifestation: criminal law. He argues that the defining characteristics of this power, including the inability to accurately define it, reflect its origins in the discretionary and virtually limitless patriarchal power of the householder over his household. The paradox of patriarchal police power as the most troubling yet least scrutinized of governmental powers can begin to be resolved by subjecting this branch of government to the critical analysis it merits. Dubber shows us that the question must become how can the police power and criminal law together serve the goals of social equity that define and give direction to contemporary democratic societies? This book goes to the heart of this neglected but crucial topic.

Beyond the Prison Gates

Punishment and Welfare in Germany, 1850-1933

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Author: Warren Rosenblum

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469606763

Category: Law

Page: 344

View: 1660

Germany today has one of the lowest incarceration rates in the industrialized world, and social welfare principles play an essential role at all levels of the German criminal justice system. Warren Rosenblum examines the roots of this social approach to criminal policy in the reform movements of the Wilhelmine and Weimar periods, when reformers strove to replace state institutions of control and incarceration with private institutions of protective supervision. Reformers believed that private charities and volunteers could diagnose and treat social pathologies in a way that coercive state institutions could not. The expansion of welfare for criminals set the stage for a more economical system of punishment, Rosenblum argues, but it also opened the door to new, more expansive controls over individuals marked as "asocial." With the reformers' success, the issue of who had power over welfare became increasingly controversial and dangerous. Other historians have suggested that the triumph of eugenics in the 1890s was predicated upon the abandonment of liberal and Christian assumptions about human malleability. Rosenblum demonstrates, however, that the turn to "criminal biology" was not a reaction against social reform, but rather an effort to rescue its legitimacy.

Inventing the Individual

The Origins of Western Liberalism

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Author: Larry Siedentop

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674417534

Category: Political Science

Page: 433

View: 6851

Here, in a grand narrative spanning 1,800 years of European history, a distinguished political philosopher firmly rejects Western liberalism’s usual account of itself: its emergence in opposition to religion in the early modern era. Larry Siedentop argues instead that liberal thought is, in its underlying assumptions, the offspring of the Church.

Deleuzian Events

Writing History

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Author: Hanjo Berressem,Leyla Haferkamp

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643101740

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 381

View: 5084

Deleuzian Events: Writing / History brings together articles that deal with Gilles Deleuze's concept of "the event," many of them written by leading Deleuze scholars. The eminently transdisciplinary collection relates the Deleuzian event to the larger cultural field, addressing not only the philosophy of the event, but also its history, its politics and its presence in the arts. Among the variety of topics are zeta-physics, modern dance and postcolonial history. It is indispensable reading for anyone interested in how to make Deleuzian philosophy a productive force within contemporary life.

Engineering Society

The Role of the Human and Social Sciences in Modern Societies, 1880-1980

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Author: Kerstin Brückweh,Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284501

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 728

Explaining crime by reference to abnormalities of the brain is just one example of how the human and social sciences have influenced the approach to social problems in Western societies since 1880. Focusing on applications such as penal policy, therapy, and marketing, this volume examines how these sciences have become embedded in society.

Inventing the Savage

The Social Construction of Native American Criminality

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Author: Luana Ross

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292770847

Category: Social Science

Page: 314

View: 8348

Luana Ross writes, "Native Americans disappear into Euro-American institutions of confinement at alarming rates. People from my reservation appeared to simply vanish and magically return. [As a child] I did not realize what a 'real' prison was and did not give it any thought. I imagined this as normal; that all families had relatives who went away and then returned." In this pathfinding study, Ross draws upon the life histories of imprisoned Native American women to demonstrate how race/ethnicity, gender, and class contribute to the criminalizing of various behaviors and subsequent incarceration rates. Drawing on the Native women's own words, she reveals the violence in their lives prior to incarceration, their respective responses to it, and how those responses affect their eventual criminalization and imprisonment. Comparisons with the experiences of white women in the same prison underline the significant role of race in determining women's experiences within the criminal justice system.

Inventing the Enemy

Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia

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Author: Wendy Z. Goldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498010

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4275

Inventing the Enemy uses stories of personal relationships to explore the behaviour of ordinary people during Stalin's terror. Communist Party leaders strongly encouraged ordinary citizens and party members to 'unmask the hidden enemy' and people responded by flooding the secret police and local authorities with accusations. By 1937, every workplace was convulsed by hyper-vigilance, intense suspicion and the hunt for hidden enemies. Spouses, co-workers, friends and relatives disavowed and denounced each other. People confronted hideous dilemmas. Forced to lie to protect loved ones, they struggled to reconcile political imperatives and personal loyalties. Workplaces were turned into snake pits. The strategies that people used to protect themselves - naming names, pre-emptive denunciations, and shifting blame - all helped to spread the terror. Inventing the Enemy, a history of the terror in five Moscow factories, explores personal relationships and individual behaviour within a pervasive political culture of 'enemy hunting'.

Inventing the addict

drugs, race, and sexuality in nineteenth-century British and American literature

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Author: Susan Marjorie Zieger

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 6021

Reconstructs the literary and cultural history of addiction from the nineteenth to the twentieth century.

Verbrechensbekämpfung im Anstaltsstaat

Psychiatrie, Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform in Deutschland 1871-1933

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Author: Christian Müller

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525351413

Category: History

Page: 337

View: 7845

Der Aufstieg der naturwissenschaftlich orientierten Kriminologie rüttelte im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert an den Grundlagen der Strafrechtspflege. Immer häufiger stellten psychiatrische Sachverständige die Unzurechnungsfähigkeit eines Angeklagten fest. Medizinische Erklärungen kriminellen Verhaltens verdrängten die Annahme der Willensfreiheit, auf der das strafrechtliche Prinzip der Schuldvergeltung beruhte. Neue Ansätze der Kriminalpolitik waren gefragt, als die biologische ý:Abnormität9 des Verbrechers zum :Normalfall9 wurde: Die Strafe sollte sich nicht mehr an der Tat, sondern am Täter orientieren. Die :Unschädlichmachung9 der :Gewohnheitsverbrecher9 und die :Resozialisierung9 der :Gelegenheitsverbrecher9 wurden zu Hauptzielen einer Strafrechtsreformbewegung. Christian Müllers Studie beleuchtet die Medikalisierung der Kriminalität als Teil jener umfassenden Verwissenschaftlichung des Sozialen, die sich in der Zeit des Kaiserreichs und der Weimarer Republik vollzog.

Inventing the Television

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Author: Joanne Richter

Publisher: Crabtree Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780778728139

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

View: 2804

Describes how television was invented following other communication breakthroughs and its development into the plasma-screen and cable-based televisions of today.

Inventing the American presidency

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Author: Thomas E. Cronin

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 404

View: 3756

Inventing the American Presidency--in fourteen essays supplemented by relevant sections of and Amendments to the Constitution and five Federalist essays by Hamilton--provide the reader with the essential historical and political analyses of who and what shaped the presidency. What was decided in Philadelphia in 1787 and why? Why have a presidency? Who could be elected? How? For how long a tenure? With what responsibilities and powers? What were key debates during the founding period, and what questions have endured? For students of the American presidency, these essays will be must reading. "Edited by an influential presidential scholar, this collection marks the bicentennial of the office of the presidency. It brings together a wealth of information and insights on the construction of the nation's highest office."--Jeffrey K. Tulis, author of The Rhetorical Presidency and coeditor of The Presidency in the Constitutional Order.

The Criminal Recorder

Or, Biographical Sketches of Notorious Public Characters, Including Murderers, Traitors, Pirates, Mutineers, Incendiaries ... and Other Noted Persons who Have Suffered the Sentence of the Law for Criminal Offenses ; Embracing a Variety of Curious and Singular Cases, Anecdotes, &c

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Crime

Page: N.A

View: 9590