Inventing the Criminal

A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

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Author: Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807861049

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 5077

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of biological research into the causes of crime, but the origins of this kind of research date back to the late nineteenth century. Here, Richard Wetzell presents the first history of German criminology from Imperial Germany through the Weimar Republic to the end of the Third Reich, a period that provided a unique test case for the perils associated with biological explanations of crime. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources from criminological, legal, and psychiatric literature, Wetzell shows that German biomedical research on crime predominated over sociological research and thus contributed to the rise of the eugenics movement and the eventual targeting of criminals for eugenic measures by the Nazi regime. However, he also demonstrates that the development of German criminology was characterized by a constant tension between the criminologists' hereditarian biases and an increasing methodological sophistication that prevented many of them from endorsing the crude genetic determinism and racism that characterized so much of Hitler's regime. As a result, proposals for the sterilization of criminals remained highly controversial during the Nazi years, suggesting that Nazi biological politics left more room for contention than has often been assumed.

Inventing the Public Enemy

The Gangster in American Culture, 1918-1934

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Author: David E. Ruth

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226732183

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 1565

In this richly detailed account of mass media images, David Ruth looks at Al Capone and other "invented" gangsters of the 1920s and 1930s. The subject of innumerable newspaper and magazine articles, scores of novels, and hundreds of Hollywood movies, the gangster was a compelling figure for Americans preoccupied with crime and the social turmoil it symbolized. Ruth shows that the media gangster was less a reflection of reality than a projection created from Americans' values, concerns, and ideas about what would sell. We see efficient criminal executives demonstrating the multifarious uses of organization; dapper, big-spending gangsters highlighting the promises and perils of the emerging consumer society; and gunmen and molls guiding an uncertain public through the shifting terrain of modern gender roles. In this fascinating study, Ruth reveals how the public enemy provides a far-ranging critique of modern culture.

Lovable Crooks and Loathsome Jews

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Author: T. S. Kord

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476670129

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 5379

 In the years leading up to the World Wars, Germany and Austria saw an unprecedented increase in the study and depiction of the criminal. Science, journalism and crime fiction were obsessed with delinquents while ignoring the social causes of crime. As criminologists measured criminals' heads and debated biological predestination, court reporters and crime writers wrote side-splitting or heart-rending stories featuring one of the most popular characters ever created--the hilarious or piteous crook. The author examines the figure of the crook and notions of "Jewish" criminality in a range of antisemitic writing, from Nazi propaganda to court reporting to forgotten classics of crime fiction.

Inventing the Pinkertons; or, Spies, Sleuths, Mercenaries, and Thugs

Being a story of the nation’s most famous (and infamous) detective agency

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Author: S. Paul O'Hara

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421420570

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 7743

Between 1865 and 1937, Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency was at the center of countless conflicts between capital and labor, bandits and railroads, and strikers and state power. Some believed that the detectives were protecting society from dangerous criminal conspiracies; others thought that armed Pinkertons were capital’s tool to crush worker dissent. Yet the image of the Pinkerton detective also inspired romantic and sensationalist novels, reflected shifting ideals of Victorian manhood, and embodied a particular kind of rough frontier justice. Inventing the Pinkertons examines the evolution of the agency as a pivotal institution in the cultural history of American monopoly capitalism. Historian S. Paul O’Hara intertwines political, social, and cultural history to reveal how Scottish-born founder Allan Pinkerton insinuated his way to power and influence as a purveyor of valuable (and often wildly wrong) intelligence in the Union cause. During Reconstruction, Pinkerton turned his agents into icons of law and order in the Wild West. Finally, he transformed his firm into a for-rent private army in the war of industry against labor. Having begun life as peddlers of information and guardians of mail bags, the Pinkertons became armed mercenaries, protecting scabs and corporate property from angry strikers. O’Hara argues that American capitalists used the Pinkertons to enforce new structures of economic and political order. Yet the infamy of the Pinkerton agent also gave critics and working communities a villain against which to frame their resistance to the new industrial order. Ultimately, Inventing the Pinkertons is a gripping look at how the histories of American capitalism, industrial folklore, and the nation-state converged.

Inventing the addict

drugs, race, and sexuality in nineteenth-century British and American literature

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Author: Susan Marjorie Zieger

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 432

Reconstructs the literary and cultural history of addiction from the nineteenth to the twentieth century.

Inventing the American presidency

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Author: Thomas E. Cronin

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 404

View: 4004

Inventing the American Presidency--in fourteen essays supplemented by relevant sections of and Amendments to the Constitution and five Federalist essays by Hamilton--provide the reader with the essential historical and political analyses of who and what shaped the presidency. What was decided in Philadelphia in 1787 and why? Why have a presidency? Who could be elected? How? For how long a tenure? With what responsibilities and powers? What were key debates during the founding period, and what questions have endured? For students of the American presidency, these essays will be must reading. "Edited by an influential presidential scholar, this collection marks the bicentennial of the office of the presidency. It brings together a wealth of information and insights on the construction of the nation's highest office."--Jeffrey K. Tulis, author of The Rhetorical Presidency and coeditor of The Presidency in the Constitutional Order.

Engineering Society

The Role of the Human and Social Sciences in Modern Societies, 1880-1980

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Author: Kerstin Brückweh,Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284501

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 556

Explaining crime by reference to abnormalities of the brain is just one example of how the human and social sciences have influenced the approach to social problems in Western societies since 1880. Focusing on applications such as penal policy, therapy, and marketing, this volume examines how these sciences have become embedded in society.

Inventing Criminology

Essays on the Rise of 'Homo Criminalis'

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Author: Piers Beirne,Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies in the Department of Criminology Piers Beirne

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791412756

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 6528

This book traces the intellectual history of criminology, analyzing the influence of early classical European concepts of criminality and the development of positivist methodologies. From Cesare Beccaria's "Dei delitti e delle pene" to Charles Goring's "The English Convict," Beirne offers refreshing and challenging insights on the intellectual and social histories of a variety of important concepts and movements in criminology.

The Criminal Law Journal

A Monthly Legal Publication Containing Full Reports of All Reported Criminal Cases of the High Courts, Etc., in India

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Criminal law

Page: N.A

View: 6059

Beyond the Racial State

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Author: Devin O. Pendas,Mark Roseman,Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107165458

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 5587

The 'racial state' has become a familiar shorthand for the Third Reich, encapsulating its raison d'tre, ambitions, and the underlying logic of its genocidal violence. The Nazi racial state's agenda is generally understood as a fundamental reshaping of society based on a new hierarchy of racial value. However, this volume argues that it is time to reappraise what race really meant under Nazism, and to question and complicate its relationship to the Nazis' agenda, actions, and appeal. Based on a wealth of new research, the contributors show that racial knowledge and racial discourse in Nazi Germany were far more contradictory and disparate than we have come to assume. They shed new light on the ways that racial policy worked and was understood, and consider race's function, content, and power in relation to society and nation, and above all, in relation to the extraordinary violence unleashed by the Nazis.

Teaching about the Holocaust and the History of Genocide in the 21st Century

90th European Teachers' Seminar, Donaueschingen, Germany, 6-10 November 2000 : Report

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Council of Europe

ISBN: 9287152926

Category: Genocide

Page: 135

View: 2534

This publication contains the reports of a number of expert contributors to a conference, held in Germany in November 2000, to discuss the project which aims to produce teaching packs about the Holocaust. Topics discussed at the conference include: the reasons for teaching about the Holocaust and the mechanisms which lead to genocide; a review of German history during 1933-1945, as reflected in Anglo-American literature of the present; visits of memorial sites; the use of oral testimonies concerning the Holocaust; modern technology and archives; and the Kristallnacht pogrom.

Twitter

Eine wahre Geschichte von Geld, Macht, Freundschaft und Verrat

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Author: Nick Bilton

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593399067

Category: Political Science

Page: 335

View: 2906

Kontakt zu Freunden halten - das ist eine der Ideen hinter Twitter. Doch einer der Gründer erreichte für sich persönlich das Gegenteil: Intrigen machten aus Kumpeln bittere Feinde. "New York Times"-Reporter Nick Bilton hat darüber jetzt ein Buch geschrieben. Twitter wächst, trotz technischer Probleme, aber wer sich dafür näher interessiert, ist bei Nick Bilton falsch aufgehoben: Hier geht es um die Egokämpfe und Machtspiele, nicht um Feinheiten der Serversteuerung oder der Medienrevolution.

Inventing a non-homeless future

a public policy agenda for preventing homelessness

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Author: Madeleine R. Stoner

Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 387

View: 1262

Injustice the regime

documentary evidence of the systematic violation of legal rights in the Soviet occupied territory of Germany

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Author: Untersuchungsausschuss Freiheitlicher Juristen,Germany (West). Bundesministerium für Gesamtdeutsche Fragen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Civil rights

Page: 229

View: 6823

Inventing Jewish Ritual

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Author: Vanessa L. Ochs

Publisher: Jewish Publication Society

ISBN: 9780827608344

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 1569

Vanessa Ochs invites her readers to explore how Jewish practice can be more meaningful through renewing, reshaping, and even creating new rituals, such as naming ceremonies for welcoming baby girls, healing services, Miriam’s cup, mitzvah days, egalitarian wedding practices, and commitment ceremonies. We think of rituals—the patterned ways of doing things that have shared and often multiple meanings— as being steeped in tradition and therefore unalterable. But rituals have always been reinvented. When we perform ancient rituals in a particular place and time they are no longer quite the same rituals they once were. Each is a debut, an innovation: this Sabbath meal, this Passover seder, this wedding—firsts in their own unique ways. In the last 30 years there has been a surge of interest in reinventing ritual, in what is called minhag America. Ochs describes the range and diversity of interest in this Jewish American experience and examines how it reflects tradition as it revives Jewish culture and faith. And she shows us how to create our own ritual objects, sacred spaces, ceremonies, and liturgies that can be paths to greater personal connection with history and with holiness: baby-naming ceremonies for girls, divorce rituals, Shabbat practices, homemade haggadahs, ritual baths, healing services. Through these and more, we see that American Judaism is a dynamic cultural process very much open to change and a source of great personal and communal meaning. The ceramic “Tree of Life” spice container that appears on the cover of Inventing Jewish Ritual is by Susan Garson of Garson and Pakele Studios, www.garsonpakele.com