The Physics of Solids

Essentials and Beyond

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Author: Eleftherios N. Economou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642020698

Category: Science

Page: 865

View: 4794

Solid State Physics emphasizes a few fundamental principles and extracts from them a wealth of information. This approach also unifies an enormous and diverse subject which seems to consist of too many disjoint pieces. The book starts with the absolutely minimum of formal tools, emphasizes the basic principles, and employs physical reasoning (" a little thinking and imagination" to quote R. Feynman) to obtain results. Continuous comparison with experimental data leads naturally to a gradual refinement of the concepts and to more sophisticated methods. After the initial overview with an emphasis on the physical concepts and the derivation of results by dimensional analysis, The Physics of Solids deals with the Jellium Model (JM) and the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) approaches to solids and introduces the basic concepts and information regarding metals and semiconductors.

Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure

Textile, Leather and Paper

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Author: Sophie Duquesne,Carole Magniez,Giovanni Camino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540719202

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 9784

This is the first complete overview of the present state of the art of flexible barrier materials such as textile, paper and leather, including methods for barrier evaluation. It will be of interest to readers in industries, consumers, and members of the scientific community. The scope of the field is clearly delineated here for the first time, and it deals with a number of specific topics such as barrier to fire and antibacterial properties.

Site Symmetry in Crystals

Theory and Applications

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Author: Robert Evarestov,Vyacheslav P. Smirnov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642974422

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 2992

The history of applications of space group theory to solid state physics goes back more than five decades. The periodicity of the lattice and the definition of a k-space were the corner-stones of this application. Prof. Volker Heine in Vol. 35 of Solid State Physics (1980) noted that, even in perfect crystals, where k-space methods are appropriate, the local properties (such as the charge densi ty, bond order, etc.) are defined by the local environment of one atom. Natural ly, "k-space methods" are not appropriate for crystals with point defects, sur faces and interfaces, or for amorphous materials. In such cases the real-space approach favored by chemists to describe molecules has turned out to be very useful. To span the gulf between the k-space and real space methods it is helpful to recall that atoms in crystalline solids possess a site symmetry defined by the symmetry of the local environment of the atom occupying the site. The site symmetry concept is familiar to crystallographers and commonly used by them in the description of crystalline structures. However, in the application of group theory to solid state physics problems, the site symmetry approach has been used only for the last ten to fifteen years. In our book Methods oj Group Theory in the Quantum Chemistry oj Solids published in Russian in 1987 by Leningrad University Press we gave the first results of this application to the theory of electronic structure of crystals.

Magnetic Nanostructures

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Author: Bekir Aktas,Lenar Tagirov,Faik Mikailov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540493360

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 8197

This volume addresses the exciting and rapidly developing topic of ultrahigh-density magnetic data storage. It is the most advanced book on magnetic nanostructures, basics and applications. It combines modern topics in nanomagnetism with issues relating to the fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures. This book will be of interest to R and D scientists and it provides an accessible introduction to the essential issues.

Micro- and Macro-Properties of Solids

Thermal, Mechanical and Dielectric Properties

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Author: Dinker Sirdeshmukh,Lalitha Sirdeshmukh,K. G. Subhadra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540317864

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 5996

This book addresses the most important aspects of solid state physics, reviewing basic properties, related experimental techniques, and summarizing research over six decades. In addition, Micro- and Macro-Properties of Solids provides data on new materials such as rare-earth metals, semiconductors, ferroelectrics, mixed-valence compounds, superionic conductors, optical and optoelectronic materials and biomaterials.

Electrochemically Engineered Nanoporous Materials

Methods, Properties and Applications

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Author: Dusan Losic,Abel Santos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319203460

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 364

View: 9106

This book provides in-depth knowledge about the fabrications, structures, properties and applications of three outstanding electrochemically engineered nanoporous materials including porous silicon, nanoporous alumina and nanotubular titania. The book integrates three major themes describing these materials. The first theme is on porous silicon reviewing the methods for preparation by electrochemical etching, properties and methods for surface functionalization relevant for biosensing applications. Biomedical applications of porous silicon are major focus, described in several chapters reviewing recent developments on bioanalysis, emerging capture probes and drug delivery. The second theme on nanoporous alumina starts with describing the concept of self-organized electrochemical process used for synthesis nanopore and nanotube structures of valve metal oxides and reviewing recent development and progress on this field. The following chapters are focused mainly on optical properties and biosensing application of nanoporous alumina providing the reader with the depth of understanding of the structure controlled optical and photonic properties and design of optical biosensing devices using different detection principles such as photoluminescence, surface plasmon resonance, reflective spectrometry, wave guiding, Raman scattering etc. The third theme is focused on nanotubular titania reviewing three key applications including photocatalysis, solar cells and drug delivery. The book represents an important resource for academics, researchers, industry professionals, post-graduate and high-level undergraduate students providing them with both an overview of the current state-of-the-art on these materials and their future developments.

The Role of Topology in Materials

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Author: Sanju Gupta,Avadh Saxena

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319765965

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 7771

This book presents the most important advances in the class of topological materials and discusses the topological characterization, modeling and metrology of materials. Further, it addresses currently emerging characterization techniques such as optical and acoustic, vibrational spectroscopy (Brillouin, infrared, Raman), electronic, magnetic, fluorescence correlation imaging, laser lithography, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and other techniques, including site-selective nanoprobes. The book analyzes the topological aspects to identify and quantify these effects in terms of topology metrics. The topological materials are ubiquitous and range from (i) de novo nanoscale allotropes of carbons in various forms such as nanotubes, nanorings, nanohorns, nanowalls, peapods, graphene, etc. to (ii) metallo-organic frameworks, (iii) helical gold nanotubes, (iv) Möbius conjugated polymers, (v) block co-polymers, (vi) supramolecular assemblies, to (vii) a variety of biological and soft-matter systems, e.g. foams and cellular materials, vesicles of different shapes and genera, biomimetic membranes, and filaments, (viii) topological insulators and topological superconductors, (ix) a variety of Dirac materials including Dirac and Weyl semimetals, as well as (x) knots and network structures. Topological databases and algorithms to model such materials have been also established in this book. In order to understand and properly characterize these important emergent materials, it is necessary to go far beyond the traditional paradigm of microscopic structure–property–function relationships to a paradigm that explicitly incorporates topological aspects from the outset to characterize and/or predict the physical properties and currently untapped functionalities of these advanced materials. Simulation and modeling tools including quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, 3D visualization and tomography are also indispensable. These concepts have found applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and engineering, physical chemistry and biophysics, and the various topics covered in the book have potential applications in connection with novel synthesis techniques, sensing and catalysis. As such, the book offers a unique resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

Quantum Plasmonics

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Author: Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi,Luis Martin-Moreno,Francisco Garcia-Vidal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319458205

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 327

View: 3893

This book presents the latest results of quantum properties of light in the nanostructured environment supporting surface plasmons, including waveguide quantum electrodynamics, quantum emitters, strong-coupling phenomena and lasing in plasmonic structures. Different approaches are described for controlling the emission and propagation of light with extreme light confinement and field enhancement provided by surface plasmons. Recent progress is reviewed in both experimental and theoretical investigations within quantum plasmonics, elucidating the fundamental physical phenomena involved and discussing the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale.

Fundamentals of Semiconductors

Physics and Materials Properties

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Author: Peter YU,Manuel Cardona

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642007101

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 778

View: 816

Excellent bridge between general solid-state physics textbook and research articles packed with providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors "The most striking feature of the book is its modern outlook ... provides a wonderful foundation. The most wonderful feature is its efficient style of exposition ... an excellent book." Physics Today "Presents the theoretical derivations carefully and in detail and gives thorough discussions of the experimental results it presents. This makes it an excellent textbook both for learners and for more experienced researchers wishing to check facts. I have enjoyed reading it and strongly recommend it as a text for anyone working with semiconductors ... I know of no better text ... I am sure most semiconductor physicists will find this book useful and I recommend it to them." Contemporary Physics Offers much new material: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established, deep center known as the DX center, additional problems and the solutions to over fifty of the problems at the end of the various chapters.

Scattering Matrix Approach to Non-stationary Quantum Transport

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Author: Michael V. Moskalets

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848168349

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 1076

The aim of this book is to introduce the basic elements of the scattering matrix approach to transport phenomena in dynamical quantum systems of non-interacting electrons. This approach permits a physically clear and transparent description of transport processes in dynamical mesoscopic systems, promising basic elements of solid-state devices for quantum information processing. One of the key effects, the quantum pump effect, is considered in detail. In addition, the theory for the recently implemented new dynamical source — injecting electrons with time delay much larger than an electron coherence time — is offered. This theory provides a simple description of quantum circuits with such a single-particle source and shows in an unambiguous way that the tunability inherent to the dynamical systems (in contrast to the stationary ones) leads to a number of unexpected but fundamental effects.

Biomimetics in Materials Science

Self-Healing, Self-Lubricating, and Self-Cleaning Materials

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Author: Michael Nosonovsky,Pradeep K. Rohatgi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461409268

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 418

View: 8054

Biomimetics in Materials Science provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of biomimetic materials with self-healing, self-lubricating and self-cleaning properties. These three topics are closely related and constitute rapidly developing areas of study. The field of self-healing materials requires a new conceptual understanding of this biomimetic technology, which is in contrast to traditional engineering processes such as wear and fatigue. Biomimetics in Materials Science is the first monograph to be devoted to these materials. A new theoretical framework for these processes is presented based on the concept of multi-scale structure of entropy and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, together with a detailed review of the available technology. The latter includes experimental, modeling, and simulation results obtained on self-healing/lubricating/cleaning materials since their emergence in the past decade.

Organic Nanostructures for Next Generation Devices

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Author: Katharina Al-Shamery,Horst-Günter Rubahn,Helmut Sitter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540719236

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 9633

This jaw-dropping window on the future is the first comprehensive overview of the fabrication, fundamental properties, and applications of a new class of nanoscaled organic materials. These materials offer incredible scope to scientists wanting to exploit their optical and electronic properties and offer the potential to create a new generation of tiny devices with powerful applications. Altogether, the book offers a unique integration of organic materials science basics, nanostructured organic materials fabrication, and device applications.

Microstructuring of Glasses

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Author: Dagmar Hülsenberg,Alf Harnisch,Alexander Bismarck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540498885

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 4415

This is the first book that explains how to structure glass for micro- and nanophotonic applications. It deals with various glass compositions and their properties, and the interactions between glass and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. The book also explores methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glass as well as methods to produce actual microdevices. It also details methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses.

Spin Physics in Semiconductors

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Author: Mikhail I. Dyakonov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540788204

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 4757

The purpose of this collective book is to present a non-exhaustive survey of sp- related phenomena in semiconductors with a focus on recent research. In some sense it may be regarded as an updated version of theOpticalOrientation book, which was entirely devoted to spin physics in bulk semiconductors. During the 24 years that have elapsed, we have witnessed, on the one hand, an extraordinary development in the wonderful semiconductor physics in two dim- sions with the accompanying revolutionary applications. On the other hand, during the last maybe 15 years there was a strong revival in the interest in spin phen- ena, in particular in low-dimensional semiconductor structures. While in the 1970s and 1980s the entire world population of researchers in the ?eld never exceeded 20 persons, now it can be counted by the hundreds and the number of publications by the thousands. This explosive growth is stimulated, to a large extent, by the hopes that the electron and/or nuclear spins in a semiconductor will help to accomplish the dream of factorizing large numbers by quantum computing and eventually to develop a new spin-based electronics, or “spintronics”. Whether any of this will happen or not, still remains to be seen. Anyway, these ideas have resulted in a large body of interesting and exciting research, which is a good thing by itself. The ?eld of spin physics in semiconductors is extremely rich and interesting with many spectacular effects in optics and transport.

Self Healing Materials

An Alternative Approach to 20 Centuries of Materials Science

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Author: Sybrand van der Zwaag

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402062508

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 388

View: 9818

This book, the first published in this new sub-field of materials science, presents a coherent picture of the design principles and resulting properties of self-healing materials over all material classes, and offsets them to the current design principles for structural materials with improved mechanical properties. The book is not only a valuable asset for professional materials scientists but it is also suitable as a text book for courses at MSc level.

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

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Author: M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N Bhattacharya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319203312

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 279

View: 5359

This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry

Topological Insulators

The Physics of Spin Helicity in Quantum Transport

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Author: Gregory Tkachov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814613266

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 3159

This book is the result of dynamic developments that have occurred in condensed matter physics after the recent discovery of a new class of electronic materials: topological insulators. A topological insulator is a material that behaves as a band insulator in its interior, while acting as a metallic conductor at its surface. The surface current carriers in these systems have Dirac-like nature and are protected by an intrinsic topological order, which is of great interest for both fundamental research and emerging technologies, especially in the fields of electronics, spintronics, and quantum information. The realization of the application potential of topological insulators requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of transport processes in these novel materials. This book explores the origin of the protected Dirac-like states in topological insulators and gives an insight into some of their representative transport properties. These include the quantum spin–Hall effect, nonlocal edge transport, backscattering of helical edge and surface states, weak antilocalization, unconventional triplet p-wave superconductivity, topological bound states, and emergent Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions as well as superconducting Klein tunneling.

Fluid Transport in Nanoporous Materials

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Held in La Colle Sur Loup, France, 16-28 June 2003

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Author: Jacques Fraissard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402043802

Category: Science

Page: 685

View: 8917

The last several years have seen a dramatic increase in the synthesis of new nanoporous materials. The most promising include molecular sieves which are being developed as inorganic or polymeric systems with 0. 3-30nm in pore dimensions. These nanoporous solids have a broad spectrum of applications in chemical and biochemical processes. The unique applications of molecular sieves are based on their sorption and transport selectivity. Yet, the transport processes in nanoporous systems are not understood well. At the same time, the theoretical capabilities have increased exponentially catalyzed by increases in computational capabilities. The interactions between a diffusing species and the host solid are being studied with increasing details and realism. Further, in situ experimental techniques have been developed which give an understanding of the interactions between diffusing species and nanoporous solids that was not available even a few years ago. The time was ripe to bring together these areas of common interest and study to understand what is known and what has yet to be determined concerning transport in nanoporous solids. Molecular sieves are playing an increasing role in a broad range of industrial petrochemical and biological processes. These include shape-selective separations and catalysis as well as sensors and drug delivery. Molecular sieves are made from inorganic as well as organic solids, e. g. , polymers. They can be employed in packed beds, as membranes and as barrier materials. Initially, the applications of molecular sieves were dominated by the use of zeolites.