Intervening in the Brain

Changing Psyche and Society

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Author: Reinhard Merkel,G. Boer,J. Fegert,T. Galert,D. Hartmann,B. Nuttin,S. Rosahl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540464778

Category: Medical

Page: 536

View: 2925

The wealth of insights into the brain’s functioning gained by neuroscience in recent years led to the development of new possibilities for intervening in the brain such as neurotransplantation, neural prostheses and brain stimulation techniques. Moreover, new and safer classes of psychopharmaceutical drugs lend themselves to neuroenhancement applications, i.e. they could be used to enhance cognitive capacities or emotional well-being without therapeutic need. This book offers extensive state-of-the-art accounts for these novel kinds of intervention, indicates future developments, and discusses the relevant philosophical, ethical and legal issues.

Intervention in the Brain

Politics, Policy, and Ethics

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Author: Robert H. Blank

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262018918

Category: Medical

Page: 370

View: 3834

The political and policy implications of recent developments in neuroscience, including new techniques in imaging and neurogenetics. New findings in neuroscience have given us unprecedented knowledge about the workings of the brain. Innovative research--much of it based on neuroimaging results--suggests not only treatments for neural disorders but also the possibility of increasingly precise and effective ways to predict, modify, and control behavior. In this book, Robert Blank examines the complex ethical and policy issues raised by our new capabilities of intervention in the brain. After surveying current knowledge about the brain and describing a wide range of experimental and clinical interventions--from behavior-modifying drugs to neural implants to virtual reality--Blank discusses the political and philosophical implications of these scientific advances. If human individuality is simply a product of a network of manipulable nerve cell connections, and if aggressive behavior is a treatable biochemical condition, what happens to our conceptions of individual responsibility, autonomy, and free will? In light of new neuroscientific possibilities, Blank considers such topics as informed consent, addiction, criminal justice, racism, commercial and military applications of neuroscience research, new ways to define death, and political ideology and partisanship. Our political and social institutions have not kept pace with the rapid advances in neuroscience. This book shows why the political issues surrounding the application of this new research should be debated before interventions in the brain become routine.

Bioethics and the Brain

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Author: Walter Glannon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199719075

Category: Medical

Page: 348

View: 9743

Our ability to map and intervene in the structure of the human brain is proceeding at a very quick rate. Advances in psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery have given us fresh insights into the neurobiological basis of human thought and behavior. Technologies like MRI and PET scans can detect early signs of psychiatric disorders before they manifest symptoms. Electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain can non-invasively relieve symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and other conditions resistant to treatment, while implanting neuro-electrodes can help patients with Parkinsons and other motor control-related diseases. New drugs can help regenerate neuronal connections otherwise disrupted by schizophrenia and similar diseases. All these procedures and drugs alter the neural correlates of our mind and raise fascinating and important ethical questions about their benefits and harms. They are, in a sense, among the most profound bioethical questions we face, since these techniques can touch on the deepest aspects of the human mind: free will; personal identity; the self; and the soul. This is the first single-author book on what has come to be known as neuroethics. Walter Glannon uses a philosophical framework that is fully informed by cutting edge neuroscience as well as contemporary legal cases such as Terri Schiavo, to offer readers an introduction to this fascinating topic. He starts by describing the state of the art in neuroscientific research and treatment, and gives the reader an up-to-date picture of the brain. Glannon then looks at the ethical implications of various kinds of treatments, such as: whether or not brain imaging will end up changing our views on free will and moral responsibility; whether patients should always be told that they are at future risk for neurological diseases; if erasing unconscious emotional memories implicated in depression can go too far; if forcing behavior-modifying drugs or surgery on violent offenders can ever be justified; the implications of drugs that enhance cognitive abilities; and how to define brain death and the criteria for the withdrawal of life-support. While not exhaustive, Glannons work addresses a wide range of fascinating issues and his pathbreaking work should appeal to philosophers, psychiatrists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, psychologists, and bioethicists.

Brain, Body, and Mind

Neuroethics with a Human Face

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Author: Walter Glannon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199875894

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 9996

This book is a discussion of the most timely and contentious issues in the two branches of neuroethics: the neuroscience of ethics; and the ethics of neuroscience. Drawing upon recent work in psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery, it develops a phenomenologically inspired theory of neuroscience to explain the brain-mind relation. The idea that the mind is shaped not just by the brain but also by the body and how the human subject interacts with the environment has significant implications for free will, moral responsibility, and moral justification of actions. It also provides a better understanding of how different interventions in the brain can benefit or harm us. In addition, the book discusses brain imaging techniques to diagnose altered states of consciousness, deep-brain stimulation to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, and restorative neurosurgery for neurodegenerative diseases. It examines the medical and ethical trade-offs of these interventions in the brain when they produce both positive and negative physical and psychological effects, and how these trade-offs shape decisions by physicians and patients about whether to provide and undergo them.

The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul

A Philosophical Journey Into the Brain

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Author: Paul M. Churchland

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531429

Category: Medical

Page: 329

View: 6372

This work summarizes results from neuroscience and recent work with artificial neural networks that together suggest a unified set of answers to questions about how the brain actually works; how it sustains a thinking, feeling, dreaming self; and how it sustains a self-conscious person.

Consciousness Explained

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Author: Daniel C. Dennett

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141956100

Category: Philosophy

Page: 528

View: 9148

This book revises the traditional view of consciousness by claiming that Cartesianism and Descartes' dualism of mind and body should be replaced with theories from the realms of neuroscience, psychology and artificial intelligence. What people think of as the stream of consciousness is not a single, unified sequence, the author argues, but "multiple drafts" of reality composed by a computer-like "virtual machine". Dennett considers how consciousness could have evolved in human beings and confronts the classic mysteries of consciousness: the nature of introspection, the self or ego and its relation to thoughts and sensations, and the level of consciousness of non-human creatures.

Human Brain

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Author: Stephen Gislason MD

Publisher: Persona Digital Books

ISBN: 1894787277

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 290

View: 8241

Understanding the human brain is essential to become a well-informed, modern citizen. As always, nonsense proliferates around popular topics. The author of the human Brain is a physician-writer, an expert navigator who can steer you away from nonsense, and help you understand practical details about brain function and disease. This is a big book with big ideas, so be prepared to read, re-read and then keep the book as reference. Read topics from the book by clicking links to the left. Dr. Gislason's Preface "My goal in writing this book is to provide a guide to intervention in disorders of brain function. The brain is the organ of the mind. Therefore, molecular influences that alter the function of brain are manifest as mental influences. Brains are delicate devices that need special care to work well. When brains do not function well, disorders of sensing, deciding, acting and remembering occur. Food is the major source of molecular influences on the brain and, therefore, on mind states. Finding and consuming food is the main business of all animal brains and remains the priority in the organization of human behavior. An integrated view of body/mind does not draw artificial boundaries among different events. Psyche does not affect Soma or vice versa. Psyche and Soma are one interacting whole system. Behavioral adaptation to environment is intermeshed with molecular adaptation. This means that mind and body interact with environment as a single integrated unit. Molecular events determine mind/body events just as mental or behavioral events determine molecular events. There is little argument that diseased arteries that carry blood to the brain lead toward the most prevalent and often the most devastating loss of brain function. High blood pressure and plugged arteries work together to produce strokes. Other brain diseases are not so obvious. The role of the environment and dietary problems in creating emotionally and mentally disturbed people has been underestimated or ignored. Bad environments and problems in the food supply can disturb brain function in entire populations. Bad chemicals are more powerful than good intentions and good ideas unless the good idea is to remove the bad chemicals from the environment. When a fish in an aquarium displays psychotic behavior, you do not call a fish psychiatrist; you check the oxygen concentration, temperature, and pH of the water. You have to clean the tank and change the fish diet. I regret the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. The aggressive marketing of drugs that affect the brain has become a major determinant of what people believe and how people behave. I was once an advocate of drug therapy, but now I believe that we are on the wrong track and advise against taking drugs that affect the mind. My work in philosophy takes the broadest view of the human experience and also focuses on the details of how our mind works. As a physician, I advocate practical solutions to brain dysfunction that are often ignored in medical practice. These are solutions that emphasize removing the causes of disease by improving the environment and the food supply.

Deontology, Responsibility, and Equality

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Author: Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen

Publisher: Museum Tusculanum Press

ISBN: 9788763502252

Category: Philosophy

Page: 503

View: 6730

Three questions that loom large in moral and political philosophy are these: Can deontological moral constraints be justified? When, if ever, are we morally responsible for what we do? How is the ideal of equality best configured? Deontology, Responsibility and Equality deals with selected aspects of these three broad questions. It critically discusses certain attempts by Frances Kamm and Thomas Nagel (among others) to account for the impermissibility of minimizing violations in terms of moral status. Also, it challenges the view that there is a morally relevant difference between doing and allowing harm and, especially, between killing and letting die. In relation to the second question, it concentrates on recent developments within compatibilist accounts of moral responsibility prompted by the work of Harry Frankfurt. It challenges his purported refutation of the principle of alternative possibilities as well as certain positive compatibilist, identification- based accounts of respon

Slow Potential Changes in the Brain

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Author: Haschke,Speckmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475713797

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 288

View: 7098

DC-potential changes, comprising fast fluctuations and slow shifts, rep resent objective concomitants of neuronal processes in the brain. They can be recorded not only in animals, but also in humans under various conditions. As far as slow brain potentials are concerned, exciting results have been detected with respect to their correlation to psychophysiolog ical events. Although a large amount of data has been accumulated by psychophysiologists, neurophysiologists, and other scientists involved, the neurophysiological basis of these field potentials is still not clear, and remains controversial. Scientists from European countries participated in an interdisciplinary symposium in the summer of 1990, July 2 to 6, at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, which covered the field of slow brain potentials from the psychophysiological to the cellular level, including glial cells and microenvironment. From this conference the idea derived to present an up-to-date overview on important aspects of the field concerned. The Introductory Remarks are given to elucidate what is thought to be a "generator" of slow potentials of the brain. The large number of sources, implications of the "inverse problem" to analyze field potentials are taken into account.

CNS Neuroprotection

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Author: M. Flint Beal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540424123

Category: Medical

Page: 500

View: 5661

This volume is a review which presents both a basic science and clinical perspective on neuroprotective approaches to acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Experts from both fields review current areas of neuroprotection. The book describes basic science discovery in stroke research and the application of such research within the pharmaceutical industry leading to the development of neuroprotective drugs.

Early Intervention in Psychiatry

EI of Nearly Everything for Better Mental Health

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Author: Peter Byrne,Alan Rosen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118387775

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 7388

Early intervention (EI) is the single most important advance in mental health care in recent decades, representing a key shift in both theoretical standpoint and service delivery. Early Intervention in Psychiatry clearly describes best practice for extending this approach to all psychiatric disorders. Beginning with the rationale for EI, it informs interventions in people from all age groups across the lifespan, from perinatal to old age. It addresses EI in specific settings, such as primary health care, community health, the general hospital, non-government agencies, and in social movements, and for specific disorders including depression and anxiety, alcohol and substance use, childhood disorders, psychoses, bipolar disorders, eating disorders and borderline personality disorders. Early Intervention in Psychiatry is an essential guide for all psychiatrists, general practitioners, family physicians and public health doctors. It is also a valuable resource for mental health professionals and primary care colleagues, including nurses, social workers, psychologists, occupational therapists, vocational rehabilitation specialists, peer and support workers and for mental health commissioners and policy-makers.

Foundations of Perception

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Author: George Mather

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780863778353

Category: Psychology

Page: 394

View: 3869

This title provides a comprehensive general introduction to perception. All the major and minor senses are covered, not only examining them from a perceptual perspective but also taking into account their biological and physical context.

Neuroscience: From the Molecular to the Cognitive

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Author: Floyd E. Bloom

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008086225X

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 349

This hundredth volume is a commemorative milestone in the prestigeous Progress in Brain Research series. Accordingly, authors were invited to write on any topic, given that their choice represented the topic most near and dear to their own efforts over a significant period of the recent past, and to which they would likely continue to be devoted in the future. In that sense, this volume does not represent a scientific meeting, but rather an overview sample of problems and methodologies that epitomize brain research broadly at this special moment in the maturation of the field. The chapters comprising this volume assort themselves readily into five or six established categories of topics: developmental brain research, molecular brain research, integrative brain research, neuroplasticity, and neuro-psychiatric conditions. This volume reports through a sample of recognized leaders in the neuroscientific community at a significant instant in the history and evolution of the field.

Brain Imaging: Case Review Series E-Book

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Author: Laurie A. Loevner

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323076483

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 3123

This volume in the best-selling "Case Review" series uses hundreds of case studies to challenge your knowledge of a full range of topics in brain imaging. With 170 brand new cases, new coverage of MRA, CTA, MR spectroscopy and multi-detectors and over 600 brilliant images, this is your ideal concise, economical, and user-friendly tool for self assessment in this specialty! Utilizes case studies organized into "Opening Round," "Fair Game," and "Challenge" sections, so you can test yourself at varying difficulty levels. Provides at-a-glance review/self-testing of brain imaging cases ideal for preparing for the boards in brain imaging, the CAQ exam for neuroradiology or for the general radiologist ready for re-certification. Mimics the official exam formats and daily practice environment by giving you cases/images as unknowns with three to four questions; then, on the flip side of the page, diagnosis, answers to the questions, additional commentary, and references to the corresponding volume in Elsevier’s popular Requisites Series. Includes 600 state of the art images to effectively compliment and support the text and provide a clear picture of what you can expect, both in test-taking and in practice. Uses randomly organized cases so you can test yourself without the aid of logical organization by anatomy or disease type. Includes 170 new cases and over 50 new diagnoses so you can keep pace with the latest developments. Includes a greater emphasis on differential diagnosis. Adds coverage of MRA, CTA, MR spectroscopy and multi-detectors to keep you completely current. Provides all new images for existing entities. Adds cutting-edge coverage of neuro-imaging including spectroscopy, CTA, MRA, Functional imaging, tractography, perfusion and diffusion.

Incognito

The Secret Lives of The Brain

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Author: David Eagleman

Publisher: Canongate Books

ISBN: 085786047X

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 5607

A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER *Why does your foot hit the brake pedal before you are conscious of danger ahead?* *Why is it so difficult to keep a secret?* *How is it possible to get angry at yourself: who, exactly, is mad at whom?* In this sparkling and provocative book, renowned neuroscientist David Eagleman navigates the depths of the subconscious brain. Taking in brain damage, plane spotting, dating, drugs, beauty, infidelity, synaesthesia, criminal law, artificial intelligence and visual illusions, INCOGNITO is a thrilling subsurface exploration of the mind and all its contradictions.

Inside the Brain

Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works

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Author: Ronald Kotulak

Publisher: Andrews McMeel Publishing

ISBN: 9780836232899

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 222

View: 4447

Explores how the brain learns, how it controls behavior, how it sustains damage and heals itself, and how scientists are searching for ways to keep it young and healthy.

Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention

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Author: Jack P. Shonkoff,Samuel J. Meisels

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521585736

Category: Psychology

Page: 734

View: 1895

This 2000 book provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field by an outstanding group of contributing authors.

Human Rights and Healthcare

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Author: Elizabeth Wicks

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 184731371X

Category: Law

Page: 314

View: 5006

Human Rights and Healthcare looks at medical law from a human rights perspective. Almost all issues traditionally taught under a "medical law" label have significant human rights issues inherent within them. This book is unique in bringing those human rights implications to the fore. The rights at issue include established fundamental rights such as the right to life; the right to respect for a private life; and the right to physical integrity, as well as more controversial "rights" such as a "right to reproduce" and a "right to die". The human rights perspective of this book enables new light to be cast upon familiar medico-legal cases and issues. As such the book provides a genuine merging of human rights law and medical law and will be of value to all students and academics studying medical law, as well as to those interested in the broader issues raised by the growing human rights culture within the UK and worldwide.

Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI

Recommendations for Diagnosis and Intervention

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Author: Elaine Fletcher-Janzen,Cecil R. Reynolds

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470893451

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 2305

An insightful look at the role of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability diagnosis, treatment, and policy reform Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI is a revolutionary new volume presenting the latest research—in question-and-answer format—from leading scholars about the contributions of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability identification, diagnosis, and recommended interventions. This collective work includes contributions from more than thirty neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and school psychologists with training in brain-behavior relationships, who explore the answers to questions including: How do you reconcile RTI as a means of diagnosis of learning disability with knowledge from the clinical neurosciences?? What do you think neuroscience has to offer laws and policies associated with learning disability determination? What do you think neuroscience has to offer the assessment and identification of learning disabilities? What role does neurocognitive science play in designing interventions in the context of RTI? What role does neuropsychology have to play in the diagnosis of learning disability? Featuring contributions from leaders in the field of neuropsychology and school psychology, and with a Foreword from Sally Shaywitz, Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI illuminates the contributions of neuro-science and neuropsychology to learning disability identification and current educational reform.