Interpreting TRIPS

Globalisation of Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines


Author: Hiroko Yamane

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847318150

Category: Law

Page: 582

View: 1065

Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.

Die Vereinbarkeit des EU-Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahrens mit dem TRIPS-Abkommen

Eine Untersuchung unter Einbeziehung der Verfahrensumsetzung in Deutschland


Author: Nora Louisa Hesse

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 3161559932

Category: Law

Page: 285

View: 9420

Basierend auf dem durch Verordnung Nr. 608/2013 neu ausgestalteten Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahren der Europäischen Union können Zollbeamte der Mitgliedstaaten auf Antrag der Berechtigten Waren festhalten, die die EU-Außengrenzen überqueren und bei denen der Verdacht besteht, dass sie Gegenstand von Immaterialgüterrechtsverletzungen sein könnten. Das Verfahren ist für Rechtsinhaber ein wichtiges Mittel, um die Durchsetzung eventueller Ansprüche sicherzustellen, die ihnen aus Verletzungen ihrer Schutzrechte zustehen. Jedoch ist in den letzten Jahren bemängelt worden, dass das europäische Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahren unausgeglichen sei und keine ausreichenden Schutzmechanismen zugunsten der Handeltreibenden vorsehe, deren Waren ohne vorherige Feststellung einer Schutzrechtsverletzung festgehalten werden. Die Autorin untersucht, wie das Verfahren nach der aktuellen europäischen Grenzbeschlagnahmeverordnung in Deutschland umgesetzt wird und inwieweit es noch mit den verpflichtenden Vorschriften des TRIPS-Abkommens vereinbar ist.

Public Health in International Investment Law and Arbitration


Author: Valentina Vadi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415507499

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 5528

Is a State free to adopt measures to protect the public health of its citizens? If so, what are the limits, if any, to such regulatory powers? This book addresses these questions by focusing on the clash between the regulatory autonomy of the state and international investment governance. As a wide variety of state regulations allegedly aimed at protecting public health may interfere with foreign investments, a tension exists between the public health policies of the host state and investment treaty provisions. Under most investment treaties, States have waived their sovereign immunity, and have agreed to give arbitrators a comprehensive jurisdiction over what are essentially regulatory disputes. Some scholars and practitioners have expressed concern regarding the magnitude of decision-making power allocated to investment treaty tribunals. This book contributes to the current understanding of international investment law and arbitration, addressing the fundamental question of whether public health has and/or should have any relevance in contemporary international investment law and policy. With a focus on the 'clash of cultures' between international investment law and public health, the author critically analyses the emerging case law of investment treaty arbitration and considers the theoretical interplay between public health and investor rights in international investment law. The book also explores the interplay between investment law and public health in practice, focusing on specific sectors such as pharmaceutical patents, tobacco regulation and environmental health. It then goes on to analyze the available means for promoting consideration of public health in international investment law and suggests new methods and approaches to better reconcile public health and investor rights.

The Globalization and Development Reader

Perspectives on Development and Global Change


Author: J. Timmons Roberts,Amy Bellone Hite,Nitsan Chorev

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118735382

Category: Political Science

Page: 632

View: 667

This revised and updated second edition of The Globalizationand Development Reader builds on the considerable success of afirst edition that has been used around the world. It combinesselected readings and editorial material to provide a coherent textwith global coverage, reflecting new theoretical and empiricaldevelopments. Main text and core reference for students and professionalsstudying the processes of social change and development in“third world” countries. Carefully excerpted materialsfacilitate the understanding of classic and contemporarywritings Second edition includes 33 essential readings, including 21 newselections New pieces cover the impact of the recession in the globalNorth, global inequality and uneven development, gender,international migration, the role of cities, agriculture and on thegovernance of pharmaceuticals and climate change politics Increased coverage of China and India help to provide genuinelyglobal coverage, and for a student readership the materials havebeen subject to a higher degree of editing in the new edition Includes a general introduction to the field, and short,insightful section introductions to each reading New readings include selections by Alexander Gershenkron, AliceAmsden, Amartya Sen, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Cecile Jackson, DaniRodrik, David Harvey, Greta Krippner, Kathryn Sikkink, LeslieSklair, Margaret E. Keck, Michael Burawoy, Nitsan Chorev, OscarLewis, Patrick Bond, Peter Evans, Philip McMichael, Pranab Bardhan,Ruth Pearson, Sarah Babb, Saskia Sassen, and Steve Radelet

World Health Organization


Author: Gian Luca Burci,Claude-Henri Vignes

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9041122737

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 1935

The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1946, as an essential step in the construction of a postwar system of international cooperation. The authors, a former legal counsel of WHO and senior official of WHO's legal office, have written a thorough and systematic review of WHO in its changing historical and political context, aiming in particular at practitioners and scholars without a specific medical background.

An International Law Perspective on the Protection of Human Rights in the TRIPS Agreement

An Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement in Relation to the Right to Health


Author: Ping Xiong

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004211977

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 2398

This book analyses the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the right to health and relevant human rights norms by using the tools of treaty interpretation of public international law.

The Law of Globalization

An Introduction


Author: Laurence Boulle

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 904112828X

Category: Law

Page: 421

View: 3870

There is a growing clamour - particularly from the main beneficiaries of globalization - that rules need to be established to govern the international economy, with a specific focus on questions such as copyright violations, trade sanctions and protections for foreign investment. Those who perceive they are disadvantaged by globalization demand other legal protections in relation to employment, cultural traditions and the environment.

Health Technologies and International Intellectual Property Law

A Precautionary Approach


Author: Phoebe Li

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135916845

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 7194

The global transmission of infectious diseases has fuelled the need for a more developed legal framework in international public health to provide prompt and specific guidance during a large-scale emergency. This book develops a means for States to take advantage of the flexibilities of compulsory licensing in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which promotes access to medicines in a public health emergency. It presents the precautionary approach (PA) and the structure of risk analysis as a means to build a workable reading of TRIPS and to help States embody the flexibilities of intellectual property (IP). The work investigates the complementary roles of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in order to promote the harmonisation of the precautionary approach in relation to the patenting of crucial pharmaceutical products. By bringing together international trade law and intellectual property law Phoebe Li demonstrates how through the use of risk analysis and the precautionary approach, States can still comply with their legal obligations in international law, while exercising their sovereignty right in issuing a compulsory licence of a drug patent in an uncertain public health emergency. This book will be of great interest to students and academics of medical and healthcare law, intellectual property law, international trade law, and human rights law.

Archiv des Völkerrechts


Author: Walter Schätzel,Hans Wehberg,Hans Jürgen Schlochauer

Publisher: N.A


Category: International law

Page: N.A

View: 9818

Globalization and access to drugs

perspectives on the WTO/TRIPS agreement


Author: Action Programme on Essential Drugs and Vaccines (World Health Organization)

Publisher: N.A


Category: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Page: 98

View: 743

Die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte

Interessen, Strategien und Einfluss Brasiliens, Indiens und Chinas


Author: Ruth Knoblich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658037253

Category: Political Science

Page: 159

View: 5531

Angesichts des Aufstiegs von Staaten wie Brasilien, Indien und China zu neuen Wissensmächten fragt das Buch nach den Konsequenzen, die diese Dynamik für die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte mit sich bringen könnte und prüft entlang des Fallbeispiels 'Zugangsregelungen zu genetischen Ressourcen und dem Schutz traditionellen Wissens' den Einfluss der BIC-Staaten auf das bestehende internationale Schutzsystem.

Public Policy in International Economic Law

The ICESCR in Trade, Finance, and Investment


Author: Diane Desierto

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191026484

Category: Law

Page: 432

View: 2567

States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.

New Medicines, the Practice of Medicine, and Public Policy

A Strategic View of how Innovation in the Development of Medicine Will Impact on the Practice of Medicine and the Delivery of Healthcare During the Next Two Decades


Author: Sir Richard Sykes

Publisher: Stationery Office Books (TSO)


Category: Medical innovations

Page: 202

View: 5136

This essay - by the chairman of Glaxo Wellcome Plc - takes a strategic view of how innovation in the development of medicines will impact on the practice of medicine and the delivery of healthcare in the first two decades of the 21st century. It opens with a brief review of the impact of modern medicines on society and goes on to describe some of the new processes that are transforming the processes of medicines and what this will mean for the biopharmaceutical industry, and consequently medical practice. A vision of how medical practice could develop and policy issues related to this are discussed in further chapters. The emphasis in the book is on global developments and global issues using country-specific examples only when necessary. A broad industry perspective is also taken.

Regional Strategy for Improving Access to Essential Medicines in the Western Pacific Region, 2005-2010


Author: World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

Publisher: World Health Organization


Category: Medical

Page: 40

View: 4602

The Regional Committee for the Western Pacific Region examined the access to essential medicines for the coming years 2005-2010, based on present strategies and policies. Such strategies and policies need to ensure that the medicines get to the areas and peoples who need them the most. The Committee expressed concerns about the present lack of access to important medicines, irrational use of medicines to deal with certain medical situations and the poor quality of some of the pharmaceutical products being supplied. These failings often contribute further to the public health problems that exist in some areas of the world. Regional strategies need to complement the WHO global strategy, covering such areas as rational selection and use, affordable prices and sustainable financing.

Health, Rights and Globalisation


Author: Belinda Bennett

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780754625902

Category: Law

Page: 403

View: 6321

This volume draws together essays from leading scholars on the challenges that arise for health, law, policy and ethics at the intersections of health, rights and globalization.

Human Rights and Capitalism

A Multidisplinary Perspective on Globalisation


Author: Janet Dine,Andrew Fagan

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing


Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 3566

Human Rights and Capitalism brings together two important facets of the globalisation debate and examines the complex relationship between human rights, property rights and capitalist economies.

About globalisation

views on the trajectory of mondialisation ; based on the IES lectures series spring 2003


Author: Bart de Schutter,Johan Pas,Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Institute for European Studies

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789054873600

Category: Law

Page: 342

View: 1147