Infotopia

How Many Minds Produce Knowledge

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199740970

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 4775

The rise of the "information society" offers not only considerable peril but also great promise. Beset from all sides by a never-ending barrage of media, how can we ensure that the most accurate information emerges and is heeded? In this book, Cass R. Sunstein develops a deeply optimistic understanding of the human potential to pool information, and to use that knowledge to improve our lives. In an age of information overload, it is easy to fall back on our own prejudices and insulate ourselves with comforting opinions that reaffirm our core beliefs. Crowds quickly become mobs. The justification for the Iraq war, the collapse of Enron, the explosion of the space shuttle Columbia--all of these resulted from decisions made by leaders and groups trapped in "information cocoons," shielded from information at odds with their preconceptions. How can leaders and ordinary people challenge insular decision making and gain access to the sum of human knowledge? Stunning new ways to share and aggregate information, many Internet-based, are helping companies, schools, governments, and individuals not only to acquire, but also to create, ever-growing bodies of accurate knowledge. Through a ceaseless flurry of self-correcting exchanges, wikis, covering everything from politics and business plans to sports and science fiction subcultures, amass--and refine--information. Open-source software enables large numbers of people to participate in technological development. Prediction markets aggregate information in a way that allows companies, ranging from computer manufacturers to Hollywood studios, to make better decisions about product launches and office openings. Sunstein shows how people can assimilate aggregated information without succumbing to the dangers of the herd mentality--and when and why the new aggregation techniques are so astoundingly accurate. In a world where opinion and anecdote increasingly compete on equal footing with hard evidence, the on-line effort of many minds coming together might well provide the best path to infotopia.

Gesetze der Angst

jenseits des Vorsorgeprinzips

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518584798

Category: Civil rights

Page: 343

View: 8596

Die Information

Geschichte, Theorie, Flut

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Author: James Gleick

Publisher: Redline Wirtschaft

ISBN: 3864142245

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 5410

Blut, Treibstoff, Lebensprinzip - in seinem furiosen Buch erzählt Bestsellerautor James Gleick, wie die Information zum Kernstück unserer heutigen Zivilisation wurde. Beginnend bei den Wörtern, den "sprechenden" Trommeln in Afrika, über das Morsealphabet und bis hin zur Internetrevolution beleuchtet er, wie die Übermittlung von Informationen die Gesellschaften prägten und veränderten. Gleick erläutert die Theorien, die sich mit dem Codieren und Decodieren, der Übermittlung von Inhalten und dem Verbreiten der Myriaden von Botschaften beschäftigen. Er stellt die bekannten und unbekannten Pioniere der Informationsgesellschaft vor: Claude Shannon, Norbert Wiener, Ada Byron, Alan Turing und andere. Er bietet dem Leser neue Einblicke in die Mechanismen des Informationsaustausches. So lernt dieser etwa die sich selbst replizierende Meme kennen, die "DNA" der Informationen. Sein Buch ermöglicht ein neues Verständnis von Musik, Quantenmechanik - und eine gänzlich neue Sicht auf die faszinierende Welt der Informationen.

Was macht uns schlauer?

Die führenden Wissenschaftler unserer Zeit über neue Strategien, unser Wissen zu erweitern

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Author: John Brockman

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104026610

Category: Social Science

Page: 512

View: 8205

Der große Visionär, Wissenschaftsaktivist und Literaturagent John Brockmann hat den führenden Köpfen aus unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen die Frage gestellt, welche neuen wissenschaftlichen Konzepte und Ideen unser Wissen wesentlich erweitern werden. Hierbei sind die Naturwissenschaften ebenso wie die Philosophie, die Künste und die Rechts- und die Wirtschaftswissenschaften angesprochen. Eine spannende Debatte u. a. mit Daniel Kahneman, Richard Dawkins, Brian Eno, J. Craig Venter, Martin Rees, Ernst Pöppel, Gerd Gigerenzer, Nicholas Christakis, Lisa Randall, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Steven Pinker und George Dyson. »Man muss Brockman und den Wissenschaftlern dankbar sein. Viel zu selten werden Fragen diskutiert, die an unserem Selbstverständnis als Mensch rütteln oder Überzeugungen und mit ihnen Deutungshoheiten und Herrschaftsstrukturen in Frage stellen.« Deutschlandradio Kultur

Das Twitter-Buch

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Author: Tim O'Reilly,Sarah Milstein,Volker Bombien,Corina Pahrmann,Nathalie Pelz

Publisher: O'Reilly Germany

ISBN: 3868999647

Category: Electronic books

Page: 270

View: 2655

Twitter ist als Plattform zum Austausch privater Nachrichten gestartet, doch die letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass der Microblogging-Dienst noch ganz andere Starken hat: Immer wieder gibt es weltpolitische Ereignisse, die als Erstes auf Twitter vermeldet werden, und auch Trends lassen sich hier gut beobachten. Daruber hinaus kommt Twitter haufig in beruflichen Zusammenhangen zum Einsatz - sei es zum direkten Austausch mit Kunden oder als PR-Instrument in der Unternehmenskommunikation. Dieses Buch begleitet Sie bei den ersten Schritten mit Twitter und macht Sie mit dem typischen Jargon vertraut. Sie erfahren, wie Sie sich mit anderen Twitterern vernetzen, interessante Inhalte wie Links und Fotos teilen und die Plattform fur Recherchezwecke nutzen. Auch der Einsatz von Twitter im Unternehmen und das Zusammenspiel mit Facebook und einem Blog werden behandelt. Die Autoren Tim O'Reilly und Sarah Milstein sind bekennende Twitter-Fans und geben in diesem Buch wertvolle Einblicke in ihre Erfahrungen mit der Plattform. Die dritte, deutsche Auflage wurde von den Twitter-Liebhabern Volker Bombien, Corina Pahrmann und Nathalie Pelz uberarbeitet und um Informationen aus dem deutschsprachigen Twitterversum erganzt.

Choosing Not to Choose

Understanding the Value of Choice

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190231696

Category: Law

Page: 219

View: 3644

This is among the most significant ways in which they effect social change, yet we are just beginning to understand the power and impact of default rules. Many central questions remain unanswered: When should governments set such defaults, and when should they insist on active choices? How should such defaults be made? What makes some defaults successful while others fail? Cass R. Sunstein has long been at the forefront of developing public policy and regulation to use government power to encourage people to make better decisions. In this major new book, Choosing Not to Choose, he presents his most complete argument yet for how we should understand the value of choice, and when and how we should enable people to choose not to choose. The onset of big data gives corporations and governments the power to make ever more sophisticated decisions on our behalf, defaulting us to buy the goods we predictably want, or vote for the parties and policies we predictably support.

Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019086446X

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 7981

In Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict, Cass R. Sunstein, one of America's best known commentators on our legal system, offers a bold, new thesis about how the law should work in America, arguing that the courts best enable people to live together, despite their diversity, by resolving particular cases without taking sides in broader, more abstract conflicts. Professor Sunstein closely analyzes the way the law can mediate disputes in a diverse society, examining how the law works in practical terms, and showing that, to arrive at workable, practical solutions, judges must avoid broad, abstract reasoning. He states that judges purposely limit the scope of their decisions to avoid reopening large-scale controversies, calling such actions incompletely theorized agreements. In identifying them as the core feature of legal reasoning, he takes issue with advocates of comprehensive theories and systemization, from Robert Bork to Jeremy Bentham, and Ronald Dworkin. Equally important, Sunstein goes on to argue that it is the living practice of the nation's citizens that truly makes law. Legal reasoning can seem impenetrable, mysterious, baroque. Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict helps dissolve the mystery. Whether discussing abortion, homosexuality, or free speech, the meaning of the Constitution, or the spell cast by the Warren Court, Cass Sunstein writes with grace and power, offering a striking and original vision of the role of the law in a diverse society. In his flexible, practical approach to legal reasoning, he moves the debate over fundamental values and principles out of the courts and back to its rightful place in a democratic state: to the legislatures elected by the people. In this Second Edition, the author updates the previous edition bringing the book into the current mainstream of twenty-first century legal reasoning and judicial decision-making focusing on the many relevant contemporary issues and developments that occurred since its initial 1996 publication.

Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination

Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination

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Author: Takševa, Tatjana

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466621796

Category: Computers

Page: 427

View: 7553

The new generation of internet technologies and web applications is seeing a growth in social software and networking, as well as other communications tools. This infrastructure of social interaction and collaboration has provided an increase in more dynamic user participation and expertise in knowledge of contents and facts traditionally only held by experts. Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination examines the vital role that social software applications play in regards to the cultural definitions of experts and challenges the reader to consider how recent changes in this area influence how we create and distribute knowledge. This collection brings together scholars and practitioners from various disciplines and professions to project a new kind of thinking about the understanding of the major changes in many professions.

Nudge

Wie man kluge Entscheidungen anstößt

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Author: Richard H. Thaler,Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3430920035

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 684

Nudge – so heißt die Formel, mit der man andere dazu bewegt, die richtigen Entscheidungen zu treffen. Denn Menschen verhalten sich von Natur aus nicht rational. Nur mit einer Portion List können sie dazu gebracht werden, vernünftig zu handeln. Aber wie schafft man das, ohne sie zu bevormunden? Wie erreicht man zum Beispiel, dass sie sich um ihre Altervorsorge kümmern, umweltbewusst leben oder sich gesund ernähren? Darauf gibt Nudge die Antwort. Das Konzept hat bereits viele Entscheidungsträger überzeugt, darunter US-Präsident Barack Obama. Anschaulich und unterhaltsam präsentieren der Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträger Richard Thaler und Cass Sunstein einen neuen Ansatz der Verhaltensökonomie, der schon heute das Denken und Handeln in Politik und Wirtschaft prägt.

Simpler

The Future of Government

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476726612

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 5745

Simpler government arrived four years ago. It helped put money in your pocket. It saved hours of your time. It improved your children’s diet, lengthened your life span, and benefited businesses large and small. It did so by issuing fewer regulations, by insisting on smarter regulations, and by eliminating or improving old regulations. Cass R. Sunstein, as administrator of the most powerful White House office you’ve never heard of, oversaw it and explains how it works, why government will never be the same again (thank goodness), and what must happen in the future. Cutting-edge research in behavioral economics has influenced business and politics. Long at the forefront of that research, Sunstein, for three years President Obama’s “regulatory czar” heading the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, oversaw a far-reaching restructuring of America’s regulatory state. In this highly anticipated book, Sunstein pulls back the curtain to show what was done, why Americans are better off as a result, and what the future has in store. The evidence is all around you, and more is coming soon. Simplified mortgages and student loan applications. Scorecards for colleges and universities. Improved labeling of food and energy-efficient appliances and cars. Calories printed on chain restaurant menus. Healthier food in public schools. Backed by historic executive orders ensuring transparency and accountability, simpler government can be found in new initiatives that save money and time, improve health, and lengthen lives. Simpler: The Future of Government will transform what you think government can and should accomplish.

Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism

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Author: Elizabeth Fisher

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847313728

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 8559

Over the last decade the regulatory evaluation of environmental and public health risks has been one of the most legally controversial areas of contemporary government activity. Much of that debate has been understood as a conflict between those promoting 'scientific' approaches to risk evaluation and those promoting 'democratic' approaches. This characterization of disputes has ignored the central roles of public administration and law in technological risk evaluation. This is problematic because, as shown in this book, legal disputes over risk evaluation are disputes over administrative constitutionalism in that they are disputes over what role law should play in constituting and limiting the power of administrative risk regulators. This is shown by five case studies taken from five different legal cultures: an analysis of the bifurcated role of the Southwood Working Party in the UK BSE crisis; the development of doctrines in relation to judicial review of risk evaluation in the US in the 1970s; the interpretation of the precautionary principle by environmental courts and generalist tribunals carrying out merits review in Australia; the interpretation of the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement as part of the WTO dispute settlement process; and the interpretation of the precautionary principle in the EU context. A strong argument is thus made for re-orienting the focus of scholarship in this area.

The Social Net

Understanding our online behavior

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Author: Yair Amichai-Hamburger

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019164823X

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 6159

In the past two decades, the Internet has come to dominate every aspect of everyday life. This has been a huge change for many of us, and, for the younger generation - born into this situation - there has been no other way of living. How does this new way of life affect our health and happiness, our well-being? How does it affect our relationships, our friendships? Has the definition of friendship changed now that we have hundreds of friends on Facebook? Why is it that some people find it so hard to talk to people in their daily lives but find it so easy on the Internet? People spend so much time on the Internet - so what do we actually do on there? Why are some people so aggressive and others exceptionally helpful? Are these behaviors that we see from the same people offline? How do we take decisions online and which groups would we rather belong to online where nobody knows us, rather than revealing our true identity to the outside world? The new edition of 'The Social Net' provides a comprehensive understanding of the social aspects of the Internet. It contains chapters on topics such as identity manipulation, online romantic relationships, online decision making, the internet and aggression, and online prejudice and discrimination. The book provides the reader with an understanding of both the negative and positive influences of the net and is an exceptionally useful guide for for how to use the net to improve wellbeing. Today, when there is so much negative publicity surrounding the Internet - despite our reliance on it - this book provides a much needed balanced understanding of the Net and its influence.

Democratic Reason

Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many

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Author: Hélène Landemore

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140084553X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 9333

Individual decision making can often be wrong due to misinformation, impulses, or biases. Collective decision making, on the other hand, can be surprisingly accurate. In Democratic Reason, Hélène Landemore demonstrates that the very factors behind the superiority of collective decision making add up to a strong case for democracy. She shows that the processes and procedures of democratic decision making form a cognitive system that ensures that decisions taken by the many are more likely to be right than decisions taken by the few. Democracy as a form of government is therefore valuable not only because it is legitimate and just, but also because it is smart. Landemore considers how the argument plays out with respect to two main mechanisms of democratic politics: inclusive deliberation and majority rule. In deliberative settings, the truth-tracking properties of deliberation are enhanced more by inclusiveness than by individual competence. Landemore explores this idea in the contexts of representative democracy and the selection of representatives. She also discusses several models for the "wisdom of crowds" channeled by majority rule, examining the trade-offs between inclusiveness and individual competence in voting. When inclusive deliberation and majority rule are combined, they beat less inclusive methods, in which one person or a small group decide. Democratic Reason thus establishes the superiority of democracy as a way of making decisions for the common good.

Judging Social Rights

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Author: Jeff King

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107008026

Category: Law

Page: 370

View: 9177

Jeff King argues in favour of constitutionalising social rights, and presents an incrementalist approach to judicial enforcement.

Wiser

Getting Beyond Groupthink to Make Groups Smarter

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein,Reid Hastie

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1422122999

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 4550

Two experts in business and psychology describe the detrimental effect that groupthink has on decision-making and explain how to combine ideas from management and social sciences to help improve problem-solving through non-deliberative decision-making. 20,000 first printing.

Speaking Rights to Power

Constructing Political Will

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Author: Alison Brysk

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199359261

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 9792

How can "Speaking Rights to Power" construct political will to respond to human rights abuse worldwide? Examining dozens of cases of human rights campaigns and using an innovative analysis of the politics of persuasion, this book shows how communication politics build recognition, solidarity, and social change. Building on twenty years of research on five continents, this comprehensive study ranges from Aung San Suu Kyi to Anna Hazare, from Congo to Colombia, and from the Arab Spring to Pussy Riot. Speaking Rights to Power addresses cutting edge debates on human rights and the ethic of care, cosmopolitanism, charismatic leadership, communicative action and political theater, and the role of social media. It draws on constructivist literature from social movement and international relations theory, and analyzes human rights as a form of global social imagination. Combining a normative contribution with judicious critique, this book shows how human rights rhetoric matters-and how to make it matter more.

Rebels in Groups

Dissent, Deviance, Difference, and Defiance

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Author: Jolanda Jetten,Matthew J. Hornsey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390834

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 7852

With contributions from leading scholars in the field, Rebels in Groups brings together the latest research which, contrary to traditional views, considers dissent, deviance, difference and defiance to be a normal and healthy aspect of group life. Brings together the latest research on the role of dissent, deviance, difference and defiance within groups Presents a new approach which considers dissent, deviance, difference and defiance to be a normal and healthy aspect of group life Examines a broad range of groups, such as political groups, task groups, and teams in organizations Considers diverse fields of psychology, including social, organizational, and developmental psychology Contributors are among the leading scholars in their areas of psychology

Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral

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Author: Michael Tomasello

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 351874822X

Category: Psychology

Page: 282

View: 4833

Die Evolution des menschlichen Moralbewusstseins gehört zu den großen Rätseln der Wissenschaft. Es hat die Phantasie von Generationen von Forschern beflügelt, zahlreiche Theorien liegen auf dem Tisch, aber die Frage »Woher kommt die Moral?« ist nach wie vor offen. In Fortschreibung seiner faszinierenden Naturgeschichte des Menschen legt nun Michael Tomasello eine Antwort vor. Gestützt auf jahrzehntelange empirische Forschungen, rekonstruiert er die Entstehung des einzigartigen menschlichen Sinns für Werte und Normen als einen zweistufigen Prozess. Dieser beginnt vor einigen hunderttausend Jahren, als die frühen Menschen gemeinsame Sache machen mussten, um zu überleben; und er endet beim modernen, ultrakooperativen homo sapiens sapiens, der beides besitzt: Eine Moralität der zweiten Person, die unseren Umgang mit dem je einzelnen Gegenüber prägt, und eine gruppenbezogene »objektive« Moral, die sagt, was hier bei »uns« als gut oder gerecht gilt. In der Tradition von Mead, Kohlberg und Piaget zeigt Tomasello außerdem, wie sich die individuelle Moralentwicklung in einer bereits normengesättigten Welt vollzieht. Und so ist Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral der derzeit wohl umfassendste Versuch zu verstehen, wie wir das geworden sind, was nur wir sind: genuin moralische Wesen.

Kata-Managementkultur

So macht Ihr Unternehmen Unmögliches möglich

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Author: Gerd Aulinger,Mike Rother

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593507099

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 200

View: 5904

Das einmalige Kata-Workbook Der Begriff "Kata" bezeichnet eine genau festgelegte Abfolge von Bewegungen in den japanischen Kampfkünsten. Im Businesskontext sind mit Kata Denk- und Verhaltensweisen gemeint, die von allen Mitarbeitern eines Unternehmens gelebt werden. Der Bestseller "Die Kata des Weltmarktführers " hat einen Blick unter die Motorhaube von Toyota gewährt. Das Buch erklärt Führungskräften die Kata, die allen erfolgreichen Tools und Methoden des Erfolgsunternehmens zugrunde liegen. Jetzt hat der Kata-Experte Mike Rother zusammen mit dem Kata-Coach Gerd Aulinger das lang erwartete Nachfolgebuch geschrieben. Es zeigt durchgängig illustriert und Schritt für Schritt, wie der vollständige Kata-Prozess im eigenen Unternehmen erfolgreich implementiert und umgesetzt werden kann.

(2009)

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Author: K. G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Company

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783598694523

Category:

Page: 2563

View: 7053

The IBR, published again since 1971 as an interdisciplinary, international bibliography of reviews, offers book reviews of literature dealing primarily with the humanities and social sciences published in 6,000 mainly European scholarly journals. This unique bibliography contains over 1.2 millions book reviews. 60,000 entries are added every year with details on the work reviewed and the review.