Infotopia

How Many Minds Produce Knowledge

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199740970

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 3724

The rise of the "information society" offers not only considerable peril but also great promise. Beset from all sides by a never-ending barrage of media, how can we ensure that the most accurate information emerges and is heeded? In this book, Cass R. Sunstein develops a deeply optimistic understanding of the human potential to pool information, and to use that knowledge to improve our lives. In an age of information overload, it is easy to fall back on our own prejudices and insulate ourselves with comforting opinions that reaffirm our core beliefs. Crowds quickly become mobs. The justification for the Iraq war, the collapse of Enron, the explosion of the space shuttle Columbia--all of these resulted from decisions made by leaders and groups trapped in "information cocoons," shielded from information at odds with their preconceptions. How can leaders and ordinary people challenge insular decision making and gain access to the sum of human knowledge? Stunning new ways to share and aggregate information, many Internet-based, are helping companies, schools, governments, and individuals not only to acquire, but also to create, ever-growing bodies of accurate knowledge. Through a ceaseless flurry of self-correcting exchanges, wikis, covering everything from politics and business plans to sports and science fiction subcultures, amass--and refine--information. Open-source software enables large numbers of people to participate in technological development. Prediction markets aggregate information in a way that allows companies, ranging from computer manufacturers to Hollywood studios, to make better decisions about product launches and office openings. Sunstein shows how people can assimilate aggregated information without succumbing to the dangers of the herd mentality--and when and why the new aggregation techniques are so astoundingly accurate. In a world where opinion and anecdote increasingly compete on equal footing with hard evidence, the on-line effort of many minds coming together might well provide the best path to infotopia.

Protest, Kunst und Theater auf YouTube

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Author: Iris Cseke

Publisher: epodium

ISBN: 394038867X

Category:

Page: 472

View: 1557

Welche Bedeutung haben YouTube und die dort veröffentlichten Videos und Kommentarspalten für neue Formen von Protest, Kunst und Theater? Die vorliegende Studie geht dieser Frage nach und analysiert mit theaterwissenschaftlichen und empirischen kommunikationswissenschaftlichen Methoden, wie sich Inszenierungen zu intermedialen Akteursnetzwerken zwischen Gesellschaft und Technik entfalten und dabei neue Öffentlichkeiten jenseits der Grenzen von Online- und Offline-Welten entstehen. Mit YouTube als institutionellem Rahmen, der Videos nicht nur ‚ausstellt‘, sondern aktiv an ihren Produktions- und Rezeptionsprozessen mitwirkt, werden die Grenzen von Kommunikations- und Bühnenräumen, von Theater- und Kunstöffentlichkeiten gesprengt; lokale Protestereignisse entspinnen sich zu transnationalen Netzwerken. So erreichen Protestakteure mit ihren Botschaften zwar neue Adressaten, können zugleich aber selbst zur Zielscheibe scharfer Kritik der Online-Öffentlichkeit werden.

Simpler

The Future of Government

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476726612

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 5249

Simpler government arrived four years ago. It helped put money in your pocket. It saved hours of your time. It improved your children’s diet, lengthened your life span, and benefited businesses large and small. It did so by issuing fewer regulations, by insisting on smarter regulations, and by eliminating or improving old regulations. Cass R. Sunstein, as administrator of the most powerful White House office you’ve never heard of, oversaw it and explains how it works, why government will never be the same again (thank goodness), and what must happen in the future. Cutting-edge research in behavioral economics has influenced business and politics. Long at the forefront of that research, Sunstein, for three years President Obama’s “regulatory czar” heading the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, oversaw a far-reaching restructuring of America’s regulatory state. In this highly anticipated book, Sunstein pulls back the curtain to show what was done, why Americans are better off as a result, and what the future has in store. The evidence is all around you, and more is coming soon. Simplified mortgages and student loan applications. Scorecards for colleges and universities. Improved labeling of food and energy-efficient appliances and cars. Calories printed on chain restaurant menus. Healthier food in public schools. Backed by historic executive orders ensuring transparency and accountability, simpler government can be found in new initiatives that save money and time, improve health, and lengthen lives. Simpler: The Future of Government will transform what you think government can and should accomplish.

Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism

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Author: Elizabeth Fisher

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847313728

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 8133

Over the last decade the regulatory evaluation of environmental and public health risks has been one of the most legally controversial areas of contemporary government activity. Much of that debate has been understood as a conflict between those promoting 'scientific' approaches to risk evaluation and those promoting 'democratic' approaches. This characterization of disputes has ignored the central roles of public administration and law in technological risk evaluation. This is problematic because, as shown in this book, legal disputes over risk evaluation are disputes over administrative constitutionalism in that they are disputes over what role law should play in constituting and limiting the power of administrative risk regulators. This is shown by five case studies taken from five different legal cultures: an analysis of the bifurcated role of the Southwood Working Party in the UK BSE crisis; the development of doctrines in relation to judicial review of risk evaluation in the US in the 1970s; the interpretation of the precautionary principle by environmental courts and generalist tribunals carrying out merits review in Australia; the interpretation of the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement as part of the WTO dispute settlement process; and the interpretation of the precautionary principle in the EU context. A strong argument is thus made for re-orienting the focus of scholarship in this area.

The Social Net

Understanding our online behavior

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Author: Yair Amichai-Hamburger

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019164823X

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 5070

In the past two decades, the Internet has come to dominate every aspect of everyday life. This has been a huge change for many of us, and, for the younger generation - born into this situation - there has been no other way of living. How does this new way of life affect our health and happiness, our well-being? How does it affect our relationships, our friendships? Has the definition of friendship changed now that we have hundreds of friends on Facebook? Why is it that some people find it so hard to talk to people in their daily lives but find it so easy on the Internet? People spend so much time on the Internet - so what do we actually do on there? Why are some people so aggressive and others exceptionally helpful? Are these behaviors that we see from the same people offline? How do we take decisions online and which groups would we rather belong to online where nobody knows us, rather than revealing our true identity to the outside world? The new edition of 'The Social Net' provides a comprehensive understanding of the social aspects of the Internet. It contains chapters on topics such as identity manipulation, online romantic relationships, online decision making, the internet and aggression, and online prejudice and discrimination. The book provides the reader with an understanding of both the negative and positive influences of the net and is an exceptionally useful guide for for how to use the net to improve wellbeing. Today, when there is so much negative publicity surrounding the Internet - despite our reliance on it - this book provides a much needed balanced understanding of the Net and its influence.

Democratic Reason

Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many

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Author: Hélène Landemore

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140084553X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 5689

Individual decision making can often be wrong due to misinformation, impulses, or biases. Collective decision making, on the other hand, can be surprisingly accurate. In Democratic Reason, Hélène Landemore demonstrates that the very factors behind the superiority of collective decision making add up to a strong case for democracy. She shows that the processes and procedures of democratic decision making form a cognitive system that ensures that decisions taken by the many are more likely to be right than decisions taken by the few. Democracy as a form of government is therefore valuable not only because it is legitimate and just, but also because it is smart. Landemore considers how the argument plays out with respect to two main mechanisms of democratic politics: inclusive deliberation and majority rule. In deliberative settings, the truth-tracking properties of deliberation are enhanced more by inclusiveness than by individual competence. Landemore explores this idea in the contexts of representative democracy and the selection of representatives. She also discusses several models for the "wisdom of crowds" channeled by majority rule, examining the trade-offs between inclusiveness and individual competence in voting. When inclusive deliberation and majority rule are combined, they beat less inclusive methods, in which one person or a small group decide. Democratic Reason thus establishes the superiority of democracy as a way of making decisions for the common good.

Judging Social Rights

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Author: Jeff King

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107008026

Category: Law

Page: 370

View: 9653

Jeff King argues in favour of constitutionalising social rights, and presents an incrementalist approach to judicial enforcement.

Wiser

Getting Beyond Groupthink to Make Groups Smarter

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Author: Cass R. Sunstein,Reid Hastie

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1422122999

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 3712

Two experts in business and psychology describe the detrimental effect that groupthink has on decision-making and explain how to combine ideas from management and social sciences to help improve problem-solving through non-deliberative decision-making. 20,000 first printing.

Speaking Rights to Power

Constructing Political Will

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Author: Alison Brysk

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199359261

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 1851

How can "Speaking Rights to Power" construct political will to respond to human rights abuse worldwide? Examining dozens of cases of human rights campaigns and using an innovative analysis of the politics of persuasion, this book shows how communication politics build recognition, solidarity, and social change. Building on twenty years of research on five continents, this comprehensive study ranges from Aung San Suu Kyi to Anna Hazare, from Congo to Colombia, and from the Arab Spring to Pussy Riot. Speaking Rights to Power addresses cutting edge debates on human rights and the ethic of care, cosmopolitanism, charismatic leadership, communicative action and political theater, and the role of social media. It draws on constructivist literature from social movement and international relations theory, and analyzes human rights as a form of global social imagination. Combining a normative contribution with judicious critique, this book shows how human rights rhetoric matters-and how to make it matter more.

Rebels in Groups

Dissent, Deviance, Difference, and Defiance

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Author: Jolanda Jetten,Matthew J. Hornsey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390834

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 7295

With contributions from leading scholars in the field, Rebels in Groups brings together the latest research which, contrary to traditional views, considers dissent, deviance, difference and defiance to be a normal and healthy aspect of group life. Brings together the latest research on the role of dissent, deviance, difference and defiance within groups Presents a new approach which considers dissent, deviance, difference and defiance to be a normal and healthy aspect of group life Examines a broad range of groups, such as political groups, task groups, and teams in organizations Considers diverse fields of psychology, including social, organizational, and developmental psychology Contributors are among the leading scholars in their areas of psychology

(2009)

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Author: K. G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Company

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783598694523

Category:

Page: 2563

View: 4611

The IBR, published again since 1971 as an interdisciplinary, international bibliography of reviews, offers book reviews of literature dealing primarily with the humanities and social sciences published in 6,000 mainly European scholarly journals. This unique bibliography contains over 1.2 millions book reviews. 60,000 entries are added every year with details on the work reviewed and the review.

JNCHC

Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Universities and colleges

Page: N.A

View: 5129

Deep Cultural Diversity

A Governance Challenge

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Author: Gilles Paquet

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780776606736

Category: Political Science

Page: 225

View: 8937

Political commentator and public policy analyst Gilles Paquet examines the benefits and drawbacks of Canada's multiculturalism policy. He rejects the current policy which perpetuates difference and articulates a model for Canadian transculturalism, a more fluid understanding of multiculturalism based on the philosophy of cosmopolitanism which would strengthen moral contracts and encourage the social engagement of all Canadians.

In the Company of Others

An Introduction to Communication

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Author: J. Dan Rothwell

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195336306

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 463

View: 429

In the Company of Others is the only textbook in the market that is organized according to the communication competence model. Competent communication is both effective in achieving goals, and appropriate to the given situation. Students can improve by learning about, and working on, the 5dimensions of this model: knowledge, skills, sensitivity, ethics, and commitment/effort. This organizational rubric ties the many topics in the course together so that students can use the ideas effectively. The model: 1. is explained in Chapter 1 2. is reinforced in every chapter (margin icons remind students when the 5 dimensions appear) 3. offers "Developing Communication Competence" self-test boxes in most chapters 4. ends each chapter with a section on improving competence in that chapter's topic.

QFinance

The Ultimate Resource

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Author: Various Authors

Publisher: Bloomsbury USA

ISBN: 9781849300001

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 2200

View: 8060

Compiled by more than 300 of the world's leading professionals, visionaries, writers and educators, this is THE first-stop reference resource and knowledge base for finance. QFINANCE covers an extensive range of finance topics with unique insight, authoritative information, practical guidance and thought-provoking widsom. Unmatched for in-depth content, QFINANCE contains more than 2 million words of text, data analysis, critical summaries and bonus online content. Created by Bloomsbury Publishing in association with the Qatar Financial Centre (QFC) Authority, QFINANCE is the expert reference resource for finance professionals, academics, students, journalists and writers. QFINANCE: The Ultimate Resource Special Features: Best Practice and Viewpoint Essays – Finance leaders, experts and educators address how to resolve the most crucial issues and challenges facing business today. Finance Checklists – Step-by-step guides offer problem-solving solutions including hedging interest-rate risk, governance practices, project appraisal, estimating enterprise value and managing credit ratings. Calculations and Ratios – Essential mathematical tools include how to calculate return on investment, return on shareholders’ equity, working capital productivity, EVA, risk-adjusted rate of return, CAPM, etc. Finance Thinkers and Leaders – Illuminating biographies of 50 of the leading figures in modern finance including Joseph De La Vega, Louis Bachelier, Franco Modigliani, Paul Samuelson, and Myron Scholes Finance Library digests –Summaries of more than 130 key works ranging from “Against the Gods” to “Portfolio Theory & Capital Markets” and “The Great Crash”. Country and Sector Profiles – In-depth analysis of 102 countries and 26 sectors providing essential primary research resource for direct or indirect investment. Finance Information Sources – A select list of the best resources for further information on finance and accounting worldwide, both in print and online, including books, journal articles, magazines, internet, and organizations Finance Dictionary – A comprehensive jargon-free, easy-to-use dictionary of more than 9,000 finance and banking terms used globally. Quotations – More than 2,000 business relevant quotations. Free access to QFinance Online Resources (www.qfinance.com): Get daily content updates, podcasts, online events and use our fully searchable database.