Information Science for Materials Discovery and Design

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Author: Turab Lookman,Francis J. Alexander,Krishna Rajan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331923871X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 307

View: 2502

This book deals with an information-driven approach to plan materials discovery and design, iterative learning. The authors present contrasting but complementary approaches, such as those based on high throughput calculations, combinatorial experiments or data driven discovery, together with machine-learning methods. Similarly, statistical methods successfully applied in other fields, such as biosciences, are presented. The content spans from materials science to information science to reflect the cross-disciplinary nature of the field. A perspective is presented that offers a paradigm (codesign loop for materials design) to involve iteratively learning from experiments and calculations to develop materials with optimum properties. Such a loop requires the elements of incorporating domain materials knowledge, a database of descriptors (the genes), a surrogate or statistical model developed to predict a given property with uncertainties, performing adaptive experimental design to guide the next experiment or calculation and aspects of high throughput calculations as well as experiments. The book is about manufacturing with the aim to halving the time to discover and design new materials. Accelerating discovery relies on using large databases, computation, and mathematics in the material sciences in a manner similar to the way used to in the Human Genome Initiative. Novel approaches are therefore called to explore the enormous phase space presented by complex materials and processes. To achieve the desired performance gains, a predictive capability is needed to guide experiments and computations in the most fruitful directions by reducing not successful trials. Despite advances in computation and experimental techniques, generating vast arrays of data; without a clear way of linkage to models, the full value of data driven discovery cannot be realized. Hence, along with experimental, theoretical and computational materials science, we need to add a “fourth leg’’ to our toolkit to make the “Materials Genome'' a reality, the science of Materials Informatics.

OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

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Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264307575

Category:

Page: 320

View: 4376

The OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 is the twelfth edition in a series that biennially reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in OECD countries and a number of major partner economies. The 14 chapters within this edition look at a range of ...

Bayesian Optimization for Materials Science

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Author: Daniel Packwood

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811067813

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 42

View: 6702

This book provides a short and concise introduction to Bayesian optimization specifically for experimental and computational materials scientists. After explaining the basic idea behind Bayesian optimization and some applications to materials science in Chapter 1, the mathematical theory of Bayesian optimization is outlined in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses an application of Bayesian optimization to a complicated structure optimization problem in computational surface science.Bayesian optimization is a promising global optimization technique that originates in the field of machine learning and is starting to gain attention in materials science. For the purpose of materials design, Bayesian optimization can be used to predict new materials with novel properties without extensive screening of candidate materials. For the purpose of computational materials science, Bayesian optimization can be incorporated into first-principles calculations to perform efficient, global structure optimizations. While research in these directions has been reported in high-profile journals, until now there has been no textbook aimed specifically at materials scientists who wish to incorporate Bayesian optimization into their own research. This book will be accessible to researchers and students in materials science who have a basic background in calculus and linear algebra.

Materials Discovery and Design

By Means of Data Science and Optimal Learning

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Author: Turab Lookman,Stephan Eidenbenz,Frank Alexander,Cris Barnes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319994654

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 8075

This book addresses the current status, challenges and future directions of data-driven materials discovery and design. It presents the analysis and learning from data as a key theme in many science and cyber related applications. The challenging open questions as well as future directions in the application of data science to materials problems are sketched. Computational and experimental facilities today generate vast amounts of data at an unprecedented rate. The book gives guidance to discover new knowledge that enables materials innovation to address grand challenges in energy, environment and security, the clearer link needed between the data from these facilities and the theory and underlying science. The role of inference and optimization methods in distilling the data and constraining predictions using insights and results from theory is key to achieving the desired goals of real time analysis and feedback. Thus, the importance of this book lies in emphasizing that the full value of knowledge driven discovery using data can only be realized by integrating statistical and information sciences with materials science, which is increasingly dependent on high throughput and large scale computational and experimental data gathering efforts. This is especially the case as we enter a new era of big data in materials science with the planning of future experimental facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford (LCLS-II), the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EXFEL) and MaRIE (Matter Radiation in Extremes), the signature concept facility from Los Alamos National Laboratory. These facilities are expected to generate hundreds of terabytes to several petabytes of in situ spatially and temporally resolved data per sample. The questions that then arise include how we can learn from the data to accelerate the processing and analysis of reconstructed microstructure, rapidly map spatially resolved properties from high throughput data, devise diagnostics for pattern detection, and guide experiments towards desired targeted properties. The authors are an interdisciplinary group of leading experts who bring the excitement of the nascent and rapidly emerging field of materials informatics to the reader.

Nanoinformatics

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Author: Isao Tanaka

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811076170

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 298

View: 4235

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations are fully utilized to accelerate discovery of new materials, key factors, and design rules. Data-intensive approaches play indispensable roles in advanced materials characterization. "Materials informatics" is the central paradigm in the new trend. "Nanoinformatics" is its essential subset, which focuses on nanostructures of materials such as surfaces, interfaces, dopants, and point defects, playing a critical role in determining materials properties. There have been significant advances in experimental and computational techniques to characterize individual atoms in nanostructures and to gain quantitative information. The collaboration of researchers in materials science and information science is growing actively and is creating a new trend in materials science and engineering. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge

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Author: Norman Don

Publisher: Vahlen

ISBN: 3800648105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 8217

Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Chemoradiation in Cancer Therapy

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Author: Hak Choy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592593259

Category: Medical

Page: 420

View: 5541

Internationally recognized experts in cancer biology and clinical research review the present status of the multimodality approach to the management of solid tumors and speculate on possible future strategies for chemoradiation therapy. The authors detail applications of combined modality therapy in lung, esophageal, breast, gastric, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers. They also show how radiation interacts with such chemotherapeutic agents as the platinum complexes, taxanes, and gemcitabine in the treatment of malignant gliomas, and head and neck cancer. A review of how to integrate new specific molecular targeted agents into multimodality therapy in the future.

Medical Informatics

Knowledge Management and Data Mining in Biomedicine

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Author: Hsinchun Chen,Sherrilynne S. Fuller,Carol Friedman,William Hersh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038725739X

Category: Medical

Page: 648

View: 9179

Comprehensively presents the foundations and leading application research in medical informatics/biomedicine. The concepts and techniques are illustrated with detailed case studies. Authors are widely recognized professors and researchers in Schools of Medicine and Information Systems from the University of Arizona, University of Washington, Columbia University, and Oregon Health & Science University. Related Springer title, Shortliffe: Medical Informatics, has sold over 8000 copies The title will be positioned at the upper division and graduate level Medical Informatics course and a reference work for practitioners in the field.

Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology

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Author: Jørgen Kjems,Elena Ferapontova,Kurt V. Gothelf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642388159

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 380

This volume on nucleic acid nanotechnology offers authoritative, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of nanotechnological studies and applications of nucleic acids. It provides reviews of various aspects of nucleic acid nanotechnology, each written by an internationally leading expert in the field, and presents state-of-the-art and recent advances in nucleic acid synthetic modifications, nanoscale design, manipulation and current and future applications in bioengineering, medicine, electronics, genetic analysis, chemistry, molecular biology, surface and material sciences. It examines how nucleic acid research is merging with nanotechnology, allowing the nanoscale properties of nucleic acid to be exploited in performing challenging nanotechnological tasks, from nanorobotics and nanosensing to nucleic acid computing. This book will above all benefit anyone who is interested in nanotechnological concepts of nucleic acid design and applications, and offers a valuable resource for teaching these concepts. It is essential reading for a broad audience of scientists both in academia and industry who wish to expand their expertise on the potential of nucleic acid functions and applications.

Data mining

praktische Werkzeuge und Techniken für das maschinelle Lernen

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Author: Ian H. Witten,Eibe Frank

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783446215337

Category:

Page: 386

View: 791

Mary Somerville and the Cultivation of Science, 1815–1840

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Author: E.C. Patterson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400968396

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 7538

Among the myriad of changes that took place in Great Britain in the first half of the nineteenth century, many of particular significance to the historian of science and to the social historian are discernible in that small segment of British society drawn together by a shared interest in natural phenomena and with sufficient leisure or opportunity to investigate and ponder them. This group, which never numbered more than a mere handful in comparison to the whole population, may rightly be characterized as 'scientific'. They and their successors came to occupy an increasingly important place in the intellectual, educational, and developing economic life of the nation. Well before the arrival of mid-century, natural philosophers and inventors were generally hailed as a source of national pride and of national prestige. Scientific society is a feature of nineteenth-century British life, the best being found in London, in the universities, in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in a few scattered provincial centres.

Books in Series

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780835221092

Category: Monographic series

Page: 1756

View: 2194

Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology

Basic Science and Clinical Therapeutics

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Author: George Morstyn,MaryAnn Foote,Graham J. Lieschke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592597475

Category: Medical

Page: 477

View: 8619

Whether to promote platelet recovery or to ameliorate the complications of cancer and the side effects of chemotherapy, hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) now account for more than $5 billion per year of the US health care budget. In Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology: Basic Science and Clinical Therapeutics, leading oncologists, hematologists, and nephrologists comprehensively review the role of HGFs in clinical practice, explain the molecular basis of their effects, and consider potential future developments. The authors focus on the use of HGFs in oncology, describing their cutting-edge application to patients with lung cancer, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, AIDS-related malignancies, myelodysplastic syndromes, and aplastic anemias. Among the HGFs described are granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, erythropoietc factors, thrombopoietic factors, and stem-cell factor and its receptor, c-kit. To complete their survey, the contributors also consider the safety and economic implications of HGFs and the future potential for HGF antagonists in oncology. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology: Basic Science and Clinical Practice offers an integrated survey of the role of HGFs in treating and preventing anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases, along with fresh insights into drug development and how basic discoveries in this area can be optimally translated into clinical benefit.

VDI-Wärmeatlas

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Author: VDI Gesellschaft

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540255048

Category: Science

Page: 1500

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Der VDI-Wärmeatlas ist nach wie vor ein unentbehrliches Arbeitsmittel für jeden Praktiker, der sich mit Fragen zur Wärme- und Stoffübertragung beschäftigt. Für die tägliche Arbeit mit Tabellen und Stoffwerten ist das Ringbuch mit dem Vorteil des Herausnehmens der Blätter und deren beliebiger Neuordnung eine bequeme Variante. Das Werk ermöglicht sowohl die technisch als auch wirtschaftlich optimale Auslegung verfahrenstechnischer Apparate und Anlagen. Für diese 10. Auflage wurden alle Beiträge einem umfassenden fachlichen Prüfverfahren unterzogen, das dem Nutzer ein Höchstmaß an Sicherheit bietet, dass die Daten, Berechnungsverfahren und Aussagen dem neuesten Stand des Wissens entsprechen. Um Redundanzen zu minimieren, wurde zum Teil neu strukturiert. Zahlreiche Aktualisierungen und Ergänzungen wurden aufgenommen, einige Beiträge sind völlig neu (v.a. in den Teilen D: Stoffwerte und Zustandsgrößen und L: Druckverlust).

(Open) Linked Data in Bibliotheken

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Author: Patrick Danowski,Adrian Pohl

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110278731

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 250

View: 9642

This book is an introduction to the subjects of linked data, open data and open linked data, and to their specific relevance for libraries. It illustrates these concepts through detailed descriptions of actual data projects. The volume will be useful to individuals involved in library practice and those in library management who have not yet become familiarized with these important contemporary fields.

The Nucleic Acid Protocols Handbook

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Author: Ralph Rapley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592590381

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 901

A comprehensive treasury of all the key molecular biology methods-ranging from DNA extraction to gene localization in situ-needed to function effectively in the modern laboratory. Each of the 120 highly successful techniques follows the format of the much acclaimed Methods in Molecular BiologyOao series, providing an introduction to the scientific basis of each technique, a complete listing of all the necessary materials and reagents, and clear step-by-step instruction to permit error-free execution. Included for each technique are notes about pitfalls to avoid, troubleshooting tips, alternate methods, and explanations of the reasons for certain steps-all key elements contributing significantly to success or failure in the lab. The Nucleic Acid Protocols Handbook constitutes today's most comprehensive collection of all the key classic and cutting-edge techniques for the successful isolation, analysis, and manipulation of nucleic acids by both experienced researchers and those new to the field."

Nanotechnologie für Dummies

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Author: Richard D. Booker,Earl Boysen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527801898

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 286

View: 9651

Ob in der Chemie, Physik, Biologie, Medizin, Pharmazie oder den Materialwissenschaften: Die Nanotechnologie ist überall vertreten und gilt als Forschungsfeld der Zukunft. Schon heute verstecken sich in unserem Alltag viele nanotechnologische Anwendungen und ihre Zahl wächst ständig. Dank »Nanotechnologie für Dummies« erfahren Sie, wie Nanomaterialien erforscht und genutzt werden, welche Anwendungen in Zukunft möglich sein könnten und wie sogar die Umwelt von der Nanotechnologie profitieren kann. Die Autoren erläutern dabei alles leicht verständlich und lassen auch mögliche Risiken nicht außen vor. So lernen Sie alles, was Sie über dieses Trendthema wissen sollten.

International Books in Print, 1995

Author/Title

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Author: [Anonymus AC01219643],Barbara Hopkinson

Publisher: K G Saur Verlag Gmbh & Company

ISBN: 9783598221309

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 2180

View: 4796