Information Science for Materials Discovery and Design

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Turab Lookman,Francis J. Alexander,Krishna Rajan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331923871X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 307

View: 9460

This book deals with an information-driven approach to plan materials discovery and design, iterative learning. The authors present contrasting but complementary approaches, such as those based on high throughput calculations, combinatorial experiments or data driven discovery, together with machine-learning methods. Similarly, statistical methods successfully applied in other fields, such as biosciences, are presented. The content spans from materials science to information science to reflect the cross-disciplinary nature of the field. A perspective is presented that offers a paradigm (codesign loop for materials design) to involve iteratively learning from experiments and calculations to develop materials with optimum properties. Such a loop requires the elements of incorporating domain materials knowledge, a database of descriptors (the genes), a surrogate or statistical model developed to predict a given property with uncertainties, performing adaptive experimental design to guide the next experiment or calculation and aspects of high throughput calculations as well as experiments. The book is about manufacturing with the aim to halving the time to discover and design new materials. Accelerating discovery relies on using large databases, computation, and mathematics in the material sciences in a manner similar to the way used to in the Human Genome Initiative. Novel approaches are therefore called to explore the enormous phase space presented by complex materials and processes. To achieve the desired performance gains, a predictive capability is needed to guide experiments and computations in the most fruitful directions by reducing not successful trials. Despite advances in computation and experimental techniques, generating vast arrays of data; without a clear way of linkage to models, the full value of data driven discovery cannot be realized. Hence, along with experimental, theoretical and computational materials science, we need to add a “fourth leg’’ to our toolkit to make the “Materials Genome'' a reality, the science of Materials Informatics.

Bayesian Optimization for Materials Science

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Daniel Packwood

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811067813

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 42

View: 8009

This book provides a short and concise introduction to Bayesian optimization specifically for experimental and computational materials scientists. After explaining the basic idea behind Bayesian optimization and some applications to materials science in Chapter 1, the mathematical theory of Bayesian optimization is outlined in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses an application of Bayesian optimization to a complicated structure optimization problem in computational surface science.Bayesian optimization is a promising global optimization technique that originates in the field of machine learning and is starting to gain attention in materials science. For the purpose of materials design, Bayesian optimization can be used to predict new materials with novel properties without extensive screening of candidate materials. For the purpose of computational materials science, Bayesian optimization can be incorporated into first-principles calculations to perform efficient, global structure optimizations. While research in these directions has been reported in high-profile journals, until now there has been no textbook aimed specifically at materials scientists who wish to incorporate Bayesian optimization into their own research. This book will be accessible to researchers and students in materials science who have a basic background in calculus and linear algebra.

OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264307575

Category:

Page: 320

View: 6295

The OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 is the twelfth edition in a series that biennially reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in OECD countries and a number of major partner economies. The 14 chapters within this edition look at a range of ...

Fuzzy Logic-based Material Selection And Synthesis

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Babanli Mustafa B

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813276584

Category: Computers

Page: 276

View: 7184

This unique compendium presents a comprehensive and self-contained theory of material development under imperfect information and its applications. The book describes new approaches to synthesis and selection of materials with desirable characteristics. Such approaches provide the ability of systematic and computationally effective analysis in order to predict composition, structure and related properties of new materials.The volume will be a useful advanced textbook for graduate students. It is also suitable for academicians and practitioners who wish to have fundamental models in new material synthesis and selection.

Nanoinformatics

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Isao Tanaka

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811076170

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 298

View: 5417

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations are fully utilized to accelerate discovery of new materials, key factors, and design rules. Data-intensive approaches play indispensable roles in advanced materials characterization. "Materials informatics" is the central paradigm in the new trend. "Nanoinformatics" is its essential subset, which focuses on nanostructures of materials such as surfaces, interfaces, dopants, and point defects, playing a critical role in determining materials properties. There have been significant advances in experimental and computational techniques to characterize individual atoms in nanostructures and to gain quantitative information. The collaboration of researchers in materials science and information science is growing actively and is creating a new trend in materials science and engineering. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Materials Discovery and Design

By Means of Data Science and Optimal Learning

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Turab Lookman,Stephan Eidenbenz,Frank Alexander,Cris Barnes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319994654

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5423

This book addresses the current status, challenges and future directions of data-driven materials discovery and design. It presents the analysis and learning from data as a key theme in many science and cyber related applications. The challenging open questions as well as future directions in the application of data science to materials problems are sketched. Computational and experimental facilities today generate vast amounts of data at an unprecedented rate. The book gives guidance to discover new knowledge that enables materials innovation to address grand challenges in energy, environment and security, the clearer link needed between the data from these facilities and the theory and underlying science. The role of inference and optimization methods in distilling the data and constraining predictions using insights and results from theory is key to achieving the desired goals of real time analysis and feedback. Thus, the importance of this book lies in emphasizing that the full value of knowledge driven discovery using data can only be realized by integrating statistical and information sciences with materials science, which is increasingly dependent on high throughput and large scale computational and experimental data gathering efforts. This is especially the case as we enter a new era of big data in materials science with the planning of future experimental facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford (LCLS-II), the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EXFEL) and MaRIE (Matter Radiation in Extremes), the signature concept facility from Los Alamos National Laboratory. These facilities are expected to generate hundreds of terabytes to several petabytes of in situ spatially and temporally resolved data per sample. The questions that then arise include how we can learn from the data to accelerate the processing and analysis of reconstructed microstructure, rapidly map spatially resolved properties from high throughput data, devise diagnostics for pattern detection, and guide experiments towards desired targeted properties. The authors are an interdisciplinary group of leading experts who bring the excitement of the nascent and rapidly emerging field of materials informatics to the reader.

Physics of new materials

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Francisco Eiichi Fujita

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: 9783540568513

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 3906

Physics of New Materials starts from basic science, specially solid-state physics, and then moves into theresearch and development of advanced materials. The emphasisof the discussions is concentrated on the electronicandatomic structures and properties of transition-metalsystems, liquidand amorphous materials, the nano-phasematerials, layered compounds, martensite and otherstructural-transformed materials, and ordered alloys.Though these discussions, the physical aspects andprinciples ofnew materials, such as strong ferromagneticalloys, shape memory alloys, amorphous alloys, ultra-fineparticles, intercalated layered compounds, deformableceramics, and nuclear-physics techniques. In addition tothese theoretical treatments, modern experimentaltechniques, exemplified by M-ssbauer spectroscopy andelectron microscopy, demonstrate the vast scope of schemesneeded in the development of new materials.

Chemoradiation in Cancer Therapy

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Hak Choy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592593259

Category: Medical

Page: 420

View: 1667

Internationally recognized experts in cancer biology and clinical research review the present status of the multimodality approach to the management of solid tumors and speculate on possible future strategies for chemoradiation therapy. The authors detail applications of combined modality therapy in lung, esophageal, breast, gastric, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers. They also show how radiation interacts with such chemotherapeutic agents as the platinum complexes, taxanes, and gemcitabine in the treatment of malignant gliomas, and head and neck cancer. A review of how to integrate new specific molecular targeted agents into multimodality therapy in the future.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Norman Don

Publisher: Vahlen

ISBN: 3800648105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 8882

Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Jørgen Kjems,Elena Ferapontova,Kurt V. Gothelf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642388159

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 608

This volume on nucleic acid nanotechnology offers authoritative, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of nanotechnological studies and applications of nucleic acids. It provides reviews of various aspects of nucleic acid nanotechnology, each written by an internationally leading expert in the field, and presents state-of-the-art and recent advances in nucleic acid synthetic modifications, nanoscale design, manipulation and current and future applications in bioengineering, medicine, electronics, genetic analysis, chemistry, molecular biology, surface and material sciences. It examines how nucleic acid research is merging with nanotechnology, allowing the nanoscale properties of nucleic acid to be exploited in performing challenging nanotechnological tasks, from nanorobotics and nanosensing to nucleic acid computing. This book will above all benefit anyone who is interested in nanotechnological concepts of nucleic acid design and applications, and offers a valuable resource for teaching these concepts. It is essential reading for a broad audience of scientists both in academia and industry who wish to expand their expertise on the potential of nucleic acid functions and applications.

Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology

Basic Science and Clinical Therapeutics

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: George Morstyn,MaryAnn Foote,Graham J. Lieschke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592597475

Category: Medical

Page: 477

View: 8530

Whether to promote platelet recovery or to ameliorate the complications of cancer and the side effects of chemotherapy, hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) now account for more than $5 billion per year of the US health care budget. In Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology: Basic Science and Clinical Therapeutics, leading oncologists, hematologists, and nephrologists comprehensively review the role of HGFs in clinical practice, explain the molecular basis of their effects, and consider potential future developments. The authors focus on the use of HGFs in oncology, describing their cutting-edge application to patients with lung cancer, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, AIDS-related malignancies, myelodysplastic syndromes, and aplastic anemias. Among the HGFs described are granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, erythropoietc factors, thrombopoietic factors, and stem-cell factor and its receptor, c-kit. To complete their survey, the contributors also consider the safety and economic implications of HGFs and the future potential for HGF antagonists in oncology. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Oncology: Basic Science and Clinical Practice offers an integrated survey of the role of HGFs in treating and preventing anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases, along with fresh insights into drug development and how basic discoveries in this area can be optimally translated into clinical benefit.

Das Universum für Eilige

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Neil deGrasse Tyson

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446259538

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 1421

Der nach Stephen Hawking prominenteste Astrophysiker des Planeten hat das ultimative Kompendium über den Kosmos verfasst. In Neil deGrasse Tysons Bestseller ist alles versammelt, was wir über das Universum wissen: über Exoplaneten und Dunkle Energie, über Zwerggalaxien und den Urknall. Der Autor begeistert wie kein Zweiter mit funkelndem Witz für die Wunder des Weltalls. Zugleich regt er zum Nachdenken über unseren Platz im Universum an und zu Demut angesichts kosmischer Skalen. Sein „Universum für Eilige“ ist das perfekte Buch für alle, die auf nur 200 Seiten die heutige Astrophysik verstehen – und sich dabei auf hohem Niveau unterhalten lassen möchten.

Data mining

praktische Werkzeuge und Techniken für das maschinelle Lernen

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Ian H. Witten,Eibe Frank

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783446215337

Category:

Page: 386

View: 7935

Mary Somerville and the Cultivation of Science, 1815–1840

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: E.C. Patterson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400968396

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 5655

Among the myriad of changes that took place in Great Britain in the first half of the nineteenth century, many of particular significance to the historian of science and to the social historian are discernible in that small segment of British society drawn together by a shared interest in natural phenomena and with sufficient leisure or opportunity to investigate and ponder them. This group, which never numbered more than a mere handful in comparison to the whole population, may rightly be characterized as 'scientific'. They and their successors came to occupy an increasingly important place in the intellectual, educational, and developing economic life of the nation. Well before the arrival of mid-century, natural philosophers and inventors were generally hailed as a source of national pride and of national prestige. Scientific society is a feature of nineteenth-century British life, the best being found in London, in the universities, in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in a few scattered provincial centres.

Handbook of Cancer Vaccines

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Michael A. Morse,Timothy M. Clay,H. Kim Lyerly

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592596800

Category: Medical

Page: 592

View: 9321

An authoritative survey of the scientific background for therapeutic cancer vaccines, the challenges to their development, and their current uses in treating cancer. The authors examine the basic issues that effect all vaccines (such as immune adjuvants and prime-boost strategies), describe the methods for antigen discovery, and review the preclinical development phases for each major vaccine strategy. They also spell out the clinical results for cancer vaccines now beginning to be used in the treatment of many common cancers.

Oncogene-Directed Therapies

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Janusz W. Rak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592593135

Category: Medical

Page: 487

View: 4078

Prominent investigators and clinicians summarize in a balanced blend of fundamental science, basic research, experimental therapeutics, and early clinical experiences, what is known about oncogenes and oncogenesis, and describe how that knowledge can be used to treat the cancer. The contributors explain how, why, and under what conditions certain proteins acquire the ability to transform eukaryotic cells, and detail the crucial biological consequences of this oncogenic transformation, particularly for cellular mitogenesis, survival, differentiation, migration, proteolysis, or angiogenic competence. Their articles thoroughly explicate the premises, principles, techniques, and approaches to oncogene targeting in various types of human cancer by using signal transduction inhibitors, immunological targeting methods, and antisense gene therapy.

Intermetallic Compounds, Progress

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: J. H. Westbrook,R. L. Fleischer

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1086

View: 989

This third volume continues to set the standard in the field, as originally defined by the best-selling two-volume set 'Intermetallic Compounds - Principles and Practice'. With contributions from 72 authors from 14 different countries, this book introduces a broad range of new topics including: new intermetallic families, new means of assessment of bonding and stability, new properties and phenomena, new applications, new practical processes and new research techniques. * Stand-alone chapters set out in a manner that is meaningful to non-specialists, progressing to include knowledge useful to experts * New, fully revised, and updated chapters on areas of intense research activity or great importance * Providing definitions of intermetallic families, intended to assist all readers * Written for clarity, consistency and thoroughness * Full and up-to-date referencing to the literature * Critical assessments of the state of the subject * Acronym list consolidating new entries with those compiled for the two earlier volumes As with Volumes 1 and 2, this is an invaluable aid to both scientists and engineers. Core reading for those who are starting research on intermetallics, and for those who wish to exploit the unique properties of intermetallics in practical applications.

(Open) Linked Data in Bibliotheken

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Patrick Danowski,Adrian Pohl

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110278731

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 250

View: 9464

This book is an introduction to the subjects of linked data, open data and open linked data, and to their specific relevance for libraries. It illustrates these concepts through detailed descriptions of actual data projects. The volume will be useful to individuals involved in library practice and those in library management who have not yet become familiarized with these important contemporary fields.

Medical Informatics

Knowledge Management and Data Mining in Biomedicine

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Hsinchun Chen,Sherrilynne S. Fuller,Carol Friedman,William Hersh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038725739X

Category: Medical

Page: 648

View: 821

Comprehensively presents the foundations and leading application research in medical informatics/biomedicine. The concepts and techniques are illustrated with detailed case studies. Authors are widely recognized professors and researchers in Schools of Medicine and Information Systems from the University of Arizona, University of Washington, Columbia University, and Oregon Health & Science University. Related Springer title, Shortliffe: Medical Informatics, has sold over 8000 copies The title will be positioned at the upper division and graduate level Medical Informatics course and a reference work for practitioners in the field.