Infanticide

Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives

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Author: Glenn Hausfater

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351512617

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6809

Recent field studies of a variety of mammalian species reveal a surprisingly high frequency of infanticide - the killing of unweaned or otherwise maternally dependent offspring. Similarly, studies of birds, fish, amphibians, and invertebrates demonstrate egg and larval mortality in these species, a phenomenon directly analogous to infanticide in mammals. In this collection, Hausfater and Hrdy draw together work on animal and human infanticide and place these studies in a broad evolutionary and comparative perspective.Infanticide presents the theoretical background and taxonomic distribution of infanticide, infanticide in nonhuman primates, infanticide in rodents, and infanticide in humans. It examines closely sex allocation and sex ratio theory, surveys the phylogeny of mammalian interbirth intervals, and reviews data on sources of egg and larval mortality in a variety of invertebrate and lower vertebrate species. Dealing with infanticide in nonhuman primates, two chapters critically examine data on infanticide in langurs and its broader theoretical implications. By reviewing sources of infant mortality in populations of small mammals and new laboratory analyses of the causes and consequences of infanticide, this work explores such issues as the ontogeny of infanticide, proximate cues of infants and females which elicit infanticidal behavior in males, the genetical basis of infanticide, and the hormonal determinants.Hausfater and Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, through their selection of materials for this book, evaluate the frequency, causes, and function of infanticide. Historical, ethnographic, and recent data on infanticide are surveyed. "Infanticide" summarizes current research on the evolutionary origins and proximate causation of infanticide in animals and man. As such it will be indispensable reading for anthropologists and behavioral biologists as well as ecologists, psychologists, demographers, and epidemiologists.

The Adapted Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture

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Author: Jerome H. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,John Tooby

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195356472

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 8991

Although researchers have long been aware that the species-typical architecture of the human mind is the product of our evolutionary history, it has only been in the last three decades that advances in such fields as evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and paleoanthropology have made the fact of our evolution illuminating. Converging findings from a variety of disciplines are leading to the emergence of a fundamentally new view of the human mind, and with it a new framework for the behavioral and social sciences. First, with the advent of the cognitive revolution, human nature can finally be defined precisely as the set of universal, species-typical information-processing programs that operate beneath the surface of expressed cultural variability. Second, this collection of cognitive programs evolved in the Pleistocene to solve the adaptive problems regularly faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors--problems such as mate selection, language acquisition, cooperation, and sexual infidelity. Consequently, the traditional view of the mind as a general-purpose computer, tabula rasa, or passive recipient of culture is being replaced by the view that the mind resembles an intricate network of functionally specialized computers, each of which imposes contentful structure on human mental organization and culture. The Adapted Mind explores this new approach--evolutionary psychology--and its implications for a new view of culture.

Unwanted Pregnancies and Public Policy

An International Perspective

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Author: Héctor Correa

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781560721369

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 243

View: 8495

Unwanted Pregnancies & Public Policy An International Perspective

Evolutionary Perspectives on Pregnancy

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Author: John Avise

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231160607

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 444

Covering both the internal and external incubation of offspring, this book provides a biology-rich survey of the natural history, ecology, genetics, and evolution of pregnancy-like phenomena. From mammals and other live-bearing organisms to viviparous reptiles, male-pregnant fishes, larval-brooding worms, crabs, sea cucumbers, and corals, the world’s various species display pregnancy and other forms of parental devotion in surprisingly multifaceted ways. An adult female (or male) can incubate its offspring in a womb, stomach, mouth, vocal sac, gill chamber, epithelial pouch, backpack, leg pocket, nest, or an encasing of embryos, and by studying these diverse examples from a comparative vantage point, the ecological and evolutionary-genetic outcomes of different reproductive models become fascinatingly clear. John C. Avise discusses each mode of pregnancy and the decipherable genetic signatures it has left on the reproductive structures, physiologies, and innate sexual behaviors of extant species. By considering the many biological aspects of gestation from different evolutionary angles, Avise offers captivating new insights into the significance of “heavy” parental investment in progeny.

Infanticide and Parental Care

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Author: Stefano Parmigiani,Frederick S. Vom Saal

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9783718655052

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 2232

First Published in 1994. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Pedophilia

Biosocial Dimensions

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Author: Jay R. Feierman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461396824

Category: Psychology

Page: 594

View: 475

The Reason for this Volume If we were to judge the seriousness of a psychosocial problem by the attention that the popular media give to it, we would have to conclude that the modem world is in the midst of an epidemic of pedophilic child sexual abuse. One can scarcely go more than a few weeks in any large metropolitan area without reading about one of the community's upstanding citizens discovered to have been sexually involved with children or adolescents. The attention that the popular media give this topic is paralleled by the attention that it receives in the social sciences, where literally dozens of books and more than a thousand articles have been published on it in the past few years. In fact, "child sexual abuse," along with "co-dependency" and "dysfunctional family," have become the avant-garde psychological cliches of the decade. However, most of the lay and professional literature, although voluminous, reflect a narrow anthropo-, ethno-, and chronocentrism that precludes any real understanding of the topic with anything more than the preconceptions of our times.

Gender and Parenthood

Biological and Social Scientific Perspectives

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Author: W. Bradford Wilcox,Kathleen Kovner Kline

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231530978

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 6543

The essays in this collection deploy biological and social scientific perspectives to evaluate the transformative experience of parenthood for today's women and men. They map the similar and distinct roles mothers and fathers play in their children's lives and measure the effect of gendered parenting on child well-being, work and family arrangements, and the quality of couples' relationships. Contributors describe what happens to brains and bodies when women become mothers and men become fathers; whether the stakes are the same or different for each sex; why, across history and cultures, women are typically more involved in childcare than men; why some fathers are strongly present in their children's lives while others are not; and how the various commitments men and women make to parenting shape their approaches to paid work and romantic relationships. Considering recent changes in men's and women's familial duties, the growing number of single-parent families, and the impassioned tenor of same-sex marriage debates, this book adds sound scientific and theoretical insight to these issues, constituting a standout resource for those interested in the causes and consequences of contemporary gendered parenthood.

Marriage and Family

Perspectives and Complexities

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Author: H. Elizabeth Peters,Claire M. Kamp Dush

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520026

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 5235

Family life has been radically transformed over the past three decades. Half of all households are unmarried, while only a quarter of all married households have kids. A third of the nation's births are to unwed mothers, and a third of America's married men earn less than their wives. With half of all women cohabitating before they turn thirty and gay and lesbian couples settling down with increasing visibility, there couldn't be a better time for a book that tracks new conceptions of marriage and family as they are being formed. The editors of this volume explore the motivation to marry and the role of matrimony in a diverse group of men and women. They compare empirical data from several emerging family types (single, co-parent, gay and lesbian, among others) to studies of traditional nuclear families, and they consider the effect of public policy and recent economic developments on the practice of marriage and the stabilization or destabilization of family. Approaching this topic from a variety of perspectives, including historical, cross-cultural, gendered, demographic, socio-biological, and social-psychological viewpoints, the editors highlight the complexity of the modern American family and the growing indeterminacy of its boundaries. Refusing to adhere to any one position, the editors provide an unbiased account of contemporary marriage and family.

The Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior

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Author: Marc Haug

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792322368

Category: Medical

Page: 493

View: 5747

This varied and impressive volume is a record of the major presentations at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior held at Chateau de Bonas, Gers, France, July 14-18, 1992."

Case Studies in Human Ecology

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Author: Daniel G. Bates,Sarah H. Lees

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147579584X

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 6756

This volume was developed to meet a much noted need for accessible case study material for courses in human ecology, cultural ecology, cultural geography, and other subjects increasingly offered to fulfill renewed student and faculty interest in environmental issues. The case studies, all taken from the journal Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Jouma~ represent a broad cross-section of contemporary research. It is tempting but inaccurate to sug gest that these represent the "Best of Human Ecology." They were selected from among many outstanding possibilities because they worked well with the organization of the book which, in turn, reflects the way in which courses in human ecology are often organized. This book provides a useful sample of case studies in the application of the perspective of human ecology to a wide variety of problems in dif ferent regions of the world. University courses in human ecology typically begin with basic concepts pertaining to energy flow, feeding relations, ma terial cycles, population dynamics, and ecosystem properties, and then take up illustrative case studies of human-environmental interactions. These are usually discussed either along the lines of distinctive strategies of food pro curement (such as foraging or pastoralism) or as adaptations to specific habitat types or biomes (such as the circumpolar regions or arid lands).

The Children's Culture Reader

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Author: Henry Jenkins

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814742310

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 532

View: 8662

Stock market euphoria and blind faith in the post cold war economy have driven the topic of poverty from popular and scholarly discussion in the United States. At the same time the gap between the rich and poor has never been wider. The New Poverty Studies critically examines the new war against the poor that has accompanied the rise of the New Economy in the past two decades, and details the myriad ways poor people have struggled against it. The essays collected here explore how global, national, and local structures of power produce poverty and affect the material well-being, social relations and politicization of the poor. In updating the 1960s encounter between ethnography and U.S. poverty, The New Poverty Studies highlights the ways poverty is constructed across multiple scales and multiple axes of difference. Questioning the common wisdom that poverty persists because of the pathology, social isolation and welfare state "dependency" of the poor, the contributors to The New Poverty Studies point instead to economic restructuring and neoliberal policy "reforms" which have caused increased social inequality and economic polarization in the U.S. Contributors include: Georges Fouron, Donna Goldstein, Judith Goode, Susan B. Hyatt, Catherine Kingfisher, Peter Kwong, Vin Lyon-Callo, Jeff Maskovsky, Sandi Morgen, Leith Mullings, Frances Fox Piven, Matthew Rubin, Nina Glick Schiller, Carol Stack, Jill Weigt, Eve Weinbaum, Brett Williams, and Patricia Zavella. "These contributions provide a dynamic understanding of poverty and immiseration" --North American Dialogue, Vol. 4, No. 1, Nov. 2001

Social Bioarchaeology

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Author: Sabrina C. Agarwal,Bonnie A. Glencross

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390520

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 6364

Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world

Growing Up in Medieval London

The Experience of Childhood in History

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Author: Barbara A. Hanawalt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199879974

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1263

When Barbara Hanawalt's acclaimed history The Ties That Bound first appeared, it was hailed for its unprecedented research and vivid re-creation of medieval life. David Levine, writing in The New York Times Book Review, called Hanawalt's book "as stimulating for the questions it asks as for the answers it provides" and he concluded that "one comes away from this stimulating book with the same sense of wonder that Thomas Hardy's Angel Clare felt [:] 'The impressionable peasant leads a larger, fuller, more dramatic life than the pachydermatous king.'" Now, in Growing Up in Medieval London, Hanawalt again reveals the larger, fuller, more dramatic life of the common people, in this instance, the lives of children in London. Bringing together a wealth of evidence drawn from court records, literary sources, and books of advice, Hanawalt weaves a rich tapestry of the life of London youth during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Much of what she finds is eye opening. She shows for instance that--contrary to the belief of some historians--medieval adults did recognize and pay close attention to the various stages of childhood and adolescence. For instance, manuals on childrearing, such as "Rhodes's Book of Nurture" or "Seager's School of Virtue," clearly reflect the value parents placed in laying the proper groundwork for a child's future. Likewise, wardship cases reveal that in fact London laws granted orphans greater protection than do our own courts. Hanawalt also breaks ground with her innovative narrative style. To bring medieval childhood to life, she creates composite profiles, based on the experiences of real children, which provide a more vivid portrait than otherwise possible of the trials and tribulations of medieval youths at work and at play. We discover through these portraits that the road to adulthood was fraught with danger. We meet Alison the Bastard Heiress, whose guardians married her off to their apprentice in order to gain control of her inheritance. We learn how Joan Rawlyns of Aldenham thwarted an attempt to sell her into prostitution. And we hear the unfortunate story of William Raynold and Thomas Appleford, two mercer's apprentices who found themselves forgotten by their senile master, and abused by his wife. These composite portraits, and many more, enrich our understanding of the many stages of life in the Middle Ages. Written by a leading historian of the Middle Ages, these pages evoke the color and drama of medieval life. Ranging from birth and baptism, to apprenticeship and adulthood, here is a myth-shattering, innovative work that illuminates the nature of childhood in the Middle Ages.

Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers

The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping - Now Revised and Updated

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Author: Robert M. Sapolsky

Publisher: Holt Paperbacks

ISBN: 9781429935654

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 560

View: 9231

Renowned primatologist Robert Sapolsky offers a completely revised and updated edition of his most popular work, with over 225,000 copies in print Now in a third edition, Robert M. Sapolsky's acclaimed and successful Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers features new chapters on how stress affects sleep and addiction, as well as new insights into anxiety and personality disorder and the impact of spirituality on managing stress. As Sapolsky explains, most of us do not lie awake at night worrying about whether we have leprosy or malaria. Instead, the diseases we fear-and the ones that plague us now-are illnesses brought on by the slow accumulation of damage, such as heart disease and cancer. When we worry or experience stress, our body turns on the same physiological responses that an animal's does, but we do not resolve conflict in the same way-through fighting or fleeing. Over time, this activation of a stress response makes us literally sick. Combining cutting-edge research with a healthy dose of good humor and practical advice, Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers explains how prolonged stress causes or intensifies a range of physical and mental afflictions, including depression, ulcers, colitis, heart disease, and more. It also provides essential guidance to controlling our stress responses. This new edition promises to be the most comprehensive and engaging one yet.

Ecology Abstracts

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ecology

Page: N.A

View: 9073

Coverage: 1982- current; updated: monthly. This database covers current ecology research across a wide range of disciplines, reflecting recent advances in light of growing evidence regarding global environmental change and destruction. Major ares of subject coverage include: Algae/lichens, Animals, Annelids, Aquatic ecosystems, Arachnids, Arid zones, Birds, Brackish water, Bryophytes/pteridophytes, Coastal ecosystems, Conifers, Conservation, Control, Crustaceans, Ecosyst em studies, Fungi, Grasses, Grasslands, High altitude environments, Human ecology, Insects, Legumes, Mammals, Management, Microorganisms, Molluscs, Nematodes, Paleo-ecology, Plants, Pollution studies, Reptiles, River basins, Soil, TAiga/tundra, Terrestrial ecosystems, Vertebrates, Wetlands, Woodlands.

The Biological Basis of Human Behavior

A Critical Review

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Author: Robert W. Sussman

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780137997350

Category: Psychology

Page: 382

View: 7512

This collection of 59 recent studies on the biological basis of human behavior explores the questions of whether the behavioral patterns we see are genetically fixed or racially variable. It offers a broad perspective from many disciplines -- plus a critical evaluation of whether experts are now better able to answer these questions or whether this renewed interest is just a resurgence of the old racism and biological determinism of the past. The articles stimulate readers to think about the questions and read -- with a critical eye -- those writers who believe they have found a simple and simplistic answer to these very complex problems. Illustrates the growing awareness of the complex interrelationships between environmental and cultural influences on behavior in humans and other animals. Covers areas such as evolution, humans, and primates; the biological basis of human behavior; the biological basis of race and racism; the new Biological Determinism; the brain, hormones, and human behavior. Includes popular, scientific, good and bad approaches to the same themes. Uses critical examples which carefully evaluate alternate approaches, and evaluates the data available to reach various conclusions -- or lack thereof. For anyone interested in the biological basis of human behavior.

Animal Societies; Theories and Facts

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Author: 伊藤嘉昭,Jerram L. Brown,Jiro Kikkawa

Publisher: International Specialized Book Service Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Animal societies

Page: 291

View: 9823

Enduring Questions in Gerontology

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Author: Debra J. Sheets, RN, PhD,Dana Burr Bradley, PhD,Jon Hendricks, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780826164162

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 7717

Enduring Questions in Gerontology provides a comprehensive perspective on the abiding issues in gerontology. Both current and future gerontologists will find this book useful in examining emerging dilemmas and creating a context for further progress in the field of aging. The most creative thinkers contributing to the gerontological literature reflect on their disciplines, consider how key questions have emerged, review how they have changed in the decades since gerontology entered the fray, and speculate what may lie ahead. The resulting collection of essays offers a comprehensive perspective on the enduring questions in gerontology and how they have shaped our understanding of differences in the experience of old age. Key contributors to this volume include: George L. Maddox Christine L. Fry Steven Austad Kenneth Brummel-Smith Manfred Diehl Martha Holstein W. Andrew Achenbaum James E. Birren As an emerging or seasoned scholar, you will find insights into the ways in which each disciplinary focus grapples with societal transitions, identifies emerging issues, and lays out strategies and salient perspectives for what should come next.