Inequality in U.S. Social Policy

An Historical Analysis

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Author: Bryan Warde

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317537572

Category: Social Science

Page: 462

View: 363

In Inequality in US Social Policy: An Historic Analysis, Bryan Warde illuminates the pervasive and powerful role that social inequality based on race and ethnicity, gender, immigration status, sexual orientation, class, and disability plays and has historically played in informing social policy. Using critical race theory and other structural oppression theoretical frameworks, this book examines social inequalities as they relate to social welfare, education, housing, employment, health care, and child welfare, immigration, and criminal justice. This book will help social work students better understand the origins of inequalities that their clients face.

Democracy and the Left

Social Policy and Inequality in Latin America

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Author: Evelyne Huber,John D. Stephens

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226356523

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 4314

Although inequality in Latin America ranks among the worst in the world, it has notably declined over the last decade, offset by improvements in health care and education, enhanced programs for social assistance, and increases in the minimum wage. In Democracy and the Left, Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens argue that the resurgence of democracy in Latin America is key to this change. In addition to directly affecting public policy, democratic institutions enable left-leaning political parties to emerge, significantly influencing the allocation of social spending on poverty and inequality. But while democracy is an important determinant of redistributive change, it is by no means the only factor. Drawing on a wealth of data, Huber and Stephens present quantitative analyses of eighteen countries and comparative historical analyses of the five most advanced social policy regimes in Latin America, showing how international power structures have influenced the direction of their social policy. They augment these analyses by comparing them to the development of social policy in democratic Portugal and Spain. The most ambitious examination of the development of social policy in Latin America to date, Democracy and the Left shows that inequality is far from intractable—a finding with crucial policy implications worldwide.

Poverty Knowledge

Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History

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Author: Alice O'Connor

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400824745

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 8230

Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.

Welfare and Inequality in Marketizing East Asia

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Author: Jonathan D. London

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137541067

Category: Political Science

Page: 435

View: 3733

The world-scale expansion of markets and market relations ranks among the most transformative developments of our times. We can refer to this process by way of a generic if inelegant term – marketization. This book explores how processes of marketization have registered across East Asia’s diverse social landscape and its implications for patterns of welfare and inequality. While there has been great interest in East Asia’s economic rise, treatments of welfare and inequality in the region have been largely relegated to specialist literatures. Proceeding from a synthetic critique of political economy, this book places welfare and inequality at the center of a more encompassing comparative approach to political economy that construes countries as dynamic, globally embedded social orders defined and animated by distinctive social relational and institutional features.

The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Social Policy

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Author: Daniel Béland,Christopher Howard,Kimberly J. Morgan

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 019983850X

Category: Political Science

Page: 668

View: 2260

This handbook provides a survey of the American welfare state. It offers an historical overview of U.S. social policy from the colonial era to the present, a discussion of available theoretical perspectives on it, an analysis of social programmes, and on overview of the U.S. welfare state's consequences for poverty, inequality, and citizenship.

Double Standard

Social Policy in Europe and the United States

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Author: James W. Russell

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1538103354

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 8972

In Double Standard, James W. Russell shows how and why different models of social and welfare policy developed in the United States and Europe. The fourth edition has been revised and updated throughout to reflect recent political developments that are having significant policy consequences, including the Brexit vote in the UK and the election of Donald Trump in the U.S. The fourth edition also features additional material on Karl Polanyi, European party politics, disability policy, and more. Part One, “The Development of Social Policy,” discusses the factors that contributed to the different shapes of social policy in the U.S. and Europe. Part Two, “Key Social Policies,” considers how different counties have handled commons social problems including poverty, unemployment, child and family support, retirement and disability, health care, race and immigration, and incarceration. These different social policy orientations have produced disparate social ways of life—ways of life that are now in contention for the future of Western societies. A complimentary test bank including discussion/essay questions and multiple choice questions is available. Please email [email protected] for more information.

A Rights-Based Approach to Social Policy Analysis

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Author: Shirley Gatenio Gabel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319244124

Category: Social Science

Page: 85

View: 8921

This brief resource sets out a rights-based framework for policy analysis that allows social workers to enhance their long-term vision as well as their current practice. It introduces the emerging P.A.N.E. (Participation, Accountability, Non-discrimination, Equity) model for evaluating social policy, comparing it with the traditional needs-based charity model in terms of not only effectiveness and efficiency but also inclusion and justice. Recognized standards for human rights are used to identify values crucial to informing policy goals. Exercises, key documents, and an extended example illustrate both the processes of creating empowering social policy and its best and most meaningful outcomes. Included in the coverage: Rights-based and needs-based approaches to social policy analysis. Regional and international human rights instruments. Grounding social policies in legal and institutional frameworks. Conceptualizing social issues from a human rights frame. Measuring progress on the realization of human rights. Rights-based analysis of maternity, paternity, and parental leaves in the United States. For social workers and social work researchers, A Rights-Based Approach to Social Policy Analysis gives readers a modern platform for achieving the highest goals of the field. It also makes a worthwhile class text for social work programs. ​

Welfare for the Wealthy

Parties, Social Spending, and Inequality in the United States

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Author: Christopher G. Faricy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316352455

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8326

How does political party control determine changes to social policy, and by extension, influence inequality in America? Conventional theories show that Democratic control of the federal government produces more social expenditures and less inequality. Welfare for the Wealthy re-examines this relationship by evaluating how political party power results in changes to both public social spending and subsidies for private welfare - and how a trade-off between the two, in turn, affects income inequality. Christopher Faricy finds that both Democrats and Republicans have increased social spending over the last forty-two years. And while both political parties increase federal social spending, Democrats and Republicans differ in how they spend federal money, which socioeconomic groups benefit, and the resulting consequences for income inequality.

The Third Lie

Why Government Programs Don't Work—and a Blueprint for Change

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Author: Richard J Gelles

Publisher: Left Coast Press

ISBN: 1611320518

Category: Political Science

Page: 151

View: 3669

Richard Gelles explains why government programs designed to cure social ills don t work in sector after sector and why they should be replaced with a universal entitlement at lower cost."

Being Black, Living in the Red

Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America

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Author: Dalton Conley

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520261305

Category: Social Science

Page: 227

View: 1049

"Being Black, Living in the Red is an important book. In Conley's persuasive analysis the locus of current racial inequality resides in class and property relations, not in the labor market. This carefully written and meticulous book not only provides a compelling explanation of the black-white wealth differential, it also represents the best contribution to the race-class debate in the past two decades."—William Julius Wilson, author of When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor "In Being Black, Living in the Red, Dalton Conley has taken the discussion of race and inequality into important new territory. Even as income inequality is shrinking, Conley shows, the wealth gap endures. That gap, he argues lucidly, explains much of the persisting 'two societies' phenomenon—it contributes significantly to inequalities in education, work, even family structure. Those concerned about equity in America will find this book indispensable reading."—David Kirp, author of Our Town: Race, Housing, and the Soul of America "With methodological sophistication Dalton Conley's well written book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the precarious social and economic predicament that African Americans continue to experience."—Martin Sanchez-Jankowski, author of City Bound: Urban Life and Political Attitudes Among Chicano Youth "Picking up where Oliver and Shapiro (Black Wealth, White Wealth) left off, Conley details how and why facets of net worth cascade into long-term inequalities. All sides will be impressed with Conley's thorough scholarship and richly detailed analysis."—Troy Duster, co-editor of Cultural Perspectives on Biological Knowledge "Being Black, Living in the Red is the most convincing analysis yet of the importance of wealth for the life chances of African Americans. Thanks to Conley's stunning data and adroit theoretical discussions, social scientists and policymakers can no longer ignore wealth as they attempt to deal with the thorny issue of racial inequality. A must read!"—Melvin L. Oliver, author of Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality

Poverty, Inequality, and the Future of Social Policy

Western States in the New World Order

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Author: Katherine McFate,Roger Lawson,William Julius Wilson

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610446682

Category: Social Science

Page: 768

View: 5938

"Extremely coherent and useful, this much needed volume is concerned with the current status of the poor in Western industrial states. Its closely linked essays allow comparisons between case studies and are often themselves cross-national comparisons....The essays also comment on the meaning of globalization for social policy." —Choice "Excellent and tightly integrated articles by a group of prominent international scholars....A timely and important book, which will surely become the basic reference point for all future research on inequality and social policy." —Contemporary Sociology The social safety net is under strain in all Western nations, as social and economic change has created problems that traditional welfare systems were not designed to handle. Poverty, Inequality, and the Future of Social Policy provides a definitive analysis of the conditions that are fraying the social fabric and the reasons why some countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. In the United States, where the poverty rate in the 1980s was twice that of any advanced nation in Europe, the social protection system—and public support for it—has eroded alarmingly. In Europe, the welfare system more effectively buffered the disadvantaged, but social expenditures have been indicted by many as the principal cause of high unemployment. Concluding chapters review the progress and goals of social welfare programs, assess their viability in the face of creeping economic, racial, and social fragmentation, and define the challenges that face those concerned with social cohesion and economic prosperity in the new global economy. This volume illuminates the disparate effects of government intervention on the incidence and duration of poverty in Western countries. Poverty, Inequality, and the Future of Social Policy is full of lessons for anyone who would look beyond the limitations of the welfare debate in the United States.

More Beautiful and More Terrible

The Embrace and Transcendence of Racial Inequality in the United States

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Author: Imani Perry

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814767362

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 9429

For a nation that often optimistically claims to be post-racial, we are still mired in the practices of racial inequality that plays out in law, policy, and in our local communities. One of two explanations is often given for this persistent phenomenon: On the one hand, we might be hypocritical—saying one thing, and doing or believing another; on the other, it might have little to do with us individually but rather be inherent to the structure of American society. More Beautiful and More Terrible compels us to think beyond this insufficient dichotomy in order to see how racial inequality is perpetuated. Imani Perry asserts that the U.S. is in a new and distinct phase of racism that is “post-intentional”: neither based on the intentional discrimination of the past, nor drawing upon biological concepts of race. Drawing upon the insights and tools of critical race theory, social policy, law, sociology and cultural studies, she demonstrates how post-intentional racism works and maintains that it cannot be addressed solely through the kinds of structural solutions of the Left or the values arguments of the Right. Rather, the author identifies a place in the middle—a space of “righteous hope”—and articulates a notion of ethics and human agency that will allow us to expand and amplify that hope. To paraphrase James Baldwin, when talking about race, it is both more terrible than most think, but also more beautiful than most can imagine, with limitless and open-ended possibility. Perry leads readers down the path of imagining the possible and points to the way forward.

The Welfare State Nobody Knows

Debunking Myths about U.S. Social Policy

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Author: Christopher Howard

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691121802

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 777

The Welfare State Nobody Knows challenges a number of myths and half-truths about U.S. social policy. The American welfare state is supposed to be a pale imitation of "true" welfare states in Europe and Canada. Christopher Howard argues that the American welfare state is in fact larger, more popular, and more dynamic than commonly believed. Nevertheless, poverty and inequality remain high, and this book helps explain why so much effort accomplishes so little. One important reason is that the United States is adept at creating social programs that benefit the middle and upper-middle classes, but less successful in creating programs for those who need the most help. This book is unusually broad in scope, analyzing the politics of social programs that are well known (such as Social Security and welfare) and less well known but still important (such as workers' compensation, home mortgage interest deduction, and the Americans with Disabilities Act). Although it emphasizes developments in recent decades, the book ranges across the entire twentieth century to identify patterns of policymaking. Methodologically, it weaves together quantitative and qualitative approaches in order to answer fundamental questions about the politics of U.S. social policy. Ambitious and timely, The Welfare State Nobody Knows asks us to rethink the influence of political parties, interest groups, public opinion, federalism, policy design, and race on the American welfare state.

Social Policy in a Development Context

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Author: T. Mkandawire

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230523978

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 354

View: 7833

Drawing upon both conceptual and empirical evidence, this volume argues the case for the centrality of social policy in development, focusing particularly on the message that social policy needs to be closely intertwined with economic policy. It is argued that social policy can provide the crucial link between economic development poverty eradication and equity. This volume is a significant contribution to thinking about social policy in a development context.

The Economics of Poverty

History, Measurement, and Policy

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Author: Martin Ravallion

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190212772

Category:

Page: 720

View: 6914

While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning.

Poverty, Inequality, and Policy in Latin America

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Author: Stephan Klasen,Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D.

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262113244

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 324

View: 9533

Experts examine the dynamics of poverty and inequality in Latin America and policies to address them using new tools and data.

The Great Leveler

Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century

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Author: Walter Scheidel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691184313

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7563

Are mass violence and catastrophes the only forces that can seriously decrease economic inequality? To judge by thousands of years of history, the answer is yes. Tracing the global history of inequality from the Stone Age to today, Walter Scheidel shows that it never dies peacefully. The Great Leveler is the first book to chart the crucial role of violent shocks in reducing inequality over the full sweep of human history around the world. The “Four Horsemen” of leveling—mass-mobilization warfare, transformative revolutions, state collapse, and catastrophic plagues—have repeatedly destroyed the fortunes of the rich. Today, the violence that reduced inequality in the past seems to have diminished, and that is a good thing. But it casts serious doubt on the prospects for a more equal future. An essential contribution to the debate about inequality, The Great Leveler provides important new insights about why inequality is so persistent—and why it is unlikely to decline anytime soon.

Social Policy and Social Change

Toward the Creation of Social and Economic Justice

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Author: Jillian Jimenez,Eileen Mayers Pasztor,Ruth M. Chambers,Cheryl Pearlman Fujii

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 148332415X

Category: Social Science

Page: 520

View: 7319

The Second Edition of Social Policy and Social Change is a timely examination of the field, unique in its inclusion of both a historical analysis of problems and policy and an exploration of how capitalism and the market economy have contributed to them. The New Edition of this seminal text examines issues of discrimination, health care, housing, income, and child welfare and considers the policies that strive to improve them. With a focus on how domestic social policies can be transformed to promote social justice for all groups, Jimenez et al. consider the impact of globalization in the United States while addressing developing concerns now emerging in the global village.

Risk Inequality and Welfare States

Social Policy Preferences, Development, and Dynamics

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Author: Philipp Rehm

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107108160

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 2426

The transformation of night-watchman states into welfare states is one of the most notable societal developments in recent history. In 1880, not a single country had a nationally compulsory social policy program. A few decades later, every single one of today's rich democracies had adopted programs covering all or almost all of the main risks people face: old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment. These programs rapidly expanded in terms of range, reach, and resources. Today, all rich democracies cover all main risks for a vast majority of citizens, with binding public or mandatory private programs. Three aspects of this remarkable transformation are particularly fascinating: the trend (the transformation to insurance states happened in all rich democracies); differences across countries (the generosity of social policy varies greatly across countries); and the dynamics of the process. This book offers a theory that not only explains this remarkable transition but also explains cross-national differences and the role of crises for social policy development.

The Digital Divide

The Internet and Social Inequality in International Perspective

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Author: Massimo Ragnedda,Glenn W. Muschert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135088357

Category: Computers

Page: 344

View: 3412

This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines ‘the digital divide’ as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic and socio-economic factors including income, education, age and gender, as well as infrastructure, products and services affect how the internet is used and accessed. Comprised of six parts, the first section examines theories of the digital divide, and then looks in turn at: Highly developed nations and regions (including the USA, the EU and Japan); Emerging large powers (Brazil, China, India, Russia); Eastern European countries (Estonia, Romania, Serbia); Arab and Middle Eastern nations (Egypt, Iran, Israel); Under-studied areas (East and Central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa). Providing an interwoven analysis of the international inequalities in internet usage and access, this important work offers a comprehensive approach to studying the digital divide around the globe. It is an important resource for academic and students in sociology, social policy, communication studies, media studies and all those interested in the questions and issues around social inequality.