How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy

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Author: Mónica Ferrín,Hanspeter Kriesi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191079537

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 9013

Based on a new data-set covering 29 European and neighboring countries, this volume shows how, Europeans view and evaluate democracy: what are their conceptions of democracy, how do they assess the quality of democracy in their own country, and to what extent do they consider their country's democracy as legitimate? The study shows that Europeans share a common view of liberal democracy, which is complemented by elements of social and direct democracy, which go beyond the basic liberal model. The level of their demands in terms of democracy varies, however, considerably across Europe and is related to their assessment of democracy: the worse the quality of democracy in a given country, the higher the respective demands on democracy. The analysis of the determinants of democratic views and evaluations shows that they depend on the political and economic (but less on the cultural) context conditions. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The Comparative Politics series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Université libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, Chair of the Department of Political Science, University of Houston.

Expertisation and Democracy in Europe

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Author: Magdalena Góra,Cathrine Holst,Marta Warat

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351974858

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 8361

Expertisation and Democracy in Europe provides a much-needed account of the role and re-organisation of expertise and expert knowledge in Europe and the European Union in a broad range of policy spheres, contributing to the debate triggered by the recent crises. It brings novel perspectives to debates on technocracy and our understanding of the relations between knowledge, experts and democracy. The book explores and assesses new and old linkages between knowledge, expertise and democracy, and expands and deepens the current debates by addressing questions such as: What is the role of expertise in Europe? How is knowledge of different kinds embedded in and decisive for democratic practice in contemporary democracies? How are we to assess recent transformations of the expert-citizens and government-civil society relationships from the perspective of democracy, and which paths are viable in the years to come? Finally, the book engages with and gives flesh to the notion of expertisation not only as a broad political and societal diagnosis, but also as a multidimensional and deeply contested process that enfolds in concrete practices and institutional settings. This text will be of key interest to scholars and students of European studies, European and European Union politics, democracy, public policy, international relations, sociology, gender studies and media studies.

Media and Politics in New Democracies

Europe in a Comparative Perspective

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Author: Jan Zielonka

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198747535

Category: Democratization

Page: 312

View: 4726

How is power being mediated in new democracies? Can media function independently in the unstable and polarised political environment experienced after the fall of autocracy? Do major shifts in economic and ownership structures help or hinder the quality of the media? How much can new media laws alter old journalistic habits and political cultures? And how do new technologies impact the media and democracy? This book examines these questions, drawing on a vast set of data assembled by a large international project.

Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies

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Author: Petr Kopecký,Peter Mair,Maria Spirova

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599378

Category: Political Science

Page: 415

View: 7353

Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies brings together insights from the worlds of party politics and public administration in order to analyze the role of political parties in public appointments across contemporary Europe. Based on an extensive new data gathered through expert interviews in fifteen European countries, this book offers the first systematic comparative assessment of the scale of party patronage and its role in sustaining modern party governments. Among the key findings are: First, patronage appointments tend to be increasingly dominated by the party in public office rather than being used or controlled by the party organization outside parliament. Second, rather than using appointments as rewards, as used to be the case in more clientelistic systems in the past, parties are now more likely to emphasize appointments that can help them to manage the infrastructure of government and the state. In this way patronage becomes an organizational rather than an electoral resource. Third, patronage appointments are increasingly sourced from channels outside of the party, thus helping to make parties look increasingly like network organizations, primarily constituted by their leaders and their personal and political hinterlands. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr The Comparative Politics series is edited by Professor David M. Farrell, School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Kenneth Carty, Professor of Political Science, University of British Columbia, and Professor Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Institute of Political Science, Philipps University, Marburg.

Democracy and Climate Change

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Author: Frederic Hanusch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135185772X

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 337

Democracy and Climate Change explores the various ways in which democratic principles can lead governments to respond differently to climate change. The election cycle can lead to short-termism, which often appears to be at odds with the long-term nature of climate change, with its latency between cause and effect. However, it is clear that some democracies deal with climate change better than others, and this book demonstrates that overall stronger democratic qualities tend to correlate with improved climate performance. Beginning by outlining a general concept of democratic efficacy, the book provides an empirical analysis of the influence of the quality of democracy on climate change performance across dozens of countries. The specific case study of Canada’s Kyoto Protocol process is then used to explain the mechanisms of democratic influence in depth. The wide-ranging research presented in the book opens up several new and exciting avenues of enquiry and will be of considerable interest to researchers with an interest in comparative politics, democracy studies and environmental policies.

Designs on Nature

Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States

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Author: Sheila Jasanoff

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400837311

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 318

Biology and politics have converged today across much of the industrialized world. Debates about genetically modified organisms, cloning, stem cells, animal patenting, and new reproductive technologies crowd media headlines and policy agendas. Less noticed, but no less important, are the rifts that have appeared among leading Western nations about the right way to govern innovation in genetics and biotechnology. These significant differences in law and policy, and in ethical analysis, may in a globalizing world act as obstacles to free trade, scientific inquiry, and shared understandings of human dignity. In this magisterial look at some twenty-five years of scientific and social development, Sheila Jasanoff compares the politics and policy of the life sciences in Britain, Germany, the United States, and in the European Union as a whole. She shows how public and private actors in each setting evaluated new manifestations of biotechnology and tried to reassure themselves about their safety. Three main themes emerge. First, core concepts of democratic theory, such as citizenship, deliberation, and accountability, cannot be understood satisfactorily without taking on board the politics of science and technology. Second, in all three countries, policies for the life sciences have been incorporated into "nation-building" projects that seek to reimagine what the nation stands for. Third, political culture influences democratic politics, and it works through the institutionalized ways in which citizens understand and evaluate public knowledge. These three aspects of contemporary politics, Jasanoff argues, help account not only for policy divergences but also for the perceived legitimacy of state actions.

The Madisonian Turn

Political Parties and Parliamentary Democracy in Nordic Europe

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Author: Torbjörn Bergman,Kaare Strøm

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472117475

Category: History

Page: 417

View: 4473

Parliamentary democracy is the most common regime type in the contemporary political world, but the quality of governance depends on effective parliamentary oversight and strong political parties. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have traditionally been strongholds of parliamentary democracy. In recent years, however, critics have suggested that new challenges such as weakened popular attachment, the advent of cartel parties, the judicialization of politics, and European integration have threatened the institutions of parliamentary democracy in the Nordic region. This volume examines these claims and their implications. The authors find that the Nordic states have moved away from their previous resemblance to a Westminster model toward a form of parliamentary democracy with more separation-of-powers features—a Madisonian model. These features are evident both in vertical power relations (e.g., relations with the European Union) and horizontal ones (e.g., increasingly independent courts and central banks). Yet these developments are far from uniform and demonstrate that there may be different responses to the political challenges faced by contemporary Western democracies.

Passion, Craft, and Method in Comparative Politics

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Author: Gerardo L. Munck,Richard Snyder

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801884632

Category: Political Science

Page: 773

View: 4151

In the first collection of interviews with the most prominent scholars in comparative politics since World War II, Gerardo L. Munck and Richard Snyder trace key developments in the field during the twentieth century. Organized around a broad set of themes -- intellectual formation and training; major works and ideas; the craft and tools of research; colleagues, collaborators, and students; and the past and future of comparative politics -- these in-depth interviews offer unique and candid reflections that bring the research process to life and shed light on the human dimension of scholarship. Giving voice to scholars who practice their craft in different ways yet share a passion for knowledge about global politics, Passion, Craft, and Method in Comparative Politics offers a wealth of insights into contemporary debates about the state of knowledge in comparative politics and the future of the field. -- Margaret Keck, Johns Hopkins University

Compound Democracies

Why the United States and Europe Are Becoming Similar

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Author: Sergio Fabbrini

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199566003

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 2278

A major and broad-ranging new comparison of the American and European political systems that argues provocatively that they are growing increasingly similar and offers a compelling new model for understanding them.

The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe

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Author: John Loughlin,Frank Hendriks,Anders Lidström

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191628247

Category: Political Science

Page: 810

View: 1895

The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe analyses the state of play of democracy at the subnational level in the 27 member states of the EU plus Norway and Switzerland. It places subnational democracy in the context of the distinctive Anglo, the French, the German and Scandinavian state traditions in Europe asking to what extent these are still relevant today. The Handbook adapts Lijphart's theory of democracy and applies it to the subnational levels in all the country chapters. A key theoretical issue is whether subnational (regional and local) democracy is derived from national democracy or whether it is legitimate in its own right. Besides these theoretical concerns it focuses on the practice of democracy: the roles of political parties and interest groups and also how subnational political institutions relate to the ordinary citizen. This can take the form of local referendums or other mechanisms of participation. The Handbook reveals a wide variety of practices across Europe in this regard. Local financial systems also reveal a great variety. Finally, each chapter examines the challenges facing subnational democracy but also the opportunities available to them to enhance their democratic systems. Among the challenges identified are: Europeanization, globalization, but also citizens disaffection and switch-off from politics. Some countries have confronted these challenges more successfully than others but all countries face them. An important aspect of the Handbook is the inclusion of all the countries of East and Central Europe plus Cyprus and Malta, who joined the EU in 2004 and 2007. This is the first time they have been examined alongside the countries of Western Europe from the angle of subnational democracy.

The International Dimensions of Democratization

Europe and the Americas

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Author: Laurence Whitehead

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191529443

Category: Political Science

Page: 490

View: 7574

In recent years, and especially following the end of the cold war, democratization has become one of the most crucial issues on the international political scene. A great many states are undergoing an extraordinary and difficult transition to democracy. And that transition is deeply influenced by the new international context. A range of highly respected scholars from around the world and several disciplines tackle the role and importance of international relations in the democratic development of states in the Americas and Europe. Combining theoretical approaches with a rich set of empirical case studies, the book examines the development of democratic regimes in countries and regions as diverse as Brazil, Spain, Greece, the Caribbean, and East Central Europe. At the international level, the book considers the influence of US Foreign Policy, International politicalL finance, the UN, European Union, as well as the wide range of international political influences on the development of democratic politics. Oxford Studies in Democratization is a series for scholars and students of comparative politics and related disciplines. Volumes will concentrate on the comparative study of the democratization process that accompanied the decline and termination of the cold war. The geographical Caribbean, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Southern and Eastern Asia.

Evaluating Democratic Innovations

Curing the Democratic Malaise?

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Author: Kenneth Newton,Brigitte Geissel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136579958

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 2553

In the face of increasing political disenchantment, many Western governments have experimented, with innovations which aim to enhance the working and quality of democracy as well as increasing citizens’ political awareness and understanding of political matters. This text is the most comprehensive account of these various democratic innovations. Written by an outstanding team of international experts it examines the theories behind these democratic innovations, how they have worked in practice and evaluates their success or failure. It explains experiments with new forms of democratic engagement such as: Direct Democracy Deliberative Democracy Co-Governance E-Democracy Drawing on a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and with a broad range of case studies, this is essential reading for all students of democratic theory and all those with an interest in how we might revitalise democracy and increase citizen involvement in the political process.

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage

How Parties Organize Democracy

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Author: Russell J. Dalton,David M. Farrell,Ian McAllister

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599351

Category: Political Science

Page: 238

View: 2810

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage examines how political parties ensure the functioning of the democratic process in contemporary societies. Based on unprecedented cross-national data, the authors find that the process of party government is still alive and well in most contemporary democracies.

Demands on Democracy

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Author: Jose Maria Maravall

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019877852X

Category:

Page: 160

View: 5348

Why are representative democracies extensively criticised, yet remain widely aspired to throughout the world? Many citizens believe that democratic politicians operate with privileged information that allows them autonomy from genuine democratic controls, a phenomenon reinforced by the opacity of internal party politics. In established democracies throughout the world there is a widespread perception that political parties compete for power, yet no significant differences exist between them. Moreover, economic inequalities are no longer redressed by national governments in a world where markets are dominant and relevant decisions have been taken out of domestic politics. Citizens vote, but their choice is hardly relevant. This has led to widespread demands for 'more' democracy. But what does that mean in practice? Can democracies introduce greater 'representation' of citizens' interests? Do politicians operate as an autonomous caste hardly challenged by voters? Has political competition become irrelevant for the welfare of people? Do citizens want more democracy in internal party politics? And turning beyond the nation-state, has the European Union changed the scope of policy alternatives and influenced the accountability of politicians? What have been the consequences of European integration for national democracies? In his major new book, Jose Maria Maravall examines these and many other questions fundamental to democratic politics in the 21st Century. In doing so he draws extensively on original empirical evidence from 21 OECD parliamentary democracies from 1945 to 2010, and 1,259 country/year observations focused on politics, representation, parties, inequality, economic policies, and the political and economic conditions of European integration.

Euroscepticism and the Future of European Integration

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Author: Catherine E. De Vries

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198793383

Category:

Page: 272

View: 2204

The European Union (EU) is facing one of the rockiest periods in its existence. No time in its history has it looked so economically fragile, so unsecure about how to protect its borders, so divided over how to tackle the crisis of legitimacy facing its institutions, and so under assault ofEurosceptic parties. The unprecedented levels of integration in recent decades have led to increased public contestation, yet at the same the EU is more reliant on public support for its continued legitimacy than ever before. This book examines the role of public opinion in the European integration process. It develops a novel theory of public opinion that stresses the deep interconnectedness between people's views about European and national politics, and suggests that public opinion cannot simply be characterized aseither Eurosceptic or not, but rather consists of different types. This is important because these types coincide with fundamentally different views about the way the EU should be reformed and which policy priorities should be pursued. These types also have very different consequences for behaviourin elections and referenda. Euroscepticism is such a diverse phenomenon because the Eurozone crisis has exacerbated the structural imbalances within the EU. As the economic and political fates of member states diverged, people's experiences with and evaluations of the EU and national political systems also grew further apart.The heterogeneity in public preferences that this book has uncovered makes a one-size-fits-all approach to addressing Euroscepticism unlikely to be successful.

Democratic Deficit

Critical Citizens Revisited

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Author: Pippa Norris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139496166

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9558

Many fear that democracies are suffering from a legitimacy crisis. This book focuses on 'democratic deficits', reflecting how far the perceived democratic performance of any state diverges from public expectations. Pippa Norris examines the symptoms by comparing system support in more than fifty societies worldwide, challenging the pervasive claim that most established democracies have experienced a steadily rising tide of political disaffection during the third-wave era. The book diagnoses the reasons behind the democratic deficit, including demand (rising public aspirations for democracy), information (negative news about government) and supply (the performance and structure of democratic regimes). Finally, Norris examines the consequences for active citizenship, for governance and, ultimately, for democratization. This book provides fresh insights into major issues at the heart of comparative politics, public opinion, political culture, political behavior, democratic governance, political psychology, political communications, public policymaking, comparative sociology, cross-national survey analysis and the dynamics of the democratization process.

The European Voter

A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies

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Author: J. J. A. Thomassen

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199273219

Category: Political Science

Page: 347

View: 1768

This is the first book-length comparison of the dynamics of electoral behaviour across a wide range of European countries over the past forty years. Leading scholars come together to assess how voting patterns have changed in six established democracies: Britain, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.

Losers' Consent

Elections and Democratic Legitimacy

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Author: Christopher Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199276382

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

View: 5821

"Based on data from democracies across the globe, this book examines how election losers and their supporters respond to their loss and how institutions shape losing"--Provided by publisher.

Democratic Politics in a European Union Under Stress

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Author: Olaf Cramme,Sara B. Hobolt

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198724489

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 1772

This book offers the first comprehensive political analysis of the Euro crisis and its impact on democratic politics in the EU. Leading scholars provide political, economic, legal, and sociological perspectives on the main issues at stake and evaluate the prospects of a more legitimate and democratic Europe.

Democratization in Africa

African Views, African Voices

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Author: Sahr John Kpundeh

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 85

View: 7324

The global movement toward democracy, spurred in part by the ending of the cold war, has created opportunities for democratization not only in Europe and the former Soviet Union, but also in Africa. This book is based on workshops held in Benin, Ethiopia, and Namibia to better understand the dynamics of contemporary democratic movements in Africa. Key issues in the democratization process range from its institutional and political requirements to specific problems such as ethnic conflict, corruption, and role of donors in promoting democracy. By focusing on the opinion and views of African intellectuals, academics, writers, and political activists and observers, the book provides a unique perspective regarding the dynamics and problems of democratization in Africa.