Hegemony in International Society

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Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199556261

Category: History

Page: 277

View: 1308

Historically, states have appeared nervous of too much concentration of power. At the same time, they have accepted that the great powers must play a special role in maintaining international order. Can both of these tendencies be reconciled? This book argues that hegemony is one way of framing this relationship. On the basis of historical examples, the author presents an innovative scheme for rethinking hegemony, and applies it to the US role in internationalorganizations, in East Asia, and in the policy on climate change. Its urgent advice is that we must live creatively with the balance of power we now face, until such time as it is replaced by something new.

Hegemony & History

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Author: J.H. Adam Watson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136013180

Category: Political Science

Page: 128

View: 2470

This collection of essays records the development of Adam Watson's thinking about international theory from the 1950s to the present, exploring his contribution to, and the development of, the English School. Adam Watson was one of the members of the British Committee on the Theory of International Politics alongside Herbert Butterfield, Martin Wight and Hedley Bull and a founding member of the English School. The committee developed a theory of international society and the nature of order in world politics, which have had an important impact on the discipline of international relations, providing a framework and research agenda for understanding international politics that continues to shape the discipline in the present day. Hegemony & History examines issues such as: the behaviour of states in international systems and societies hegemony and empire justice non-state relations, including the economic involvement of communities and the role of other non-state actors the increasing focus of international politics on individuals as well as states. The book will be of strong interest to students and researchers of international relations, political science, history and economics, as well as diplomatic practitioners and others concerned with international affairs.

The Struggle for Order

Hegemony, Hierarchy, and Transition in Post-Cold War East Asia

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Author: Evelyn Goh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019959936X

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 7016

How has world order changed since the Cold War ended? Do we live in an age of American empire, or is global power shifting to the East with the rise of China? Arguing that existing ideas about balance of power and power transition are inadequate, this book gives an innovative reinterpretation of the changing nature of U.S. power, focused on the 'order transition' in East Asia. Hegemonic power is based on both coercion and consent, and hegemony is crucially underpinned by shared norms and values. Thus hegemons must constantly legitimize their unequal power to other states. In periods of strategic change, the most important political dynamics centre on this bargaining process, conceived here as the negotiation of a social compact. This book studies the re-negotiation of this consensual compact between the U.S., China, and other states in post-Cold War East Asia. It analyses institutional bargains to constrain and justify power; attempts to re-define the relationship between a regional community and the global economic order; the evolution of great power authority in regional conflict management, and the salience of competing justice claims in memory disputes. It finds that U.S. hegemony has been established in East Asia after the Cold War mainly because of the complicity of key regional states. But the new social compact also makes room for rising powers and satisfies smaller states' insecurities. The book controversially proposes that the East Asian order is multi-tiered and hierarchical, led by the U.S. but incorporating China, Japan, and other states in the layers below it.

Legitimacy in International Society

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Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199258422

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 8054

The word 'legitimacy' is seldom far from the lips of practitioners of international affairs. The legitimacy of recent events - such as the wars in Kosovo and Iraq, the post-September 11 war on terror, and instances of humanitarian intervention - have been endlessly debated by publics around the globe. And yet the academic discipline of IR has largely neglected this concept. This book encourages us to take legitimacy seriously, both as a facet of international behaviour withpractical consequences, and as a theoretical concept necessary for understanding that behaviour. It offers a comprehensive historical and theoretical account of international legitimacy. It argues that the development of principles of legitimacy lie at the heart of what is meant by an international society,and in so doing fills a notable void in English school accounts of the subject.Part I provides a historical survey of the evolution of the practice of legitimacy from the 'age of discovery' at the end of the 15th century. It explores how issues of legitimacy were interwoven with the great peace settlements of modern history - in 1648, 1713, 1815, 1919, and 1945. It offers a revisionist reading of the significance of Westphalia - not as the origin of a modern doctrine of sovereignty - but as a seminal stage in the development of an international society based on sharedprinciples of legitimacy. All of the historical chapters demonstrate how the twin dimensions of legitimacy - principles of rightful membership and of rightful conduct - have been thought about and developed in differing contexts.Part II then provides a trenchant analysis of legitimacy in contemporary international society. Deploying a number of short case studies, drawn mainly from the wars against Iraq in 1991 and 2003, and the Kosovo war of 1999, it sets out a theoretical account of the relationship between legitimacy, on the one hand, and consensus, norms, and equilibrium, on the other.This is the most sustained attempt to make sense of legitimacy in an IR context. Its conclusion, in the end, is that legitimacy matters, but in a complex way. Legitimacy is not to be discovered simply by straightforward application of other norms, such as legality and morality. Instead, legitimacy is an inherently political condition. What determines its attainability or not is as much the general political condition of international society at any one moment, as the conformity of its specificactions to set normative principles.

Cooperation and Hegemony in US-Latin American Relations

Revisiting the Western Hemisphere Idea

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Author: Andrew R. Tillman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137510749

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 4957

This edited volume revisits the idea of the Western Hemisphere. First articulated by Arthur P. Whitaker in 1954 but with origins in the earlier work of Herbert E. Bolton, it is the idea that "the peoples of this Hemisphere stand in a special relationship to one another which sets them apart from the rest of the word" (Whitaker, 1954). For most scholars of US-Latin American relations, this is a curious concept. They often conceptualize US-Latin American relations through the prism of realism and interventionism. While this volume does not deny that the United States has often acted as an imperial power in Latin America, it is unique in that it challenges scholars to re-think their preconceived notions of inter-American relations and explores the possibility of a common international society for the Americas, especially in the realm of international relations. Unlike most volumes on US-Latin American relations, the book develops its argument in an interdisciplinary manner, bringing together different approaches from disciplines including international relations, global and diplomatic history, human rights studies, and cultural and intellectual history.

National Interests in International Society

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Author: Martha Finnemore

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801483233

Category: Social Science

Page: 154

View: 9091

How do states know what they want? Asking how interests are defined and how changes in them are accommodated, Martha Finnemore shows the fruitfulness of a constructivist approach to international politics. She draws on insights from sociological institutionalism to develop a systemic approach to state interests and state behavior by investigating an international structure not of power but of meaning and social value. An understanding of what states want, she argues, requires insight into the international social structure of which they are a part. States are embedded in dense networks of transnational and international social relations that shape their perceptions and their preferences in consistent ways. Finnemore focuses on international organizations as one important component of social structure and investigates the ways in which they redefine state preferences. She details three examples in different issue areas. In state structure, she discusses UNESCO and the changing international organization of science. In security, she analyzes the role of the Red Cross and the acceptance of the Geneva Convention rules of war. Finally, she focuses on the World Bank and explores the changing definitions of development in the Third World. Each case shows how international organizations socialize states to accept new political goals and new social values in ways that have lasting impact on the conduct of war, the workings of the international political economy, and the structure of states themselves.

The Vulnerable in International Society

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Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199646082

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 2306

What makes people vulnerable to harm? In this contribution to International Relations theory, the author shows how international systems of protection (such as the Geneva Conventions, or the Refugee Convention) can have a social impact on how vulnerability is distributed, leaving some people more exposed to risk. This view is demonstrated through four cases, tracing the consequences for vulnerability in the areas of political violence, climate change, humanmovement, and global health. Although these are often presented as simply technical or practical problems requiring management, the author makes clear that they are essentially moral in nature. This makes their solution even more complex.

Promoting Polyarchy

Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony

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Author: William I. Robinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566919

Category: Political Science

Page: 466

View: 3829

Promoting Polyarchy is an exciting, detailed and controversial work on the apparent change in US foreign policy from supporting dictatorships to promoting "democratic" regimes. William I. Robinson argues that behind this facade, US policy upholds the undemocratic status quo of Third World countries. He addresses the theoretical and historical issues at stake, and uncovers a wealth of information from field work and hitherto unpublished government documents. Promoting Polyarchy is an essential book for anyone concerned with democracy, globalization and international affairs.

The Global Covenant

Human Conduct in a World of States

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Author: Robert Jackson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191037419

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 9640

The Global Covernant is a ground-breaking work by one of the leading scholars in international relations that rejuvenates the classical international society approach, and brings it into contact with the new era of world politics. It investigates the most important international issues of our time, including peace and security, war and intervention, human rights, failed states, territories and boundaries, and democracy. It draws on a family of closely related disciplines: diplomatic and military history, international legal studies, and international political theory. It addresses basic methodological questions and presents the elements of a human sciences approach to the study of world politics. It contemplates the future of international society in the 21st century. The Global Covenant concludes by justifying the pluralist society of sovereign states as one that respects human diversity and upholds human freedom.

American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe

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Author: Krige

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262263416

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 4102

In 1945, the United States was not only the strongest economic and military power in the world; it was also the world's leader in science and technology. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures in the United States to model postwar scientific practices and institutions in Western Europe on those in America. They mobilized political and financial support to promote not just America's scientific and technological agendas in Western Europe but its Cold War political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing on the work of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this attempt at scientific dominance by the United States can be seen as a form of "consensual hegemony," involving the collaboration of influential local elites who shared American values. He uses this notion to analyze a series of case studies that describe how the U.S. administration, senior officers in the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO Science Committee, and influential members of the scientific establishment -- notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia University and Vannevar Bush of MIT -- tried to Americanize scientific practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations research. He details U.S. support for institutions including CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif near Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's study shows how consensual hegemony in science not only served the interests of postwar European reconstruction but became another way of maintaining American leadership and "making the world safe for democracy."

Global Civil Society and Transversal Hegemony

The Globalization-Contestation Nexus

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Author: Karen M. Buckley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135047839

Category: Political Science

Page: 178

View: 505

There has been clear recognition of tendencies towards uncritically celebrating resistance and the need for critical appraisal within the literature on globalization and contestation. This book provides a conceptual history of global civil society and a critical examination of the politics of resistance in the global political economy. It uses a dialectical method of analysis to illustrate the conceptual stasis of mainstream approaches to questions of globalization and contestation, while demonstrating the potential of a Gramscian approach to reconstitute hegemony as a key analytical and explanatory tool. Buckley offers insight to the movements of transversal hegemony and existent and anticipated modes of social relation through the case studies of the World Social Forum and the World People's Conference on Climate Change. Offering a more comprehensive understanding of change in the global political economy, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of international political economy, globalization, global civil society, sociology, and the politics resistance.

US Hegemony and International Organizations

The United States and Multilateral Institutions

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Author: Rosemary Foot,S. Neil MacFarlane,Michael Mastanduno

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199261423

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 296

View: 3507

The aims of this text are two-fold: to describe and explain US behaviour in and towards a wide range of significant global and regional institutions; and secondly, to examine the impact of US behaviour on the capacity of each organization to meet its own objectives.

The H-Word

The Peripeteia of Hegemony

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Author: Perry Anderson

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 178663371X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8350

A fascinating history of the political theory of hegemony Few terms are so widely used in the literature of international relations and political science, with so little agreement about their exact meaning, as hegemony. In the first full historical study of its fortunes as a concept, Perry Anderson traces its emergence in Ancient Greece and its rediscovery during the upheavals of 1848–1849 in Germany. He then follows its checkered career in revolutionary Russia, fascist Italy, Cold War America, Gaullist France, Thatcher’s Britain, post-colonial India, feudal Japan, Maoist China, eventually arriving at the world of Merkel and May, Bush and Obama. The result is a surprising and fascinating expedition into global intellectual history, ending with reflections on the contemporary political landscape.

Combating Jihadism

American Hegemony and Interstate Cooperation in the War on Terrorism

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Author: Barak Mendelsohn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226520131

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 5770

Although terrorism is an age-old phenomenon, jihadi ideology is distinctive in its ambition to abandon the principle of state sovereignty, overthrow the modern state system, and replace it with an extremely radical interpretation of an Islamic world order. These characteristics reflect a radical break from traditional objectives promoted by terrorist groups. In Combating Jihadism Barak Mendelsohn argues that the distinctiveness of the al-Qaeda threat led the international community to change its approach to counterterrorism. Contrary to common yet erroneous conceptions, the United States, in its role as a hegemon, was critical for the formulation of a multilateral response. While most analyses of hegemony have focused on power, Mendelsohn firmly grounds the phenomenon in a web of shared norms and rules relating to the hegemon’s freedom of action. Consequently, he explains why US leadership in counterterrorism efforts was in some spheres successful, when in others it failed or did not even seek to establish multilateral collaborative frameworks. Tracing the ways in which international cooperation has stopped terrorist efforts, Combating Jihadism provides a nuanced, innovative, and timely reinterpretation of the war on terrorism and the role of the United States in leading the fight against al-Qaeda and its affiliates.

Decentring the West

The Idea of Democracy and the Struggle for Hegemony

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Author: Viatcheslav Morozov

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317154053

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 4288

We live in a world where democracy is almost universally accepted as the only legitimate form of government but what makes a society democratic remains far from clear. Liberal democratic values are both relativized by the self-description of many non-democratic regimes as 'local' or 'culturally specific' versions of democracy, and undermined by the automatic labelling as 'democratic' of all norms and institutions that are modelled on western states. Decentring the West: The Idea of Democracy and the Struggle for Hegemony aims to demonstrate the urgent need to revisit the foundations of the global democratic consensus. By examining the views of democracy that exist in the countries on the semi-periphery of the world system such as Russia, Turkey, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil and China, as well as within the core (Estonia, Denmark and Sweden) the authors emphasize the truly universal significance of democracy, also showing the value of approaching this universality in a critical manner, as a consequence of the hegemonic position of the West in global politics. By juxtaposing, critically re-evaluating and combining poststructuralist hegemony theory and postcolonial studies this book demonstrates a new way to think about democracy as a truly international phenomenon. It thus contributes groundbreaking, thought-provoking insights to the conceptual and normative aspects of this vital debate.

Liberal Leviathan

The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order

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Author: G. John Ikenberry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691156174

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 6285

In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States engaged in the most ambitious and far-reaching liberal order building the world had yet seen. This liberal international order has been one of the most successful in history in providing security and prosperity to more people. But in the last decade, the American-led order has been troubled. Some argue that the Bush administration, with its war on terror, invasion of Iraq, and unilateral orientation, undermined this liberal order. Others argue that we are witnessing the end of the American era. Liberal Leviathan engages these debates. G. John Ikenberry argues that the crisis that besets the American-led order is a crisis of authority. A political struggle has been ignited over the distribution of roles, rights, and authority within the liberal international order. But the deeper logic of liberal order remains alive and well. The forces that have triggered this crisis--the rise of non-Western states such as China, contested norms of sovereignty, and the deepening of economic and security interdependence--have resulted from the successful functioning and expansion of the postwar liberal order, not its breakdown. The liberal international order has encountered crises in the past and evolved as a result. It will do so again. Ikenberry provides the most systematic statement yet about the theory and practice of the liberal international order, and a forceful message for policymakers, scholars, and general readers about why America must renegotiate its relationship with the rest of the world and pursue a more enlightened strategy--that of the liberal leviathan.

Chinese Hegemony

Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History

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Author: Feng Zhang

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804795045

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 6239

Chinese Hegemony: Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History joins a rapidly growing body of important literature that combines history and International Relations theory to create new perspectives on East Asian political and strategic behavior. The book explores the strategic and institutional dynamics of international relations in East Asian history when imperial China was the undisputed regional hegemon, focusing in depth on two central aspects of Chinese hegemony at the time: the grand strategies China and its neighbors adopted in their strategic interactions, and the international institutions they engaged in to maintain regional order—including but not limited to the tribute system. Feng Zhang draws on both Chinese and Western intellectual traditions to develop a relational theory of grand strategy and fundamental institutions in regional relations. The theory is evaluated with three case studies of Sino-Korean, Sino-Japanese, and Sino-Mongol relations during China's early Ming dynasty—when a type of Confucian expressive strategy was an essential feature of regional relations. He then explores the policy implications of this relational model for understanding and analyzing contemporary China's rise and the changing East Asian order. The book suggests some historical lessons for understanding contemporary Chinese foreign policy and considers the possibility of a more relational and cooperative Chinese strategy in the future.

Social Theory of International Politics

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Author: Alexander Wendt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268435

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4954

Drawing upon philosophy and social theory, Social Theory of International Politics develops a theory of the international system as a social construction. Alexander Wendt clarifies the central claims of the constructivist approach, presenting a structural and idealist worldview which contrasts with the individualism and materialism which underpins much mainstream international relations theory. He builds a cultural theory of international politics, which takes whether states view each other as enemies, rivals or friends as a fundamental determinant. Wendt characterises these roles as 'cultures of anarchy', described as Hobbesian, Lockean and Kantian respectively. These cultures are shared ideas which help shape state interests and capabilities, and generate tendencies in the international system. The book describes four factors which can drive structural change from one culture to another - interdependence, common fate, homogenization, and self-restraint - and examines the effects of capitalism and democracy in the emergence of a Kantian culture in the West.

Hegemony or Survival

America's Quest for Global Dominance

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Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Metropolitan Books

ISBN: 9781429900218

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 3628

From the world's foremost intellectual activist, an irrefutable analysis of America's pursuit of total domination and the catastrophic consequences that are sure to follow The United States is in the process of staking out not just the globe but the last unarmed spot in our neighborhood-the heavens-as a militarized sphere of influence. Our earth and its skies are, for the Bush administration, the final frontiers of imperial control. In Hegemony or Survival , Noam Chomsky investigates how we came to this moment, what kind of peril we find ourselves in, and why our rulers are willing to jeopardize the future of our species. With the striking logic that is his trademark, Chomsky dissects America's quest for global supremacy, tracking the U.S. government's aggressive pursuit of policies intended to achieve "full spectrum dominance" at any cost. He lays out vividly how the various strands of policy-the militarization of space, the ballistic-missile defense program, unilateralism, the dismantling of international agreements, and the response to the Iraqi crisis-cohere in a drive for hegemony that ultimately threatens our survival. In our era, he argues, empire is a recipe for an earthly wasteland. Lucid, rigorous, and thoroughly documented, Hegemony or Survival promises to be Chomsky's most urgent and sweeping work in years, certain to spark widespread debate.