Geometry, Perspective Drawing, and Mechanisms

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Author: Don Row,Talmage James Reid

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981434382X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 328

View: 7397

The aim of this book is to examine the geometry of our world and, by blending theory with a variety of every-day examples, to stimulate the imagination of the readers and develop their geometric intuition. It tries to recapture the excitement that surrounded geometry during the Renaissance as the development of perspective drawing gathered pace, or more recently as engineers sought to show that all the world was a machine. The same excitement is here still, as enquiring minds today puzzle over a random-dot stereogram or the interpretation of an image painstakingly transmitted from Jupiter. The book will give a solid foundation for a variety of undergraduate courses, to provide a basis for a geometric component of graduate teacher training, and to provide background for those who work in computer graphics and scene analysis. It begins with a self-contained development of the geometry of extended Euclidean space. This framework is then used to systematically clarify and develop the art of perspective drawing and its converse discipline of scene analysis and to analyze the behavior of bar-and-joint mechanisms and hinged-panel mechanisms. Spherical polyhedra are introduced and scene analysis is applied to drawings of these and associated objects. The book concludes by showing how a natural relaxation of the axioms developed in the early chapters leads to the concept of a matroid and briefly examines some of the attractive properties of these natural structures.

Distinguished Figures in Descriptive Geometry and Its Applications for Mechanism Science

From the Middle Ages to the 17th Century

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Author: Michela Cigola

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319201972

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 3919

This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of parts in a complex mechanical assembly.

Perceiving in Depth, Volume 1: Basic Mechanisms

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Author: Ian P. Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199877343

Category: Psychology

Page: 672

View: 3534

The three-volume work Perceiving in Depth is a sequel to Binocular Vision and Stereopsis and to Seeing in Depth, both by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers. This work is much broader in scope than the previous books and includes mechanisms of depth perception by all senses, including aural, electrosensory organs, and the somatosensory system. Volume 1 reviews sensory coding, psychophysical and analytic procedures, and basic visual mechanisms. Volume 2 reviews stereoscopic vision. Volume 3 reviews all mechanisms of depth perception other than stereoscopic vision. The three volumes are extensively illustrated and referenced and provide the most detailed review of all aspects of perceiving the three-dimensional world. Volume 1 starts with a review of the history of visual science from the ancient Greeks to the early 20th century with special attention devoted to the discovery of the principles of perspective and stereoscopic vision. The first chapter also contains an account of early visual display systems, such as panoramas and peepshows, and the development of stereoscopes and stereophotography. A chapter on the psychophysical and analytic procedures used in investigations of depth perception is followed by a chapter on sensory coding and the geometry of visual space. An account of the structure and physiology of the primate visual system proceeds from the eye through the LGN to the visual cortex and higher visual centers. This is followed by a review of the evolution of visual systems and of the development of the mammalian visual system in the embryonic and post-natal periods, with an emphasis on experience-dependent neural plasticity. An account of the development of perceptual functions, especially depth perception, is followed by a review of the effects of early visual deprivation during the critical period of neural plasticity on amblyopia and other defects in depth perception. Volume 1 ends with accounts of the accommodation mechanism of the human eye and vergence eye movements.

Mechanism, Mentalism and Metamathematics

An Essay on Finitism

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Author: J. Webb

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940157653X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 596

This book grew out of a graduate student paper [261] in which I set down some criticisms of J. R. Lucas' attempt to refute mechanism by means of G6del's theorem. I had made several such abortive attempts myself and had become familiar with their pitfalls, and especially with the double edged nature of incompleteness arguments. My original idea was to model the refutation of mechanism on the almost universally accepted G6delian refutation of Hilbert's formalism, but I kept getting stuck on questions of mathematical philosophy which I found myself having to beg. A thorough study of the foundational works of Hilbert and Bernays finally convinced me that I had all too naively and uncritically bought this refutation of formalism. I did indeed discover points of surprisingly close contact between formalism and mechanism, but also that it was possible to under mine certain strong arguments against these positions precisely by invok ing G6del's and related work. I also began to realize that the Church Turing thesis itself is the principal bastion protecting mechanism, and that G6del's work was perhaps the best thing that ever happened to both mechanism and formalism. I pushed these lines of argument in my dis sertation with the patient help of my readers, Raymond Nelson and Howard Stein. I would especially like to thank the latter for many valuable criticisms of my dissertation as well as some helpful suggestions for reor ganizing it in the direction of the present book.

Breech Mechanism Design

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Author: United States. Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ordnance

Page: 242

View: 3026

Geometrie und ihre Anwendungen in Kunst, Natur und Technik

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Author: Georg Glaeser

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 364241852X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 508

View: 7347

Die „Geometrie und ihre Anwendungen“ ist für Personen geschrieben, die von relativ einfachen Problemen der ebenen Geometrie bis hin zu schwierigeren Aufgaben der Raumgeometrie Interesse an geometrischen Zusammenhängen haben. Ähnlich wie beim „mathematischen Werkzeugkasten“ stehen Anwendungen aus verschiedenen Disziplinen wie dem Ingenieurwesen, der Biologie, Physik, Astronomie, Geografie, Fotografie, Kunstgeschichte, ja sogar der Musik im Vordergrund. Die Anwendungsbeispiele veranschaulichen wichtige Begriffe der Geometrie wie Normalprojektion und Zentralprojektion, Krümmung von Kurven und Flächen, der Geometrie der Bewegung und sogar der Geometrie nichteuklidischer Räume. Stets hat die Raumvorstellung Vorrang. Das Buch kann daher auch von Personen ohne spezielle mathematische Vorbildung gelesen werden. Die 3. Auflage ist um gut 60 Seiten erweitert und enthält zahlreiche neue Anwendungen mit hochwertigen Grafiken.

Engineering Drawing and Design

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Author: David A. Madsen

Publisher: Arden Shakespeare

ISBN: N.A

Category: Engineering design

Page: 960

View: 1965

Offering complete coverage of all the elements of drafting, this second edition remains the most up-to-date compendium on engineering drawing and design available. Based on the latest ANSI/ASME standards, this encyclopedic resource spans the engineering disciplines, including fluid power, structural, civil, electrical, piping, and HVAC/sheet metal. Includes updated CADD applications. 1,400 illus.

Circular of Information

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Author: United States. Bureau of Education,United States. Office of Education

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: N.A

View: 540

Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook

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Author: Neil Sclater,Nicholas P. Chironis

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 495

View: 691

Your one-stop idea guide for time-saving, ready-to-use mechanical component designs! Whatever you design, engineer, or invent-from locomotives to tape recorders-if your application requires components that MOVE GRIP or LOCK... you need this book. An unmatched compilation of proven design ideas and solutions, Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook-describes and illlustrates over 1,700 tested mechanisms, linkages, cams, variable-speed drives, gears, clutches, brakes, belts, glexures, chucks, clamps, and springs you can use is-or modify to meet your needs; shows you how these components combine successfully with electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, optical, thermal, or photoelectric devices-to let you creat integrated designs that perform a range of complex tasks; includes key design curves, graphs, tables, and equations for designing a variety of components-geared five-bar mechanisms, internal, and external Geneva wheels, crank-and-rocker links, snap-action toggles, angular-motion and curvilinear-motion feeder mechanisms, slider cranks, ratchet wheels, and more; organizes all mechanisms and devices by application and principle of operation-to give you fast on-the-job access; Carefully compiled from major product-design design-engineering publications and from other authoritative sources, Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook is the most extensive, thoroughly researched ready reference of its kind. It's the place to turn first for the time-saving approaches that can get your design started off right... break you out of conceptual logjams... suggest more cost-efficient alternatives... or just fine-tune a good design to make it even better.

Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook, Fourth Edition

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Author: Neil Sclater,Nicholas Chironis

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech

ISBN: 0071467610

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 1412

Over 2000 drawings make this sourcebook a gold mine of information for learning and innovating in mechanical design The fourth edition of this unique engineering reference book covers the past, present, and future of mechanisms and mechanical devices. Among the thousands of proven mechanisms illustrated and described are many suitable for recycling into new mechanical, electromechanical, or mechatronic products and systems. Overviews of robotics, rapid prototyping, MEMS, and nanotechnology will get you up-to-speed on these cutting-edge technologies. Easy-to-read tutorial chapters on the basics of mechanisms and motion control will introduce those subjects to you or refresh your knowledge of them. Comprehensive index to speed your search for topics of interest Glossaries of terms for gears, cams, mechanisms, and robotics New industrial robot specifications and applications Mobile robots for exploration, scientific research, and defense INSIDE Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook, 4th Edition Basics of Mechanisms • Motion Control Systems • Industrial Robots • Mobile Robots • Drives and Mechanisms That Include Linkages, Gears, Cams, Genevas, and Ratchets • Clutches and Brakes • Devices That Latch, Fasten, and Clamp • Chains, Belts, Springs, and Screws • Shaft Couplings and Connections • Machines That Perform Specific Motions or Package, Convey, Handle, or Assure Safety • Systems for Torque, Speed, Tension, and Limit Control • Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electric, and Electronic Instruments and Controls • Computer-Aided Design Concepts • Rapid Prototyping • New Directions in Mechanical Engineering

The Geometry of Biological Time

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Author: Arthur T. Winfree

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387989921

Category: Mathematics

Page: 779

View: 9602

Dealing with dynamics of processes that repeat themselves regularly, this revised and updated edition extends the thread from 1980 to the present day, concentrating on areas of interest where there will be much activity in the future. This involves going through spatial biochemical, electrophysiological, and organismic dynamical systems and patterns that were discovered by pursuing the theme of phase singularities introduced in the original book. In particular the work on excitability in cell membranes will be thoroughly updated as will the references throughout the book.

Perceiving in Depth, Volume 3: Other Mechanisms of Depth Perception

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Author: Ian P. Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019987736X

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4976

The three-volume work Perceiving in Depth is a sequel to Binocular Vision and Stereopsis and to Seeing in Depth, both by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers. This work is much broader in scope than the previous books and includes mechanisms of depth perception by all senses, including aural, electrosensory organs, and the somatosensory system. Volume 1 reviews sensory coding, psychophysical and analytic procedures, and basic visual mechanisms. Volume 2 reviews stereoscopic vision. Volume 3 reviews all mechanisms of depth perception other than stereoscopic vision. The three volumes are extensively illustrated and referenced and provide the most detailed review of all aspects of perceiving the three-dimensional world. Volume 3 addresses all depth-perception mechanisms other than stereopsis. The book starts with an account of monocular cues to depth, including accommodation, vergence eye movements, perspective, interposition, shading, and motion parallax. A chapter on constancies in depth perception, such as the ability to perceive the sizes and shapes of objects as they move or rotate in depth, is followed by a chapter on the ways in which depth cues interact. The next chapter reviews sources of information, such as changing disparity, image looming, and vergence eye movements, used in the perception of objects moving in depth. Various pathologies of depth perception, including visual neglect, stereoanomalies, and albanism are reviewed. Visual depth-perception mechanisms through the animal kingdom are described, starting with insects and progressing through crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The chapter includes a discussion of how stereoscopic vision may have evolved. The next chapter describes how visual depth perception is used to guide reaching movements of the hand, avoiding obstacles, and walking to a distant object. The next three chapters review non-visual mechanisms of depth perception. Auditory mechanisms include auditory localization, echolocation in bats and marine mammals, and the lateral-line system of fish. Some fish emit electric discharges and then use electric sense organs to detect distortions of the electric field produced by nearby objects. Some beetles and snakes use heat-sensitive sense organs to detect sources of heat. The volume ends with a discussion of mechanisms used by animals to navigate to a distant site. Ants find their way back to the nest by using landmarks and by integrating their walking movements. Several animals navigate by the stars or by polarized sunlight. It seems that animals in several phyla navigate by detecting the Earths magnetic field.