Geoarchaeology

The Earth-science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation

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Author: George Robert Rapp,Christopher L. Hill

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300109665

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 5928

A detailed and far-ranging textbook which frames geologic concepts within an archaeological context, offering specific examples that demonstrate how geologic methods can be used to interpret the human past. The contents list is huge, but a few of the topics covered are: sediments and soils, provenance studies, geologic surveying, mapping and remote sensing, artifact identification and human-environment interaction. The second edition builds on the success and innovation of the first, and includes updates, new concepts and examples, an enhanced bibliography, and many new illustrations.

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology

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Author: Paul Goldberg,Richard I. Macphail

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118688198

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 3419

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides an invaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be used effectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts. Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this book presents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials of modern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of the approaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but also gives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, as well as anthropogenic site formation processes and their investigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field and laboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeological results. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduate students, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need to understand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/goldberg “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read in years. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written and thorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspects of geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing and equally thorough... I predict that this book will become the textbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for several years.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743

Principles of Geoarchaeology

A North American Perspective

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Author: Michael R. Waters

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816517701

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 6891

Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions

Archaeology as Human Ecology

Method and Theory for a Contextual Approach

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Author: Karl W. Butzer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521288774

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 7983

Archaeology as Human Ecology is a new introduction to concepts and methods in archaeology. It deals not with artifacts, but with sites, settlements, and subsistence. It is essential reading for students, research workers, and all concerned with archaeological method and theory.

Sediments in archaeological context

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Author: Julie K. Stein

Publisher: Univ of Utah Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 8360

Almost Every Artifact in archaeological analysis originates in or on the ground. While there are elaborate methods for extracting and analyzing artifacts, treatment of the material within which they are located is often unsophisticated and does not include systematic analysis.Sediments in Archaeological Context is concerned with the analysis of this matrix and the potential use of sediments to answer archaeological questions. Describing sediments and sampling them in appropriate ways do not replace the study of artifacts, but they can provide additional, useful information regarding a site complex, its physical environment, and the relations of artifacts to each other.Each chapter in the volume considers sediments within a specific context. Topics include sediments found in a variety of environments: cultural environments, rockshelter and cave environments, dryland alluvial environments, humid alluvial environments, lake environments, shoreline environments, and spring and wetland environments.Sediments in Archaeological Context is intended for every archaeologist who investigates sites in depositional contexts.

Formation processes of the archaeological record

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Author: Michael B. Schiffer

Publisher: Univ of New Mexico Pr

ISBN: 9780826309648

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 1822

A synthesis of the most important principles of cultural and environmental formation processes. For students and practicing archaeologists.

The Archaeology of Jerusalem

From the Origins to the Ottomans

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Author: Katharina Galor,Hanswulf Bloedhorn

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030019899X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 2255

In this sweeping and lavishly illustrated history, Katharina Galor and Hanswulf Bloedhorn survey nearly four thousand years of human settlement and building activity in Jerusalem, from prehistoric times through the Ottoman period. The study is structured chronologically, exploring the city’s material culture, including fortifications and water systems as well as key sacred, civic, and domestic architecture. Distinctive finds such as paintings, mosaics, pottery, and coins highlight each period. Their book provides a unique perspective on the emergence and development of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and the relationship among the three religions and their cultures into the modern period.

Environmental Archaeology

Principles and Practice

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Author: Dena F. Dincauze

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521310772

Category: Social Science

Page: 587

View: 1954

Archaeologists today need a wide range of scientific approaches in order to delineate and interpret the ecology of their sites. But borrowing concepts from other disciplines demands a critical understanding, and the methods must be appropriate to particular sets of data. This book is an authoritative and essential guide to methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, paleobotany and faunal paleoecology. Their applications are illustrated by examples from the Paleolithic, through classical civilizations, to urban archaeology.

Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths

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Author: Georges Stoops,Vera Marcelino,Florias Mees

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444635424

Category: Science

Page: 1000

View: 5441

Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths, Second Edition, provides researchers and students with a tool for interpreting features observed in soil thin sections and through submicroscopic studies. After an introduction and general overview, micromorphological aspects of regoliths (e.g., saprolites, transported materials) are highlighted, followed by a systematic and coherent discussion of the micromorphological expression of various pedogenic processes. The book is written by an international team of experts in the field, using a uniform set of concepts and terminology, making it a valuable interdisciplinary reference work. The following topics are treated: freeze-thaw features, redoximorphic features, calcareous and gypsiferous formations, textural features, spodic and oxic horizons, volcanic materials, organic matter, surface horizons, laterites, surface crusts, salt minerals, biogenic and pedogenic siliceous materials, other authigenic silicates, phosphates, sulphidic and sulphuric materials, and features related to faunal activity. The last chapters address anthropogenic features,archaeological materials and palaeosoils. Updates the first exhaustive publication on interpretation of micromorphological features, with some new chapters and with a larger number of additional references Covers related topics, making micromorphology more attractive and accessible for geomorphologists, archaeologists and quaternary geologists Includes thematic treatment of a range of soil micromorphology fields and broadens its applications Features input from a multi-disciplinary team, ensuring thorough coverage of topics related to soil science, archaeology and geomorphology

In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts

A History of Classical Archaeology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

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Author: Stephen L. Dyson

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300134971

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 8860

divThe stories behind the acquisition of ancient antiquities are often as important as those that tell of their creation. This fascinating book provides a comprehensive account of the history and development of classical archaeology, explaining how and why artifacts have moved from foreign soil to collections around the world. As archaeologist Stephen Dyson shows, Greek and Roman archaeological study was closely intertwined with ideas about class and social structure; the rise of nationalism and later political ideologies such as fascism; and the physical and cultural development of most of the important art museums in Europe and the United States, whose prestige depended on their creation of collections of classical art. Accompanied by a discussion of the history of each of the major national traditions and their significant figures, this lively book shows how classical archaeology has influenced attitudes about areas as wide-ranging as tourism, nationalism, the role of the museum, and historicism in nineteenth- and twentieth-century art./DIV

Archaeological Theory

An Introduction

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Author: Matthew Johnson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444360418

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 5319

Archaeological Theory, 2nd Edition is the mostcurrent and comprehensive introduction to the field available.Thoroughly revised and updated, this engaging text offers studentsan ideal entry point to the major concepts and ongoing debates inarchaeological research. New edition of a popular introductory text that exploresthe increasing diversity of approaches to archaeologicaltheory Features more extended coverage of 'traditional' orculture-historical archaeology Examines theory across the English-speaking world andbeyond Offers greatly expanded coverage of evolutionary theory,divided into sociocultural and Darwinist approaches Includes an expanded glossary, bibliography, and usefulsuggestions for further readings

Archaeology and the Biblical Record

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Author: Bernard Alpert,Fran Alpert

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761858350

Category: Religion

Page: 93

View: 3592

Archaeology and the Biblical Record challenges both Jewish and Christian biblical scholars to rethink basic assumptions and reformulate their instructional methods. This bold text reconciles reason with faith and harmonizes the Bible with archaeology, while providing answers to the many historical dilemmas confronted while reading the Bible.

The Collapse of Complex Societies

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Author: Joseph Tainter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521386739

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 8712

Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.

Archaeology For Dummies

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Author: Nancy Marie White

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470457813

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 837

An objective guide to this fascinating science of history and culture Archaeology continually makes headlines--from recent discoveries like the frozen Copper-Age man in the Italian Alps to the newest dating of the first people in America at over 14,0000 years ago. Archaeology For Dummies offers a fascinating look at this intriguing field, taking readers on-site and revealing little-known details about some of the world's greatest archaeological discoveries. It explores how archaeology attempts to uncover the lives of our ancestors, examining historical dig sites around the world and explaining theories about ancient human societies. The guide also offers helpful information for readers who want to participate in an excavation themselves, as well as tips for getting the best training and where to look for jobs.

Stepping-Stones

A Journey through the Ice Age Caves of the Dordogne

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Author: Christine Desdemaines-Hugon

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300159064

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 2442

The cave art of France’s Dordogne region is world-famous for the mythology and beauty of its remarkable drawings and paintings. These ancient images of lively bison, horses, and mammoths, as well as symbols of all kinds, are fascinating touchstones in the development of human culture, demonstrating how far humankind has come and reminding us of the ties that bind us across the ages. Over more than twenty-five years of teaching and research, Christine Desdemaines-Hugon has become an unrivaled expert in the cave art and artists of the Dordogne region. In her new book she combines her expertise in both art and archaeology to convey an intimate understanding of the “cave experience.” Her keen insights communicate not only the incomparable artistic value of these works but also the near-spiritual impact of viewing them for oneself. Focusing on five fascinating sites, including the famed Font de Gaume and others that still remain open to the public, Stepping-Stones reveals striking similarities between art forms of the Paleolithic and works of modern artists and gives us a unique pathway toward understanding the culture of the Dordogne Paleolithic peoples and how it still touches our lives today.

Doing Archaeology

A Cultural Resource Management Perspective

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Author: Thomas F King

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315430126

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 646

What is archaeology, and why should we do it? Tom King, arguably the best-known heritage management consultant in the United States, answers the basic question of every introductory student from the unique perspective of one who actively uses archaeology for cultural resource management. Designed as a supplement for introduction to archaeology classes, this brief and breezy book runs the reader through the major principles of archaeology, using examples from the author’s own field work and that of others. King shows how contemporary archaeology, as part of the larger cultural resource management endeavor, acts to help preserve and protect prehistoric and historic sites in the United States and elsewhere. Brief biographies of other CRM archaeologists help students envision career paths they might emulate. The bookends with an exploration of some of the thorny problems facing the contemporary archaeologist to help foster class discussion. An ideal ice-breaker for introductory college classes in archaeology, one that will get students engaged in the subject and thinking about its challenges.

Little History of Archaeology

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Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300235283

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 7977

The thrilling history of archaeological adventure, with tales of danger, debate, audacious explorers, and astonishing discoveries around the globe What is archaeology? The word may bring to mind images of golden pharaohs and lost civilizations, or Neanderthal skulls and Ice Age cave art. Archaeology is all of these, but also far more: the only science to encompass the entire span of human history—more than three million years! This Little History tells the riveting stories of some of the great archaeologists and their amazing discoveries around the globe: ancient Egyptian tombs, Mayan ruins, the first colonial settlements at Jamestown, mysterious Stonehenge, the incredibly preserved Pompeii, and many, many more. In forty brief, exciting chapters, the book recounts archaeology’s development from its eighteenth-century origins to its twenty-first-century technological advances, including remote sensing capabilities and satellite imagery techniques that have revolutionized the field. Shining light on the most intriguing events in the history of the field, this absolutely up-to-date book illuminates archaeology’s controversies, discoveries, heroes and scoundrels, global sites, and newest methods for curious readers of every age.

Ground-penetrating Radar for Geoarchaeology

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Author: Lawrence B. Conyers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118950011

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 982

There has long been a strong collaboration between geologists and archaeologists, and the sub-field of geoarchaeology is well developed as a discipline in its own right. This book now bridges the gap between those fields and the geophysical technique of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which allows for three-dimensional analysis of the ground to visualize both geological and archaeological materials. This method has the ability to produce images of the ground that display complex packages of materials, and allows researchers to integrate sedimentary units, soils and associated archaeological features in ways not possible using standard excavation techniques. The ability of GPR to visualize all these buried units can help archaeologists place ancient people within the landscapes and environments of their time, and understand their burial and preservation phenomena in three-dimensions. Readership: Advanced students in archaeology and geoarchaeology, as well as practicing archaeologists with an interest in GPS techniques.

Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy

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Author: Edward C. Harris

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483295850

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 3208

This book is the only text devoted entirely to archaeological stratigraphy, a subject of fundamental importance to most studies in archaeology. The first edition appeared in 1979 as a result of the invention, by the author, of the Harris Matrix--a method for analyzing and presenting the stratigraphic sequences of archaeological sites. The method is now widely used in archaeology all over the world. The opening chapters of this edition discuss the historical development of the ideas of archaeological stratigraphy. The central chapters examine the laws and basic concepts of the subject, and the last few chapters look at methods of recording stratification, constructing stratigraphic sequences, and the analysis of stratification and artifacts. The final chapter, which is followed by a glossary of stratigraphic terms, gives an outline of a modern system for recording stratification on archaeological sites. This book is written in a simple style suitable for the student or amateur. The radical ideas set out should also give the professional archaeologist food for thought. Key Features * Covers a basic principle of all archaeological excavations * Provides a data description and analysis tool for all such digs, which is now widely accepted and used. * Gives extra information