Genomic Control Process

Development and Evolution

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Author: Isabelle Peter,Eric H. Davidson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124047467

Category: Science

Page: 460

View: 2660

Genomic Control Process explores the biological phenomena around genomic regulatory systems that control and shape animal development processes, and which determine the nature of evolutionary processes that affect body plan. Unifying and simplifying the descriptions of development and evolution by focusing on the causality in these processes, it provides a comprehensive method of considering genomic control across diverse biological processes. This book is essential for graduate researchers in genomics, systems biology and molecular biology seeking to understand deep biological processes which regulate the structure of animals during development. Covers a vast area of current biological research to produce a genome oriented regulatory bioscience of animal life Places gene regulation, embryonic and postembryonic development, and evolution of the body plan in a unified conceptual framework Provides the conceptual keys to interpret a broad developmental and evolutionary landscape with precise experimental illustrations drawn from contemporary literature Includes a range of material, from developmental phenomenology to quantitative and logic models, from phylogenetics to the molecular biology of gene regulation, from animal models of all kinds to evidence of every relevant type Demonstrates the causal power of system-level understanding of genomic control process Conceptually organizes a constellation of complex and diverse biological phenomena Investigates fundamental developmental control system logic in diverse circumstances and expresses these in conceptual models Explores mechanistic evolutionary processes, illuminating the evolutionary consequences of developmental control systems as they are encoded in the genome

The Regulatory Genome

Gene Regulatory Networks In Development And Evolution

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Author: Eric H. Davidson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080455570

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 2363

Gene regulatory networks are the most complex, extensive control systems found in nature. The interaction between biology and evolution has been the subject of great interest in recent years. The author, Eric Davidson, has been instrumental in elucidating this relationship. He is a world renowned scientist and a major contributor to the field of developmental biology. The Regulatory Genome beautifully explains the control of animal development in terms of structure/function relations of inherited regulatory DNA sequence, and the emergent properties of the gene regulatory networks composed of these sequences. New insights into the mechanisms of body plan evolution are derived from considerations of the consequences of change in developmental gene regulatory networks. Examples of crucial evidence underscore each major concept. The clear writing style explains regulatory causality without requiring a sophisticated background in descriptive developmental biology. This unique text supersedes anything currently available in the market. The only book in the market that is solely devoted to the genomic regulatory code for animal development Written at a conceptual level, including many novel synthetic concepts that ultimately simplify understanding Presents a comprehensive treatment of molecular control elements that determine the function of genes Provides a comparative treatment of development, based on principles rather than description of developmental processes Considers the evolutionary processes in terms of the structural properties of gene regulatory networks Includes 42 full-color descriptive figures and diagrams

Chordate Origins and Evolution

The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates

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Author: Noriyuki Satoh

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128030062

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 4022

Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates. In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates (cephlo+uro+vert). Until now, discussion of these topics has been somewhat fragmented, and this work provides a unified presentation of the essential information. In the more than 150 years since Charles Darwin proposed the concept of the origin of species by means of natural selection, which has profoundly affected all fields of biology and medicine, the evolution of animals (metazoans) has been studied, discussed, and debated extensively. Following many decades of classical comparative morphology and embryology, the 1980s marked a turning point in studies of animal evolution, when molecular biological approaches, including molecular phylogeny (MP), molecular evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), and comparative genomics (CG), began to be employed. There are at least five key events in metazoan evolution, which include the origins of 1) diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians; 2) triploblastic animals or bilaterians; 3) protostomes and deuterostomes; 4) chordates, among deuterostomes; and 5) vertebrates, among chordates. The last two have received special attention in relation to evolution of human beings. During the past two decades, great advances have been made in this field, especially in regard to molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the evolution of chordates. For example, the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships among deuterostomes has drastically changed. In addition, we have now obtained a large quantity of MP, evo-devo, and CG information on the origin and evolution of chordates. Covers the most significant advances in this field to give readers an understanding of the interesting biological issues involved Provides a unified presentation of essential information regarding each phylum and an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of chordates Discusses the evolutionary scenario of chordates based on two major characteristic features of animals—namely modes of feeding (energy sources) and reproduction—as the two main forces driving animal evolution and benefiting dialogue for future studies of animal evolution

Philosophy of Systems Biology

Perspectives from Scientists and Philosophers

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Author: Sara Green

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319470000

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 3516

The emergence of systems biology raises many fascinating questions: What does it mean to take a systems approach to problems in biology? To what extent is the use of mathematical and computational modelling changing the life sciences? How does the availability of big data influence research practices? What are the major challenges for biomedical research in the years to come? This book addresses such questions of relevance not only to philosophers and biologists but also to readers interested in the broader implications of systems biology for science and society. The book features reflections and original work by experts from across the disciplines including systems biologists, philosophers, and interdisciplinary scholars investigating the social and educational aspects of systems biology. In response to the same set of questions, the experts develop and defend their personal perspectives on the distinctive character of systems biology and the challenges that lie ahead. Readers are invited to engage with different views on the questions addressed, and may explore numerous themes relating to the philosophy of systems biology. This edited work will appeal to scholars and all levels, from undergraduates to researchers, and to those interested in a variety of scholarly approaches such as systems biology, mathematical and computational modelling, cell and molecular biology, genomics, systems theory, and of course, philosophy of biology.

Essence in the Age of Evolution

A New Theory of Natural Kinds

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Author: Christopher J. Austin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351240838

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 7544

This book offers a novel defence of a highly contested philosophical position: biological natural kind essentialism. This theory is routinely and explicitly rejected for its purported inability to be explicated in the context of contemporary biological science, and its supposed incompatibility with the process and progress of evolution by natural selection. Christopher J. Austin challenges these objections, and in conjunction with contemporary scientific advancements within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology, the book utilises a contemporary neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of "dispositional properties", or causal powers, to provide a theory of essentialism centred on the developmental architecture of organisms and its role in the evolutionary process. By defending a novel theory of Aristotelian biological natural kind essentialism, Essence in the Age of Evolution represents the fresh and exciting union of cutting-edge philosophical insight and scientific knowledge.

Essays on Developmental Biology

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128029765

Category: Science

Page: 770

View: 5099

In 2016 Current Topics in Developmental Biology (CTDB) will celebrate its 50th or “golden anniversary. To commemorate the founding of CTDB by Aron Moscona (1921-2009) and Alberto Monroy (1913-1986) in 1966, a two-volume set of CTDB (volumes 116 and 117), entitled Essays on Development, will be published by Academic Press/Elsevier in early 2016. The volumes are edited by Paul M. Wassarman, series editor of CTDB, and include contributions from dozens of outstanding developmental biologists from around the world. Overall, the essays provide critical reviews and discussion of developmental processes for a variety of model organisms. Many essays relate the history of a particular area of research, others personal experiences in research, and some are quite philosophical. Essays on Development provides a window onto the rich landscape of contemporary research in developmental biology and should be useful to both students and investigators for years to come. Covers the area of developmental processes for a variety of model organisms International board of authors Part of two 50th Anniversary volumes proving a comprehensive set of reviews edited by Serial Editor Paul M. Wassarman

Das egoistische Gen

Mit einem Vorwort von Wolfgang Wickler

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Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642553915

Category: Science

Page: 489

View: 1370

p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

The Eukaryote Genome in Development and Evolution

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Author: John Bernard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401159912

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8421

'The mind unlearns with difficulty what has long been impressed upon it. ' Seneca Reductionism, is, without question, the most successful analytical approach available to the experimental scientist. With the advent of techniques for cloning and sequencing DNA, and the development of a variety of molecular probes for localizing macromolecules in cells and tissues, the biologist now has available the most powerful reductionist tools ever invented. The application of these new technologies has led to a veritable explosion of facts regarding the types and organization of nucleotide sequences present in the genomes of eukaryotes. These data offer a level of precision and predictability which is unparalleled in biology. Recombinant DNA techniques were initially developed to gather information about the structure and organization of the DNA sequences within a genome. The power and potential of these techniques, however, extend far beyond simple data collection of this kind. In an attempt to use the new technology as a basis for analyzing development and evolution, attention was first focused on the topic of gene regulation, an approach that had proven so successful in prokaryotes. It is now clear that this has not been an adequate approach. Lewin (1984) has quoted Brenner as stating 'at the beginning it was said that the answer to the understanding of development was going to come from a knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of gene control. I doubt whether anyone believes this any more.

Raub, Sex, Mord Und Schuster Voigt

Krasse Strafprozesse Aus Dem Wilhelminischen Kaiserreich

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Author: Hugo Friedlaender,Hermann Syzygos

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781500294762

Category: True Crime

Page: 352

View: 9735

Im Sommer 1890 wurden zwei junge Mädchen, die den Kreisen der besseren Gesellschaft angehörten, von ihren Angehörigen vermisst. Man wusste, dass sie sich infolge einer chiffrierten Zeitungsannonce als Reisebegleiterinnen gemeldet hatten, man konnte aber ihr Verschwinden trotz aller Bemühungen nicht erklären.(...)Vorsitzender: "Ihre Wirtin in Osnabrück hat erzählt: Sie haben des Nachts häufig geweint?"Die Angeklagte Buntrock: "Das geschah wegen des vielen Totmachens." (Aus dem Buntrock-Erbe-Prozess.)Dieser Band mit authentischen Berichten aus der wilhelminischen Ära dokumentiert auch unblutige Prozesse wie den gegen Schuster Wilhelm Voigt alias "Hauptmann von Köpenick" oder jenen gegen das angebliche "spiritistische Medium" Anna Rothe. Sex kannten unsere Vorfahren auch, denn sonst wären wir ja ausgestorben. Allerdings ist dieses Buch kein Porno, sondern ein interessantes und teilweise kurioses Zeitdokument.Die über hundert Jahre alten Texte wurden vom Herausgeber durchgesehen, lesefreundlich bearbeitet, in sinnvolle Absätze untergliedert und der neuen Rechtschreibung angepasst.

Evolutionary Developmental Biology

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Author: Brian K. Hall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412785900

Category: Science

Page: 491

View: 713

Although evolutionary developmental biology is a new field, its origins lie in the last century; the search for connections between embryonic development (ontogeny) and evolutionary change (phylogeny) has been a long one. Evolutionary developmental biology is however more than just a fusion of the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology. It forges a unification of genomic, developmental, organismal, population and natural selection approaches to evolutionary change. It is concerned with how developmental processes evolve; how evolution produces novel structures, functions and behaviours; and how development, evolution and ecology are integrated to bring about and stabilize evolutionary change. The previous edition of this title, published in 1992, defined the terms and laid out the field for evolutionary developmental biology. This field is now one of the most active and fast growing within biology and this is reflected in this second edition, which is more than twice the length of the original and brought completely up to date. There are new chapters on major transitions in animal evolution, expanded coverage of comparative embryonic development and the inclusion of recent advances in genetics and molecular biology. The book is divided into eight parts which: place evolutionary developmental biology in the historical context of the search for relationships between development and evolution; detail the historical background leading to evolutionary embryology; explore embryos in development and embryos in evolution; discuss the relationship between embryos, evolution, environment and ecology; discuss the dilemma for homology of the fact that development evolves; deal with the importance of understanding how embryos measure time and place both through development and evolutionarily through heterochrony and heterotrophy; and set out the principles and processes that underlie evolutionary developmental biology. With over one hundred illustrations and photographs, extensive cross-referencing between chapters and boxes for ancillary material, this latest edition will be of immense interest to graduate and advanced undergraduate students in cell, developmental and molecular biology, and in zoology, evolution, ecology and entomology; in fact anyone with an interest in this new and increasingly important and interdisciplinary field which unifies biology.

Genome Evolution

Gene and Genome Duplications and the Origin of Novel Gene Functions

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Author: Axel Meyer,Yves van de Peer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402010217

Category: Medical

Page: 237

View: 7768

In the years since the publication of Susumu Ohno's 1970 landmark book Evolution by gene duplication tremendous advances have been made in molecular biology and especially in genomics. Studies of genome structure and function prerequisite to testing hypotheses of genome evolution were all but impossible until recent methodological advances. This book evaluates newly generated empirical evidence as it pertains to theories of genomic evolutionary patterns and processes. Tests of hypotheses using analyses of complete genomes, interpreted in a phylogenetic context, provide evidence regarding the relative importance of gene duplication. The alternative explanation is that the evolution of regulatory elements that control the expression of and interactions among genes has been a more important force in shaping evolutionary innovation. This collection of papers will be of interest to all academic and industry researchers working in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics and genome centers.

Genomic Regulatory Systems

In Development and Evolution

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Author: Eric H. Davidson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080525594

Category: Science

Page: 261

View: 3465

The interaction between biology and evolution has been the subject of great interest in recent years. Because evolution is such a highly debated topic, a biologically oriented discussion will appeal not only to scientists and biologists but also to the interested lay person. This topic will always be a subject of controversy and therefore any breaking information regarding it is of great interest. The author is a recognized expert in the field of developmental biology and has been instrumental in elucidating the relationship between biology and evolution. The study of evolution is of interest to many different kinds of people and Genomic Regulatory Systems: In Development and Evolution is written at a level that is very easy to read and understand even for the nonscientist. * Contents Include * Regulatory Hardwiring: A Brief Overview of the Genomic Control Apparatus and Its Causal Role in Development and Evolution * Inside the Cis-Regulatory Module: Control Logic and How the Regulatory Environment Is Transduced into Spatial Patterns of Gene Expression * Regulation of Direct Cell-Type Specification in Early Development * The Secret of the Bilaterians: Abstract Regulatory Design in Building Adult Body Parts * Changes That Make New Forms: Gene Regulatory Systems and the Evolution of Body Plans

Genome Analysis in Eukaryotes

Developmental and Evolutionary Aspects

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Author: Rabindra N. Chatterjee,Lucas Sanchez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662118297

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 3856

During the last decades a breakthrough in the understanding of the mechanisms controlling development has been achieved. This has been possible, in great part, by the use of various experimental approaches. This book focuses on topics concerning some of the processes involved in development, the main emphasis being on the genetic and molecular mechanisms in the evolutionary context. Drosophila is used as an experimental model for the genetic approach to the understanding of behaviour.

Mutation-Driven Evolution

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Author: Masatoshi Nei

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191637823

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4403

The purpose of this book is to present a new mechanistic theory of mutation-driven evolution based on recent advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. The theory asserts, perhaps somewhat controversially, that the driving force behind evolution is mutation, with natural selection being of only secondary importance. The word 'mutation' is used to describe any kind of change in DNA such as nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal change, and genome duplication. A brief history of the principal evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the theory of mutation-driven evolution is also presented in the context of the last 150 years of research. However, the core of the book is concerned with recent studies of genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. In contrast to neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is capable of explaining real examples of evolution such as the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the general scheme of hybrid sterility. In this sense the theory proposed is more realistic than its predecessors, and gives a more logical explanation of various evolutionary events. Mutation-Driven Evolution is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of molecular evolution and population genetics. It assumes that the readers are acquainted with basic knowledge of genetics and molecular biology.

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198028567

Category: Science

Page: 916

View: 9098

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Genes, Development and Cancer

The Life and Work of Edward B. Lewis

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Author: Howard D. Lipshitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402063459

Category: Medical

Page: 597

View: 5805

This second edition collects Nobel Prize winner Edward B. Lewis’s key publications in the fields of genetics, developmental biology, radiation and cancer. Editor Howard Lipshitz, a close colleague during the last 20 years of Lewis's life, places the papers in their scientific and historical context and provides insight into Lewis's approach to science and the motivations that drove his choice of subject matter.

Morphogenesis and Evolution

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Author: Keith Stewart Thomson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195364279

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 3500

Today developmental and evolutionary biologists are focussing renewed attention on the developmental process--those genetic and cellular factors that influence variation in individual body shape or metabolism--in an attempt to better understand how evolutionary trends and patterns within individuals might be limited and controlled. In this important work, the author reviews the classical literature on embryology, morphogenesis, and paleontology, and presents recent genetic and molecular studies on development. The result is a unique perspective on a set of problems of fundamental importance to developmental and evolutionary biologists.

Testicular Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2012 Edition

ScholarlyPaper

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Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464979278

Category: Medical

Page: 29

View: 8594

Testicular Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Testicular Cancer in a compact format. The editors have built Testicular Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Testicular Cancer in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Testicular Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.