Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact

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Author: Ludwik Fleck

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022619034X

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 747

Originally published in German in 1935, this monograph anticipated solutions to problems of scientific progress, the truth of scientific fact and the role of error in science now associated with the work of Thomas Kuhn and others. Arguing that every scientific concept and theory—including his own—is culturally conditioned, Fleck was appreciably ahead of his time. And as Kuhn observes in his foreword, "Though much has occurred since its publication, it remains a brilliant and largely unexploited resource." "To many scientists just as to many historians and philosophers of science facts are things that simply are the case: they are discovered through properly passive observation of natural reality. To such views Fleck replies that facts are invented, not discovered. Moreover, the appearance of scientific facts as discovered things is itself a social construction, a made thing. A work of transparent brilliance, one of the most significant contributions toward a thoroughly sociological account of scientific knowledge."—Steven Shapin, Science

Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact

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Author: Ludwik Fleck

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226253251

Category: Philosophy

Page: 203

View: 7392

The sociological dimension of science is studied using the discovery of the Wasserman reaction and its accidental application as a test for syphilis as a basis, and examining the role of cultural conditioning and error in scientific discovery

Science as a Process

An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science

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Author: David L. Hull

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226360490

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 7921

"Legend is overdue for replacement, and an adequate replacement must attend to the process of science as carefully as Hull has done. I share his vision of a serious account of the social and intellectual dynamics of science that will avoid both the rosy blur of Legend and the facile charms of relativism. . . . Because of [Hull's] deep concern with the ways in which research is actually done, Science as a Process begins an important project in the study of science. It is one of a distinguished series of books, which Hull himself edits."—Philip Kitcher, Nature "In Science as a Process, [David Hull] argues that the tension between cooperation and competition is exactly what makes science so successful. . . . Hull takes an unusual approach to his subject. He applies the rules of evolution in nature to the evolution of science, arguing that the same kinds of forces responsible for shaping the rise and demise of species also act on the development of scientific ideas."—Natalie Angier, New York Times Book Review "By far the most professional and thorough case in favour of an evolutionary philosophy of science ever to have been made. It contains excellent short histories of evolutionary biology and of systematics (the science of classifying living things); an important and original account of modern systematic controversy; a counter-attack against the philosophical critics of evolutionary philosophy; social-psychological evidence, collected by Hull himself, to show that science does have the character demanded by his philosophy; and a philosophical analysis of evolution which is general enough to apply to both biological and historical change."—Mark Ridley, Times Literary Supplement "Hull is primarily interested in how social interactions within the scientific community can help or hinder the process by which new theories and techniques get accepted. . . . The claim that science is a process for selecting out the best new ideas is not a new one, but Hull tells us exactly how scientists go about it, and he is prepared to accept that at least to some extent, the social activities of the scientists promoting a new idea can affect its chances of being accepted."—Peter J. Bowler, Archives of Natural History "I have been doing philosophy of science now for twenty-five years, and whilst I would never have claimed that I knew everything, I felt that I had a really good handle on the nature of science, Again and again, Hull was able to show me just how incomplete my understanding was. . . . Moreover, [Science as a Process] is one of the most compulsively readable books that I have ever encountered."—Michael Ruse, Biology and Philosophy

Genesis and the Big Bang Theory

The Discovery Of Harmony Between Modern Science And The Bible

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Author: Gerald Schroeder

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 0307806995

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 945

In this groundbreaking book, physicist Gerald Schroeder takes on skeptics from both sides of the cosmological debate, arguing that science and the Bible are not at odds concerning the origin of the universe. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 7507

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Einstein's Jewish Science

Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion

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Author: Steven Gimbel

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421405547

Category: History

Page: 245

View: 2207

Is relativity Jewish? The Nazis denigrated Albert Einstein’s revolutionary theory by calling it "Jewish science," a charge typical of the ideological excesses of Hitler and his followers. Philosopher of science Steven Gimbel explores the many meanings of this provocative phrase and considers whether there is any sense in which Einstein’s theory of relativity is Jewish. Arguing that we must take seriously the possibility that the Nazis were in some measure correct, Gimbel examines Einstein and his work to explore how beliefs, background, and environment may—or may not—have influenced the work of the scientist. You cannot understand Einstein’s science, Gimbel declares, without knowing the history, religion, and philosophy that influenced it. No one, especially Einstein himself, denies Einstein's Jewish heritage, but many are uncomfortable saying that he was being a Jew while he was at his desk working. To understand what "Jewish" means for Einstein’s work, Gimbel first explores the many definitions of "Jewish" and asks whether there are elements of Talmudic thinking apparent in Einstein’s theory of relativity. He applies this line of inquiry to other scientists, including Isaac Newton, René Descartes, Sigmund Freud, and Émile Durkheim, to consider whether their specific religious beliefs or backgrounds manifested in their scientific endeavors. Einstein's Jewish Science intertwines science, history, philosophy, theology, and politics in fresh and fascinating ways to solve the multifaceted riddle of what religion means—and what it means to science. There are some senses, Gimbel claims, in which Jews can find a special connection to E = mc2, and this claim leads to the engaging, spirited debate at the heart of this book.

Undeniable

Evolution and the Science of Creation

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Author: Bill Nye

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1250007135

Category: Religion

Page: 320

View: 4274

Revealing the mechanics of evolutionary theory, the scientist, engineer and inventor presents a compelling argument for the scientific unviability of creationism and insists that creationism's place in the science classroom is harmful not only to our children, but to the future of the greater world as well.

Honest to Genesis

A Biblical and Scientific Challenge to Creationism

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Author: Margaret Gray Towne

Publisher: Publishamerica Incorporated

ISBN: 9781592864973

Category: Religion

Page: 381

View: 5432

Honest to Genesis integrates the biblical creation accounts with modern evolutionary theory. It targets a broad audience, covering both the scientific as well as the theological dimensions of this subject which continues to erupt in the culture from courtroom to classroom to living room. Beginning upon foundations in critical thinking, it progresses to a historic overview of the dialogue between science and religion, especially as it pertains to evolutionary theory. Readers will learn how to examine the Bible in light of its unique cultural and geographic settings, its ancient languages, various authors, and the thousand-year time span of its composition. In addition, the foundations of evolutionary theory are delineated, incorporating the data from fields including geology, paleontology, biochemistry, and biology. The very good news is that conflict need not exist between these often seemingly opposing disciplines if the biblical and scientific records, both written by the same divine Author, are appropriately interpreted.

A Science for the Soul

Occultism and the Genesis of the German Modern

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Author: Corinna Treitel

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801878121

Category: History

Page: 366

View: 4988

"A comprehensive overview of a variety of occult organizations and their relationship to Wilhelmine society at large." -- Choice

Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics

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Author: Neil C. Manson,Onora O'Neill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139463209

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 5315

Informed consent is a central topic in contemporary biomedical ethics. Yet attempts to set defensible and feasible standards for consenting have led to persistent difficulties. In Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics, first published in 2007, Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill set debates about informed consent in medicine and research in a fresh light. They show why informed consent cannot be fully specific or fully explicit, and why more specific consent is not always ethically better. They argue that consent needs distinctive communicative transactions, by which other obligations, prohibitions, and rights can be waived or set aside in controlled and specific ways. Their book offers a coherent, wide-ranging and practical account of the role of consent in biomedicine which will be valuable to readers working in a range of areas in bioethics, medicine and law.

The Genesis of Science

How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution

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Author: James Hannam

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1596982055

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 7717

The Not-So-Dark Dark Ages What they forgot to teach you in school: People in the Middle Ages did not think the world was flat The Inquisition never executed anyone because of their scientific ideologies It was medieval scientific discoveries, including various methods, that made possible Western civilization’s “Scientific Revolution” As a physicist and historian of science James Hannam debunks myths of the Middle Ages in his brilliant book The Genesis of Science: How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution. Without the medieval scholars, there would be no modern science. Discover the Dark Ages and their inventions, research methods, and what conclusions they actually made about the shape of the world.

Evolutionary Creation

A Christian Approach to Evolution

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Author: Denis O. Lamoureux

Publisher: The Lutterworth Press

ISBN: 0718842847

Category: Religion

Page: 514

View: 7106

In this provocative book, evolutionist and evangelical Christian Denis O. Lamoureux proposes an approach to origins that moves beyond the 'evolution-versus-creation' debate. Arguing for an intimate relationship between the "Book of God's Words" and the "Book of God's Works", he presents evolutionary creation - a position that asserts that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit created the universe and life through an ordained and sustained evolutionary process. This view of origins affirms intelligent design and the belief that beauty, complexity and functionality in nature reflect the mind of God. Lamoureux also challenges the popular Christian assumption that the Holy Spirit revealed scientific and historical facts in the opening chapters of the Bible. He contends that 'Scripture features an ancient understanding of origins that functions as vessel to deliver inerrant and infallible messages of faith'. Lamoureux shares his personal story and his struggle in coming to terms with evolution and Christianity. Like many, he lost his boyhood faith at university in classes on evolutionary biology. After graduation, he experienced a born-again conversion and then embraced belief in a literal six-day creation. Graduate school training at the doctoral level in both theology and biology led him to the conclusion that God created the world through evolution. Lamoureux closes with the two most important issues in the origins controversy - the pastoral and pedagogical implications. How should churches approach this volatile topic? And what should Christians teach their children about origins?

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971374

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 524

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

The Evolution of Adam

What the Bible Does and Doesn't Say about Human Origins

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Author: Peter Enns

Publisher: Baker Books

ISBN: 1441236333

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 3899

Can Christianity and evolution coexist? Traditional Christian teaching presents Jesus as reversing the effects of the Fall of Adam. However, an evolutionary view of beginnings doesn't allow for a historical Adam, making evolution seemingly incompatible with what Genesis and the apostle Paul say about him. For Christians who accept evolution and want to take the Bible seriously, this presents a faith-shaking tension. Peter Enns, an expert in biblical interpretation, offers a way forward by explaining how this tension is caused not by the discoveries of science but by false expectations about the biblical texts. Focusing on key biblical passages in the discussion, Enns demonstrates that the author of Genesis and the apostle Paul wrote to ask and answer ancient questions for ancient people; the fact that they both speak of Adam does not determine whether Christians can accept evolution. This thought-provoking book helps readers reconcile the teachings of the Bible with the widely held evolutionary view of beginnings and will appeal to anyone interested in the Christianity-evolution debate.

On Historicizing Epistemology

An Essay

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Author: Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804774208

Category: Philosophy

Page: 128

View: 1745

Epistemology, as generally understood by philosophers of science, is rather remote from the history of science and from historical concerns in general. Rheinberger shows that, from the late nineteenth through the late twentieth century, a parallel, alternative discourse sought to come to terms with the rather fundamental experience of the thoroughgoing scientific changes brought on by the revolution in physics. Philosophers of science and historians of science alike contributed their share to what this essay describes as an ongoing quest to historicize epistemology. Historical epistemology, in this sense, is not so concerned with the knowing subject and its mental capacities. Rather, it envisages science as an ongoing cultural endeavor and tries to assess the conditions under which the sciences in all their diversity take shape and change over time.

The Science of God

The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom

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Author: Gerald L. Schroeder

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439135967

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 8099

For the readers of The Language of God, another instant classic from "a sophisticated and original scholar" (Kirkus Reviews) that disputes the idea that science is contrary to religion. In The Science of God, distinguished physicist and Biblical scholar Gerald L. Schroeder demonstrates the surprising parallels between a variety of Biblical teachings and the findings of biochemists, paleontologists, astrophysicists, and quantum physicists. In a brilliant and wide-ranging discussion of key topics that have divided science and religion—free will, the development of the universe, the origin of life, and the origin of man—Schroeder argues that the latest science and a close reading of the Bible are not just compatible but interdependent. This timely reissue of The Science of God features a brand-new preface by Schroeder and a compelling appendix that addresses the highly publicized experiment in 2008 in which scientists attempted to re-create the chemical composition of the cosmos immediately after the Big Bang. It also details Schroeder’s lucid explanations of complex scientific and religious concepts, such as the theory of relativity, the passage of time, and the definitions of crucial Hebrew words in the Bible. Religious skeptics, Biblical literalists, scientists, students, and physicists alike will be riveted by Schroeder’s remarkable contribution to the raging debate between science and religion.

Health

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Author: Mildred Blaxter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745699510

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 9617

The second edition of Mildred Blaxter's successful and highlyrespected book offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction tothe key debates surrounding the concept of health today. Itdiscusses how health is defined, constructed, experienced and actedout in contemporary developed societies, drawing on a range ofempirical data from the USA, Britain, France, and many othercountries. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, withnew material added on health and identity, the "new genetics", thesociology of the body, and the formation of health capitalthroughout the life course. The topic is the concept of health,rather than the more usual emphasis on illness and health-caresystems. Special emphasis is given to the lay perspective to showhow people themselves think about and experience health. Blaxterguides students through all the relevant conceptual models of therelationship of health to the structure of society, from inequalityin health to the ideas of the risk society, the‘socio-biological translation’ and the contribution ofhealth to social capital. The book concludes with a comprehensivelyrevised and thought-provoking discussion of the impact of newtechnology, the boundaries between life and death, moderncommodification of health, technological transformations of thebody and theories of evolutionary biology. Health is an invaluable textbook for students of medicineand other health professions as well as those studying sociology,health sciences and health promotion.

A Culture of Fact

England, 1550-1720

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Author: Barbara J. Shapiro

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801488498

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 9363

Barbara J. Shapiro traces the surprising genesis of the "fact," a modern concept that, she convincingly demonstrates, originated not in natural science but in legal discourse. She follows the concept's evolution and diffusion across a variety of disciplines in early modern England, examining how the emerging "culture of fact" shaped the epistemological assumptions of each intellectual enterprise.Drawing on an astonishing breadth of research, Shapiro probes the fact's changing identity from an alleged human action to a proven natural or human happening. The crucial first step in this transition occurred in the sixteenth century when English common law established a definition of fact which relied on eyewitnesses and testimony. The concept widened to cover natural as well as human events as a result of developments in news reportage and travel writing. Only then, Shapiro discovers, did scientific philosophy adopt the category "fact." With Francis Bacon advocating more stringent criteria, the witness became a vital component in scientific observation and experimentation. Shapiro also recounts how England's preoccupation with the fact influenced historiography, religion, and literature—which saw the creation of a fact-oriented fictional genre, the novel.

The Language of God

A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief

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Author: Francis Collins

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1847396151

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6167

Dr Francis S. Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, is one of the world's leading scientists, working at the cutting edge of the study of DNA, the code of life. Yet he is also a man of unshakable faith in God. How does he reconcile the seemingly unreconcilable? In THE LANGUAGE OF GOD he explains his own journey from atheism to faith, and then takes the reader on a stunning tour of modern science to show that physics, chemistry and biology -- indeed, reason itself -- are not incompatible with belief. His book is essential reading for anyone who wonders about the deepest questions of all: why are we here? How did we get here? And what does life mean?