Gender and Agency

Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist and Social Theory

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Author: Lois McNay

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745667872

Category: Social Science

Page: 196

View: 4075

This book reassesses theories of agency and gender identity against the backdrop of changing relations between men and women in contemporary societies. McNay argues that recent thought on the formation of the modern subject offers a one-sided or negative account of agency, which underplays the creative dimension present in the responses of individuals to changing social relations. An understanding of this creative element is central to a theory of autonomous agency, and also to an explanation of the ways in which women and men negotiate changes within gender relations. In exploring the implications of this idea of agency for a theory of gender identity, McNay brings together the work of leading feminist theorists - such as Judith Butler and Nancy Fraser - with the work of key continental social theorists. In particular, she examines the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Paul Ricoeur and Cornelius Castoriadis, each of whom has explored different aspects of the idea of the creativity of action. McNay argues that their thought has interesting implications for feminist ideas of gender, but these have been relatively neglected partly because of the huge influence of the work of Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan in this area. She argues that, despite its suggestive nature, feminist theory must move away from the ideas of Foucault and Lacan if a more substantive account of agency is to be introduced into ideas of gender identity. This book will appeal to students and scholars in the areas of social theory, gender studies and feminist theory.

Provoking Agents

Gender and Agency in Theory and Practice

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Author: Judith Kegan Gardiner

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252064180

Category: Social Science

Page: 342

View: 6007

Framing the Rape Victim

Gender and Agency Reconsidered

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Author: Carine M. Mardorossian

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813566045

Category: Social Science

Page: 178

View: 3317

In recent years, members of legal, law enforcement, media and academic circles have portrayed rape as a special kind of crime distinct from other forms of violence. In Framing the Rape Victim, Carine M. Mardorossian argues that this differential treatment of rape has exacerbated the ghettoizing of sexual violence along gendered lines and has repeatedly led to women’s being accused of triggering, if not causing, rape through immodest behavior, comportment, passivity, or weakness. Contesting the notion that rape is the result of deviant behaviors of victims or perpetrators, Mardorossian argues that rape saturates our culture and defines masculinity’s relation to femininity, both of which are structural positions rather than biologically derived ones. Using diverse examples throughout, Mardorossian draws from Hollywood film and popular culture to contemporary women’s fiction and hospitalized birth emphasizing that the position of dominant masculinity can be occupied by men, women, or institutions, while structural femininity is a position that may define and subordinate men, minorities, and other marginalized groups just as effectively as it does women. Highlighting the legacies of the politically correct debates of the 1990s and the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the book illustrates how the framing of the term “victim” has played a fundamental role in constructing notions of agency that valorize autonomy and support exclusionary, especially masculine, models of American selfhood. The gendering of rape, including by well-meaning, sometimes feminist, voices that claim to have victims’ best interests at heart, ultimately obscures its true role in our culture. Both a critical analysis and a call to action, Framing the Rape Victim shows that rape is not a special interest issue that pertains just to women but a pervasive one that affects our society as a whole.

Gender and Citizenship

Politics and Agency in France, Britain and Denmark

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Author: Birte Siim

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521598439

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 9600

Feminist analysis shows that the prevailing concepts of citizenship often assume a male citizen. How, then, does this affect the agency and participation of women in modern democracies? This insightful book, first published in 2000, presents a systematic comparison of the links between women's social rights and democratic citizenship in three different citizenship models: republican citizenship in France, liberal citizenship in Britain, and social citizenship in Denmark. Birte Siim argues that France still suffers from the contradictions of pro-natalist policy, and that Britain is only just starting to re-conceptualise the male-breadwinner model that is still a dominant feature. In her examination of the dual-breadwinner model in Denmark, Siim presents research about Scandinavian social policy and makes an important and timely contribution to debates in political sociology, social policy and gender studies.

Youth, Gender and the Capabilities Approach to Development

Rethinking Opportunities and Agency from a Human Development Perspective

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Author: Aurora Lopez-Fogues,Firdevs Melis Cin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315306336

Category: Social Science

Page: 194

View: 8065

Youth, Gender and the Capabilities Approach to Development investigates to what extent young people have access to fair opportunities, the factors influencing their aspirations, and how able they are to pursue these aspirations and to carry out their life plans. The book positions itself in the intersection between capabilities, youth and gender, in recognition of the fact that without gender equality, capabilities cannot be universal and development strategies are likely to fail to achieve their full objectives. Within the framework of the human development and capabilities approach, Youth, Gender and the Capabilities Approach to Development focuses on examples in the areas of education, political spaces, and social practices that confront inequality and injustice head on, by seeking to advance young people’s capabilities and their agency to make valuable life plans. The book focuses how youth policies and issues can be approached globally from a capabilities-friendly perspective; arguing for the promotion of freedoms and opportunities both in educational and political spheres, with the aim of developing a more just world. With a range of studies from multiple and diverse national contexts, including Russia, Spain, South Africa, Tanzania, Morocco, Turkey, Syria, Colombia, India and Argentina, this important multidisciplinary collection will be of interest to researchers within youth studies, gender studies and development studies, as well as to policy makers and NGOs.

Agency, Gender and Economic Development in the World Economy 1850-2000

Testing the Sen Hypothesis

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Author: Professor of Economic and Social History Jan Luiten van Zanden

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 135181561X

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7239

How has 'agency' - or the ability to define and act upon one's goals - contributed to global long-term economic development during the last 150 years? This book asserts that autonomous decision making, and female agency in particular, increases the potential of a society to generate economic growth and improve its institutions. Inspired by Amartya Sen's capabilities approach and looking at this in comparison to contemporary economic theory, the collection of chapters tackles the issue of agency from the micro level of household and family formation and asks how this applies to gender at regional and state level. It brings to the fore new empirical data from across the globe to test the links between family systems, female agency, human capital formation, political institutions and economic development and puts these into broader historical context. It will appeal to scholars researching social policy, gender studies, economic history, development studies and philosophy, as well anyone with interests in the long-term societal development of the world economy and issues of global inequality.

Willful Girls

Gender and Agency in Contemporary Anglo-American and German Fiction

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Author: Emily Jeremiah

Publisher: Boydell & Brewer

ISBN: 1640140085

Category: American fiction

Page: 216

View: 5583

Explores the process of "becoming woman" through an analysis of the depiction of girls and young women in contemporary Anglo-American and German literary texts.

Female Agency in the Urban Economy

Gender in European Towns, 1640-1830

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Author: Deborah Simonton,Anne Montenach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136275029

Category: History

Page: 294

View: 3316

This innovative new book is overtly and explicitly about female agency in eighteenth-century European towns. However, it positions female activity and decisions unequivocally in an urban world of institutions, laws, regulations, customs and ideologies. Gender politics complicated and shaped the day-to-day experiences of working women. Town rules and customs, as well as police and guilds’ regulations, affected women’s participation in the urban economy: most of the time, the formally recognized and legally accepted power of women – which is an essential component of female agency – was very limited. Yet these chapters draw attention to how women navigated these gendered terrains. As the book demonstrates, "exclusion" is too strong a word for the realities and pragmatism of women’s everyday lives. Frequently guild and corporate regulations were more about situating women and regulating their activities, rather than preventing them from operating in the urban economy. Similarly corporate structures, which were under stress, found flexible strategies to incorporate women who through their own initiative and activities put pressure on the systems. Women could benefit from the contradictions between moral and social unwritten norms and economic regulations, and could take advantage of the tolerance or complicity of urban authorities towards illicit practices. Women with a grasp of their rights and privileges could defend themselves and exploit legal systems with its loopholes and contradictions to achieve economic independence and power.

Rethinking Agency

Developmentalism, Gender and Rights

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Author: Sumi Madhok

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317809548

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 857

This book proposes a new theoretical framework for agency thinking by examining the ethical, discursive and practical engagements of a group of women development workers in north-west India with developmentalism and individual rights. Rethinking Agency asks an underexplored question, tracks the entry, encounter, experience and practice of developmentalism and individual rights, and examines their normative and political trajectory. Through an ethnography of a moral encounter with developmentalism, it raises a critical question: how do we think of agency in oppressive contexts? Further, how do issues of risk, injury, coercion and oppression alter the conceptual mechanics of agency itself? The work will be invaluable to research organisations, development practitioners, policy makers and political journalists interested in questions of gender, political empowerment, rights and political participation, and to academics and students in the fields of feminist theory, development studies, sociology, politics and gender studies.

Agency and Gender in Gaza

Masculinity, Femininity and Family during the Second Intifada

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Author: Dr Aitemad Muhanna

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472407202

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 8300

Drawing on rich interview material and adopting a life history approach, this book examines the agency of women living in insecure and uncertain conflict situations. It explores the effects of the Israeli policy of closure against Gaza and the resulting humanitarian crisis in relation to gender relations and gender subjectivity. With attention to the changing roles of men in the household and community as a result of the loss of male employment, the author explores the extension of poor women’s mobility, particularly that of young wives with dependent children, for whom the meaning of agency has shifted from being providers in the domestic sphere to becoming publicly dependent on humanitarian aid. Without conflating women’s agency with resistance to patriarchy, Agency and Gender in Gaza extends the concept of agency to include its subjective and intersubjective elements, shedding light on the recent distortion of the traditional gender order and the reasons for which women resist the masculine power that they have acquired as a result. An empirically grounded examination of the attempt to maintain the meaning of social existence through the preservation of socially constructed images of masculinity and femininity, this book will be of interest to social scientists with interests in gender studies, masculinities and the sociology of the family.

Gazing at Welfare, Gender and Agency in Post-socialist Countries

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Author: Maija Jäppinen,Meri Kulmala,Aino Saarinen

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443826138

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 708

The volume presents a new and unique view of welfare in Russia and Eastern European countries from an intersectional perspective of welfare, gender and agency. Since the collapse of socialism, the welfare structures of the post-socialist states have experienced large and rapid changes. The discussions on the reforming welfare models serve as the integrating theme for the volume. The authors discuss past and current developments and make comparisons in time and space–between the early 1990s and late 2000s and between post-socialist and transitional countries. Welfare and political democratization are analyzed on the one hand as structures and processes and on the other hand as cultural meanings and through agency, which all are strongly gendered. Macro-level analyses and in-depth case studies by scholars from different countries and disciplines provide a wide and multilayered picture of welfare developments and gendered practices of social services, caregiving and civic activism, among others. Special attention is given to research methodologies, particularly on fieldwork and micro-level understanding of the related topics. The contributors come from social and political sciences and from both former socialist and “Western” countries – from Russia and Slovenia as well as the US, the UK, Germany and Finland. In their studies, the authors examine various regions of Russia and other post-socialist countries, such as the Czech Republic, Romania, Moldova and Slovenia.

Gender and the Constitution

Equity and Agency in Comparative Constitutional Design

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Author: Helen Irving

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468758

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 6867

We live in an era of constitution-making. New constitutions are appearing in historically unprecedented numbers, following regime change in some countries, or a commitment to modernization in others. No democratic constitution today can fail to recognize or provide for gender equality. Constitution-makers need to understand the gendered character of all constitutions, and to recognize the differential impact on women of constitutional provisions, even where these appear gender-neutral. This book confronts what needs to be considered in writing a constitution when gender equity and agency are goals. It examines principles of constitutionalism, constitutional jurisprudence, and history. Its goal is to establish a framework for a 'gender audit' of both new and existing constitutions. It eschews a simple focus on rights and examines constitutional language, interpretation, structures and distribution of power, rules of citizenship, processes of representation, and the constitutional recognition of international and customary law. It discusses equality rights and reproductive rights as distinct issues for constitutional design.

Gender, Agency, and Coercion

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Author: S. Madhok,A. Phillips,K. Wilson,Clare Hemmings

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137295619

Category: Social Science

Page: 289

View: 5202

Drawing on recent feminist discussions, this collection critically reassesses ideas about agency, exploring the relationship between agency and coercion in greater depth and across a range of disciplinary perspectives and ethical contexts.

Voice and Agency

Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity

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Author: Jeni Klugman,Lucia Hanmer,Sarah Twigg,Tazeen Hasan,Jennifer McCleary-Sills,Julieth Santamaria

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464803609

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 236

View: 8565

Despite recent advances in important aspects of the lives of girls and women, pervasive challenges remain. These challenges reflect widespread deprivations and constraints and include epidemic levels of gender-based violence and discriminatory laws and norms that prevent women from owning property, being educated, and making meaningful decisions about their own lives--such as whether and when to marry or have children. These often violate their most basic rights and are magnified and multiplied by poverty and lack of education. This groundbreaking book distills vast data and hundreds of studies to shed new light on deprivations and constraints facing the voice and agency of women and girls worldwide, and on the associated costs for individuals, families, communities, and global development. The volume presents major new findings about the patterns of constraints and overlapping deprivations and focuses on several areas key to women s empowerment: freedom from violence, sexual and reproductive health and rights, ownership of land and housing, and voice and collective action. It highlights promising reforms and interventions from around the world and lays out an urgent agenda for governments, civil society, development agencies, and other stakeholders, including a call for greater investment in data and knowledge to benchmark progress.

Wayward Women

Sexuality and Agency in a New Guinea Society

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Author: Holly Wardlow

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520245598

Category: History

Page: 284

View: 5356

Analyzes female agency, gendered violence, and transactional sex in contemporary Papua New Guinea. Focusing on Huli "passenger women," this work explores the socio-economic factors that push women into the practice of transactional sex, and asks how these transactions might be an expression of resistance, or even revenge.

Gender and Citizenship

Promises of Peace in Post-Dayton Bosnia-Herzegovina

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Author: Maria-Adriana Deiana

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137593784

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 1329

This book examines the remaking of women’s citizenship in the aftermath of conflict and international intervention. It develops a feminist critique of consociationalism as the dominant model of post-conflict governance by tracking the gendered implications of the Dayton Peace Agreement. It illustrates how the legitimisation of ethnonationalist power enabled by the agreement has reduced citizenship to an all-encompassing logic of ethnonational belonging and implicitly reproduced its attendant patriarchal gender order. Foregrounding women’s diverse experiences, the book reveals gendered ramifications produced at the intersection of conflict, ethno-nationalism and international peacebuilding. Deploying a multidimensional feminist approach centred around women’s narratives of belonging, exclusion, and agency, this book offers a critical interrogation of the promises of peace and explores individual/collective efforts to re-imagine citizenship.

Gender in the Mirror

Cultural Imagery & Women's Agency

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Author: Diana Tietjens Meyers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198032205

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 4916

Harmful, culturally prevalent imagery of feminine sexuality, beauty, and motherhood constrains women's self-determination. Gender in the Mirror proposes alternative imagery of feminine sexuality, beauty, and motherhood and advances an account of feminist discursive politics that takes on the challenge of neutralizing patriarchal imagery.

Gender and the Genocide in Rwanda

Women as Rescuers and Perpetrators

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Author: Sara E. Brown

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351699768

Category: Political Science

Page: 186

View: 7787

This book examines the mobilization, role, and trajectory of women rescuers and perpetrators during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. While much has been written about the victimization of women during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, very little has been said about women who rescued targeted victims or perpetrated crimes against humanity. This book explores and analyzes the role played by women who exercised agency as rescuers and as perpetrators during the genocide in Rwanda. As women, they took actions and decisions within the context of a deeply entrenched patriarchal system that limited their choices. This work examines two diverging paths of women’s agency during this period: to rescue from genocide or to perpetrate genocide. It seeks to answer three questions: First, how were certain Rwandan women mobilized to participate in genocide, and by whom? Second, what were the specific actions of women during this period of violence and upheaval? Finally, what were the trajectories of women rescuers and perpetrators after the genocide? Comparing and contrasting how women rescuers and perpetrators were mobilized, the actions they undertook, and their post-genocide trajectories, and concluding with a broader discussion of the long-term impact of ignoring these women, this book develops a more nuanced and holistic view of women’s agency and the genocide in Rwanda. This book will be of much interest to students of gender studies, genocide studies, African politics and critical security studies.

Education, Gender and Development

A Capabilities Perspective

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Author: Mari-Anne Okkolin

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317203593

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 9215

This compelling book takes a novel approach to the complexities of girls’ and women’s education in the global South. To unravel the critical issues and processes behind educational advancement and to identify the factors that support the construction of educational well-being and agency from gender perspective, the book narrates the stories of women who have successfully built their educational careers to higher education. The book creatively applies the human development and capabilities approach to analyze and assess educational advancement and development. Mari-Anne Okkolin offers a fresh voice to the field of education, gender and development. The book draws on rich, in-depth evidence from Tanzanian women who have reached higher education, placing them amongst the very small percentage of women in the Tanzanian and sub-Saharan contexts. The book explores the women’s school experiences, everyday life practices and familial arrangements, and the values, expectations and assumptions associated with education and the schooling of girls and women. Due to the multi-disciplinary nature of the book, it will be of great interest to multiple academic audiences: post-graduates, researchers and academics. It is of particular relevance for all those interested in education, sociology, development studies, gender/women’s studies, and qualitative research methodology. The book will appeal especially to scholars working with the capabilities approach. It will also be of value beyond academia, for education practitioners in planning and implementing education and equality policies internationally.