Fundamentals and New Frontiers of Bose-Einstein Condensation

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Author: Masahito Ueda

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812839593

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 3356

This book covers the fundamentals of and new developments in gaseous Bosendash;Einstein condensation. It begins with a review of fundamental concepts and theorems, and introduces basic theories describing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). It then discusses some recent topics such as fast-rotating BEC, spinor and dipolar BEC, low-dimensional BEC, balanced and imbalanced fermionic superfluidity including BCS-BEC crossover and unitary gas, and p-wave superfluidity.

Quantum Gases

Finite Temperature and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics

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Author: Nick Proukakis,Simon Gardiner,Matthew Davis,Marzena Szymańska

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908979704

Category: Science

Page: 580

View: 3258

The 1995 observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose–Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton–polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of editorial notes. Both graduate students and established researchers wishing to understand the state of the art will greatly benefit from this comprehensive and up-to-date review of non-equilibrium and finite temperature techniques in the exciting and expanding field of quantum gases and liquids. Contents:Introductory Material:Quantum Gases: The BackgroundQuantum Gases: Experimental ConsiderationsQuantum Gases: Background Key Theoretical NotionsUltracold Bosonic Gases: Theoretical Modelling:Kinetic and Many-Body ApproachesClassical-Field, Stochastic and Field-Theoretic ApproachesComparison of Common TheoriesOverview of Related Quantum-Degenerate Systems:Nearly Integrable One-Dimensional SystemsOptical Lattice GeometriesLiquid HeliumDegenerate Fermi GasesExciton/Polariton Condensation Readership: Aimed at graduate level students and for researchers. Keywords:Quantum Gas;Bose–Einstein;Condensate;Mean Field;Classical Field;Quantum Dynamics;Cold Atom;Ultracold Atom;Superfluid;Non-Equilibrium;Kinetic Theory;Field Theory;Quantum Fluid;Quantum Liquid;Degenerate Gas;Quantum Statistics;Number-Conserving;Symmetry-Breaking;Finite Temperature;Fluctuations;Stochastic;Gross–Pitaevskii;Bogoliubov;Many Body;Phase-Space Methods;Low-Dimensional;Optical Lattice;Bose;Fermi;Exciton;Polariton;ThermalizationKey Features:This book provides a unique and editorially linked, impartial unified presentation of the leading theoretical models for quantum gases far from equilibrium, and at finite temperaturesIn addition to focusing on bosonic gases, this book also makes connections to related quantum gases and fluids, such as fermionic gases, atoms in optical lattices, as well as exciton and polariton condensatesIntroductory chapters make this book an essential, accessible resource to both graduate students and early researchers as well as established scientists, with individual chapters written and edited by prominent researchers in the fieldReviews:“This book should be the first reference point for learning about various theoretical approaches to describing quantum gases. The editors and contributors have created a unique book with well-written articles, meaningful comparisons of various approximation schemes, a uniform notation and more than one thousand references. In addition, the book features introductory chapters and up-to-date review articles of experimental methods and current frontiers. The completeness and depth of the presentation are impressive.”Wolfgang Ketterle, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms & Nobel Laureate

Trapped Particles and Fundamental Physics

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Author: S.N. Atutov,R. Calabrese,L. Moi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401004404

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 317

Fundamental physics with trapped particles (ions, atoms or molecules) rep resents one of the most challenging and promising fields of investigation, with impressive results during this last decade. The use of both particle trapping and laser cooling techniques, together with traditional techniques of atomic physics, represents a powerlul tool of investigation for a wide range of fields. Experiments spanning very high resolution spectroscopy to Bose-Einstein condensation, tests of the Standard Model ofelectroweak interactions to precise mass measurements, detailed analysis of ~ decay to QED tests have been presented by leading scientists who reported the most recent results and discussed the perspectives in the different fields. During the ten working days of the School, 39 lecturers, 6 seminars and two poster sessions have been organized by offering to the attendants a.complete pic ture of the present research status about the new frontiers of atomic physics. L. Caneschi gave a general overview of the Standard Model of electroweak interac tions. He pointed out the achievements and the limits of validity of the model.

Pushing the Frontiers of Atomic Physics

Proceedings of the XXI International Conference on Atomic Physics

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Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814273007

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 534

This unique book highlights the state of the art of the booming field of atomic physics in the early 21st century. It contains the majority of the invited papers from an ongoing series of conferences, held every two years, devoted to forefront research and fundamental studies in basic atomic physics, broadly defined. This conference, held at the University of Connecticut in July 2008, is part of a series of conferences, which began in 1968 and had its historical origins in the molecular beam conferences of the I. I. Rabi group. It provides an archival and up-to-date summary of current research on atoms and simple molecules as well as their interactions with each other and with external fields, including degenerate Bose and Fermi quantum gases and interactions involving ultrafast lasers, strong field control of X-ray processes, and nanoscale and mesoscopic quantum systems. The work of three recent Nobel Laureates in atomic physics is included, beginning with a lecture by Eric Cornell on OC When Is a Quantum Gas a Quantum Liquid?OCO. There are also papers by Laureates Steven Chu and Roy Glauber. The volume also contains the IUPAP Young Scientist Prize lecture by Cheng Chin on OC Exploring Universality of Few-Body Physics Based on Ultracold Atoms Near Feshbach ResonancesOCO.

Frontiers

Twentieth Century Physics

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Author: Steve Adams

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203017180

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 3510

The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a single 'theory of everything' from which we could derive the masses and types of all particles and their interactions. This book tells the story of these discoveries and the people who made them, largely through the work of Nobel Prize winning physicists.

Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik

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Author: Günther Ludwig

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 366211920X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 460

View: 9999

Mehrere Gründe bewogen mich, den Plan zu einem Buch über Quantenmechanik zu entwerfen, obwohl es in der Literatur schon manche Darstellung dieses Gebietes gibt. Einmal traf man bei den Lernenden immer wieder auf die Auf fassung, daß die Quantentheorie nur ein Provisorium der theoretischen Physik sei, aber zumindest noch einer genaueren Begründung bedürfe, da sowohl der mathematische Formalismus nicht exakt fundiert sei als auch die physikalische Interpretion sehr "nach Gefühl" in jedem Einzelfall durchgeführt würde. Nachdem das Buch von J. v. NEu MANN, Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, vergriffen war, konnte man kaum ein entsprechendes Werk empfehlen, das im physikalischen Zusammenhang die mathematischen Grundlagen klar legt. In dem vorliegenden Buche ist die eigentiiche Quantenmechamk (also ohne Feldtheorie) in der Weise dargestellt, daß man sie als em mathematisch wohlbegründetes und in sich genauso widerspruchs freies und abgeschlossenes System erkennt, wie die klassische Punkt mechanik. So wie die Kräfte, d. h. so wie die HAMILTON-Funktwn, in der klassischen Mechanik gegeben sein müssen, so m der Quanten mechanik der HAMILTON-Üperator. Die Herleitung eines Ansatzes für den HAMILTON-Operator eines Problems aus anderen Gebieten der Physik wird deshalb hier nicht näher begründet. Neben dem Wunsch, die Quantenmechamk als ein in sich geschlos senes Gebiet darzustellen, bestand ein zweiter Grund für die Abfassung des Buches in der inneren Harmonie zwischen mathematischer und physikalischer Struktur. Je größer die abstrakte Schönheit einer Theo rie, desto größer auch ihr Wahrheitsgehalt. Die innere Harmonie m der Struktur der Materie zu erkennen, d. h.

Supraleitung, Suprafluidität und Kondensate

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Author: James F Annett

Publisher: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag

ISBN: 9783486705409

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 4702

Das Buch behandelt drei physikalische Phänomene: die Bose-Einstein-Kondensation, Suprafluidität und Supraleitung. In seinem Aufbau verfolgt es das Ziel, die wesentlichen Konzepte und notwendigen mathematischen Formalismen zu motivieren. Das Buch beginnt mit dem einfachsten der drei Phänomene, der Bose-Einstein-Kondensation. Nach einem Überblick über grundlegenden Eigenschaften idealer Bose-Gase werden Verfahren zum Einfangen und Kühlen von Atomen vorgestellt, um schließlich auf die Realisierung von Bose-Einstein-Kondensaten in verdünnten atomaren Gasen eingehen zu können. Aufgrund von Zusammenfassungen und weiterführenden Literaturangaben ist das Werk gleichermaßen zum Selbststudium geeignet wie zur vertiefenden Vorlesungsbegleitung. Zahlreiche Übungsaufgaben, teils mit Lösungen und Hinweisen, ermöglichen die unmittelbare Überprüfung des Gelernten.

Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities

New Frontiers

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Author: Daniele Sanvitto,Vladislav Timofeev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642241867

Category: Science

Page: 401

View: 9559

In the past decade, there has been a burst of new and fascinating physics associated to the unique properties of two-dimensional exciton polaritons, their recent demonstration of condensation under non-equilibrium conditions and all the related quantum phenomena, which have stimulated extensive research work. This monograph summarizes the current state of the art of research on exciton polaritons in microcavities: their interactions, fast dynamics, spin-dependent phenomena, temporal and spatial coherence, condensation under non-equilibrium conditions, related collective quantum phenomena and most advanced applications. The monograph is written by the most active authors who have strongly contributed to the advances in this area. It is of great interests to both physicists approaching this subject for the first time, as well as a wide audience of experts in other disciplines who want to be updated on this fast moving field.

Technical digest

summaries of papers presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science conference : conference edition : long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, California, May 19-24, 2002

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Author: conference Quantum electronics and laser sc,Society American Physical,Society Lasers and Electro-Optics,America Optical Society of

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781557527073

Category: Quantum electronics

Page: 271

View: 991

Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

Simulating Quantum Many-body Systems

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Author: Maciej Lewenstein,Anna Sanpera,Verònica Ahufinger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199573123

Category: Science

Page: 479

View: 3676

This book explores the physics of atoms frozen to ultralow temperatures and trapped in periodic light structures. It introduces the reader to the spectacular progress achieved on the field of ultracold gases and describes present and future challenges in condensed matter physics, high energy physics, and quantum computation.

Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy

Investigating Extreme Physical Conditions with Advanced Optical Techniques

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Author: Baldassare Di Bartolo,Ottavio Forte

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402027499

Category: Science

Page: 756

View: 2885

Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

Advances in Atomic Physics

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Author: David Guery-Odelin,Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814390585

Category:

Page: 796

View: 3835

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the spectacular advances seen in atomic physics during the last 50 years. The authors explain how such progress was possible by highlighting connections between developments that occurred at different times. They discuss the new perspectives and the new research fields that look promising. The emphasis is placed, not on detailed calculations, but rather on physical ideas. Combining both theoretical and experimental considerations, the book will be of interest to a wide range of students, teachers and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.Contents: General IntroductionGeneral Background"Light: A Source of Information on Atoms: "Optical MethodsLinear Superpositions of Internal Atomic StatesResonance FluorescenceAdvances in High Resolution Spectroscopy"Atom-Photon Interactions: A Source of Perturbations forAtoms Which Can Be Useful: "Perturbations Due to a Quasi Resonant Optical ExcitationPerturbations Due to a High Frequency Excitation"Atom-Photon Interactions: A Simple System for Studying Higher Order Effects: "Multiphoton Processes Between Discrete StatesPhotoionization of Atoms in Intense Laser fields"Atom-Photon Interactions: A Tool for Controlling and Manipulating Atomic Motion: "Radiative Forces Exerted on a Two-Level Atom at RestLaser Cooling of Two-Level AtomsSub-Doppler Cooling. Sub-Recoil CoolingTrapping of Particles"Ultracold Interactions and Their Control: "Two-Body Interactions at Low TemperaturesControlling Atom-Atom Interactions"Exploring Quantum Interferences with Few Atoms and Photons: "Interference of Atomic de Broglie WavesRamsey Fringes Revisited and Atomic InterferometryQuantum Correlations. Entangled States"Degenerate Quantum Gases: "Emergence of Quantum Effects in a GasThe Long Quest for Bose-Einstein CondensationMean Field Description of a Bose-Einstein CondensateCoherence Properties of Bose-Einstein CondensatesElementary Excitations and Superfluidity in Bose-Einstein Condensates"Frontiers of Atomic Physics: "Testing Fundamental Symmetries. Parity Violation in AtomsQuantum Gases as Simple Systems for Many-Body PhysicsExtreme LightGeneral Conclusion Readership: Graduate students, researchers and academics interested in quantum and atomic physics.

Mechanik

Von den Newtonschen Gesetzen zum deterministischen Chaos

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Author: Florian Scheck

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662085933

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 6485

Die vierte Auflage der Mechanik wurde in einigen Abschnitten ergänzt (z.B. zur Hamiltonschen Prinzipialfunktion und zum Aufstehkreisel) und auf Fehler durchgesehen, zudem wurden die Aufgaben überarbeitet, wobei nun alle vollständigen Lösungen mit aufgenommen wurden. Das wird all jenen zugute kommen, die diese umfassende Einführung in die Mechanik vorlesungsbegleitend oder zum Selbststudium verwenden wollen. Am Grundaufbau des Buches wurde nichts geändert: von elementarer Newtonscher Mechanik bis zur Diskussion von deterministischem Chaos und kontinuierlichen Systemen. Ein mathematischer Anhang und ein Wegweiser durch die Literatur runden das Buch ab.

Die Nobelpreis-Vorlesung

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Author: Bob Dylan

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455003443

Category: Fiction

Page: 80

View: 3610

In seiner Rede anlässlich der Verleihung des Nobelpreises für Literatur gibt Bob Dylan erstmals umfassend Einblick in seine literarischen Einflüsse und die Ursprünge seines Songwritings. Woher stammen die mythologischen Anspielungen in seinen Texten, woher die manchmal fast biblischen Gleichnisse? Welche Bücher haben seine Einstellung zum Leben geprägt? Und wo hat er die speziellen Ausdrucksweisen, Jargons, Kunstgriffe und Techniken gelernt? Neben dem prägenden Einfluss von Buddy Holly sowie der Country-, Blues- und Folkmusik der späten 50er und frühen 60er Jahre mit ihrer von spezieller Mundart geprägten Lyrics fließen vielfältige literarische Motive in seine Texte ein: die biblische Symbolik in Moby Dick, die Drastik eines Kriegsromans wie Im Westen nichts Neues, aber vor allem das Motiv der Reise aus der Odyssee als universeller, menschlicher Grundverfassung. Aus diesem Bodensatz heraus schuf Bob Dylan, wie er selber sagt, Lyrics, wie sie noch niemand zuvor gehört hatte.

Selbstorganisation chemischer Strukturen

Arbeiten von Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, Raphael Eduard Liesegang, Boris Pavlovich Belousov und Anatol Markovich Zhabotinsky

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Author: Uwe Niedersen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Chemical structure

Page: 112

View: 3261