Foundations of Private Law

Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust Enrichment

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Author: James Gordley

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021717

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 1749

Foundations of Private Law is a treatise on the Western law of property, contract, tort and unjust enrichment in both common law systems and civil law systems. The thesis of the book is that underlying these fields of law are common principles, and that these principles can be used to explain the history and development of these areas. These underlying common principles are matters of common sense, which were given their archetypal expression by older jurists who wrote in the Aristotelian tradition. These principles shaped the development of Western law but can resolve legal problems which these older writers did not confront.

Gewinnausgleich

Vergleichende und systematisierende Gegenüberstellung der französischen, niederländischen und englischen Tradition

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Author: Kristin Boosfeld

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161539107

Category: Law

Page: 342

View: 4117

English summary: Kristin Boosfeld depicts the heterogeneous traditions of disgorgement of profits in French, Dutch and English law. On this basis, she develops criteria to give a consistent answer to the question whether and to what extent profits, be they made by violation of property or any other right, should be disgorged. German description: Wird unter Verletzung fremder Rechte ein Gewinn erzielt, so stellt sich die Frage, wem dieser zusteht: dem Rechtsinhaber, der zur Gewinnerzielung nicht beigetragen hat, oder dem Gewinnerzielenden, der ohne das fremde Recht den Gewinn nicht erzielt hatte. Kristin Boosfeld stellt die in Frankreich, den Niederlanden und England vertretenen Losungsansatze gegenuber und stellt fest, dass nicht nur zwischen, sondern auch innerhalb der untersuchten Rechtsordnungen keine einheitlichen Argumentationsmuster bestehen. Je nachdem, welches Recht betroffen ist, sollen unterschiedliche Haftungsregimes greifen. Die hieraus folgenden Wertungswiderspruche sucht sie durch eine einheitliche Begrundung des Gewinnausgleichs aufzulosen und geht der Frage nach, auf der Grundlage welcher Kriterien festgestellt werden kann, ob und in welcher Form ein Ausgleich in rechtswidriger Weise erzielten Gewinns zu erfolgen hat.

The Foundations of European Private Law

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Author: Roger Brownsword,Hans-W Micklitz,Leone Niglia,Stephen Weatherill

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847317901

Category: Law

Page: 648

View: 8545

There remains an urgent need for a deeper discussion of the theoretical, political and federal dimensions of the European codification project. While much valuable work has already been undertaken, the chapters in this volume take as their starting point the proposition that further reflection and critical thought will enhance the quality and efficacy of the on-going work of the various codification bodies. The volume contains chapters by representatives of the Common Frame of Reference, the Study Group and the Acquis Group as well as by those who have not been involved in particular projects but who have previously commented more distantly on their work - for instance those belonging to the Trento Group, and the Social Justice Group. The chapters between them represent the most comprehensive attempt so far to survey the state of the codification project, its theoretical, political and federal foundations and the future prospects for enforcement and compliance.

Enrichment at the Claimant's Expense

Attribution Rules in Unjust Enrichment

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Author: Eli Ball

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782258418

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 6275

This book presents an account of attribution in unjust enrichment. Attribution refers to how and when two parties Â? a claimant and a defendant Â? are relevantly connected to each other for unjust enrichment purposes. It is reflected in the familiar expression that a defendant be 'enriched at the claimant's expense'. This book presents a structured account of attribution, consisting of two requirements: first, the identification of an enrichment to the defendant and a loss to the claimant; and, secondly, the identification of a connection between that enrichment and that loss. These two requirements must be kept separate from other considerations often subsumed within the expression 'enrichment at the claimant's expense' which in truth have nothing to do with attribution, and which instead qualify unjust enrichment liability for reasons that should be analysed in their own terms. The structure of attribution so presented fits a normative account of unjust enrichment based upon each party's exchange capacities. A defendant is enriched when he receives something that he has not paid for under prevailing market conditions, while a claimant suffers a loss when he loses the opportunity to charge for something under the same conditions. A counterfactual test Â? asking whether enrichment and loss arise 'but for' each other Â? provides the best generalisation for testing whether enrichment and loss are connected, thereby satisfying the requirements of attribution in unjust enrichment.

Philosophical Foundations of the Law of Unjust Enrichment

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Author: Robert Chambers,Charles Christopher James Mitchell,James E. Penner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 446

View: 6560

This volume takes stock of the rapid changes to the law of unjust enrichment over the last decade. It offers a set of original contributions from leading private law theorists examining the philosophical foundations of the law. The essays consider the central questions raised by demarcating unjust enrichment as a separate area of private law - including how its normative foundations relate to those of other areas of private law, how the concept of enrichment relates to property theory, how the remedy of restitution relates to principles of corrective justice and what role mental elements should play in shaping the law.

The International Law of Property

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Author: John G. Sprankling

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191502529

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 506

Does a right to property exist under international law? The traditional answer to this question is no: a right to property can only arise under the domestic law of a particular nation. But the view that property rights are exclusively governed by national law is obsolete. Identifiable areas of property law have emerged at the international level, and the foundation is now arguably being laid for a comprehensive international regime. This book provides a detailed investigation into this developing international property law. It demonstrates how the evolution of international property law has been influenced by major economic, political, and technological changes: the embrace of private property by former socialist states after the end of the Cold War; the globalization of trade; the birth of new technologies capable of exploiting the global commons; the rise of digital property; and the increasing recognition of the human right to property. The first part of the book analyzes how international law impacts rights in specific types of property. In some situations, international law creates property rights, such as rights in aboriginal lands, deep seabed minerals, and satellite orbits. In other areas, it harmonizes property rights that arise at the national level, such as rights in intellectual property, rights in foreign investments, and security interests in personal property. Finally, it restricts property rights that may be recognized at the national level, such as rights in celestial bodies, contraband, and slaves. The second part of the book explores the thesis that a global right to property should be recognized as a general matter, not merely as a moral precept but rather as an entitlement that all nations must honour. It establishes the components of such a right, arguing that the right to property at the international level should be seen in the context of five key components of ownership: acquisition, use, destruction, exclusion, and transfer. This highly innovative book makes an important contribution to how we conceptualize the protection of property and to the understanding that much of this protection now takes place at the international level.

The Laws of Robots

Crimes, Contracts, and Torts

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Author: Ugo Pagallo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400765649

Category: Law

Page: 200

View: 1764

This book explores how the design, construction, and use of robotics technology may affect today’s legal systems and, more particularly, matters of responsibility and agency in criminal law, contractual obligations, and torts. By distinguishing between the behaviour of robots as tools of human interaction, and robots as proper agents in the legal arena, jurists will have to address a new generation of “hard cases.” General disagreement may concern immunity in criminal law (e.g., the employment of robot soldiers in battle), personal accountability for certain robots in contracts (e.g., robo-traders), much as clauses of strict liability and negligence-based responsibility in extra-contractual obligations (e.g., service robots in tort law). Since robots are here to stay, the aim of the law should be to wisely govern our mutual relationships.

Mistakes in Contract Law

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Author: Catharine MacMillan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847315534

Category: Law

Page: 348

View: 1038

It is a matter of some difficulty for the English lawyer to predict the effect of a misapprehension upon the formation of a contract. The common law doctrine of mistake is a confused one, with contradictory theoretical underpinnings and seemingly irreconcilable cases. This book explains the common law doctrine through an examination of the historical development of the doctrine in English law. Beginning with an overview of contractual mistakes in Roman law, the book examines how theories of mistake were received at various points into English contract law from Roman and civil law sources. These transplants, made for pragmatic rather than principled reasons, combined in an uneasy manner with the pre-existing English contract law. The book also examines the substantive changes brought about in contractual mistake by the Judicature Act 1873 and the fusion of law and equity. Through its historical examination of mistake in contract law, the book provides not only insights into the nature of innovation and continuity within the common law but also the fate of legal transplants.

Pure Economic Loss

New Horizons in Comparative Law

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Author: Vernon V. Palmer,Mauro Bussani

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415775647

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 326

View: 1572

Pure economic loss is one of the most-discussed problems in the fields of tort and contract. How do we understand the various differences and similarities between these systems and what is the extent to which there is a common-core of agreement on this question? This book takes a comparative approach to the subject, exploring the principles, policies and rules governing tortious liability for pure economic loss in a number of countries and legal systems across the world. The countries covered are USA, Canada, Japan, Israel, South Africa, Japan, Romania, Croatia, Denmark and Poland, with the contributors taking a comparative fact-based approach through the use of hypothetical problems to analyze and then summarize the individual country’s tort approach. Using a fact-based questionnaire, a tested taxonomy, and a sophisticated comparative law methodology, the authors convincingly demonstrate that there are liberal, pragmatic and conservative regimes throughout the world. The recoverability of pure economic loss poses a generic question for these legal systems - it is not just a civil law versus common law issue. It will be of interest to students and academics studying tort law and comparative law in the different countries covered.

Grundstrukturen eines Europäischen Bereicherungsrechts

Tagung der privatrechtlichen Sektion der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rechtsvergleichung in Dresden, September 2003

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Author: Reinhard Zimmermann

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161485473

Category: Law

Page: 289

View: 9766

English summary: Two contributions on enrichment by transfer and restitution for wrongs form the central part of this work. Both focus, in particular, on German and English law as two main exponents of the civil law and common law jurisdictions in Europe. Two other contributions deal with the structure of liability for unjustified enrichment in the Dutch Civil Code (a legal system that has traditionally been influenced by French law) and in Scotland and South Africa (two mixed legal systems at the intersection of civil law and common law). Finally, the relevant proposals advanced by the draftsmen of the (third) Restatement of the Law of Restitution in the United States and of the Study Group on a European Civil Code in Europe are critically examined. German description: Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Bandes stehen zwei Beitrage zu den Themen Leistungskondiktion - verstanden in einem systemunabhangigen, untechnischen Sinne - und Eingriffskondiktion. In ihnen wird einer vergleichenden Betrachtung des Bereicherungsrechts zweier Hauptexponenten der civil law- und common law-Jurisdiktionen - Deutschland und England - besonderes Gewicht beigemessen. Weitere Beitrage befassen sich mit der Struktur des Bereicherungsrechts in den Niederlanden, einer Rechtsordnung, die historisch in der franzosisch/italienischen Traditionslinie steht, und in Schottland und Sudafrika, zwei im Schnittpunkt von civil law und common law liegenden Mischrechtsordnungen. Schliesslich werden die Uberlegungen vorgestellt und kommentiert, die in den USA bei der Vorbereitung des neuen (dritten) Restatement des Law of Restitution und in Europa im Rahmen der Study Group on a European Civil Code angestellt werden.

Philosophical Foundations of Fiduciary Law

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Author: Andrew S. Gold,Paul B. Miller

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191005282

Category: Law

Page: 450

View: 4444

Fiduciary law is a critically important body of law. Fiduciary duties ensure the integrity of a remarkable variety of relationships, institutions, and organizations. They apply to relationships of great personal significance, including in some jurisdictions the relationship between parents and children. They structure a wide variety of commercial relationships, and they are essential to the regulation of relationships between professional service providers and their clients, including relationships between lawyer and client, doctor and patient, and investment manager and client. Fiduciary duties, perhaps uniquely in private law, challenge traditional ways of marking the boundaries between private and public law, inasmuch as they figure prominently in public governance. Indeed, there is even a storied tradition of thinking of the authority of the state in fiduciary terms. Notwithstanding its importance, fiduciary law has been woefully under-analysed by legal theorists. Filling this gap with a series of chapters by leading theorists, this book includes chapters on: the nature of fiduciary relationships, the connection between fiduciary duties and morality, the content and significance of fiduciary loyalty, the economic significance of fiduciary law, the application of fiduciary principles to public law and international law, the import of fiduciary relationships to theories of authority, and various other fundamental topics in the field. In many cases, new and important questions are raised by the book's chapters. Indeed, this book not only offers a much-needed theoretical assessment of fiduciary topics, it defines the field going forward, setting an agenda for future philosophical study of fiduciary law.

Europäisches Vertragsrecht

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Author: Hein Kötz

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161537677

Category: Law

Page: 549

View: 9583

English summary: This volume deals with the contract law of the European legal systems. What are the essential rules of these systems on the formation and validity of contracts? What rules apply to a party's right to bring a claim for performance, to terminate the contract or to claim damages for breach? While the discussion is based on the national rules, they are taken into account only as local variations on a European theme. To what extent is it therefore possible to speak of a common European law of contract? What contributions do the "Principles of European Contract Law" and the proposal of the "Draft Common Frame of Reference" make? This book is not only aimed at helping to teach young Europeans lawyers, but also strives to assist those engaged in the reform of national contract law or the drafting of uniform European legislation. The first 1996 edition of the volume has now been updated and completed. German description: Unter "Europaischem Vertragsrecht" versteht dieses Buch die Regeln, die den Rechtsordnungen der europaischen Lander gemeinsam sind: Wie kommt ein gultiger Vertrag zustande? Nach welchen Regeln wird beurteilt, ob eine Vertragspartei die Erfullung des Vertrages verlangen, von dem Vertrag Abstand nehmen, ihn widerrufen oder kundigen oder den Kontrahenten auf Schadensersatz in Anspruch nehmen kann? Lassen sich auf dem Gebiet des Vertragsrechts gemeineuropaische Strukturen auffinden? Gibt es allgemein akzeptierte Regeln? Wie sind sie zu formulieren, wenn man die "Prinzipien des Europaischen Vertragsrechts" oder die Vorschlage des "Draft Common Frame of Reference" berucksichtigt? Dabei werden die Losungen der nationalen Rechtsordnungen ausfuhrlich - wenn auch stets nur als nationale Variationen eines europaischen Themas - behandelt. Das Buch kann deshalb bei der rechtsvergleichenden Ausbildung der jungen europaischen Juristen eine Rolle spielen, ferner auch dort, wo e s um die Vorbereitung europaischen Gesetzesrechts oder um die Reform der nationalen Vertragsrechte geht. Das Buch ist in einer ersten unvollstandigen Auflage schon 1996 erschienen. Die Neuauflage bringt den Text auf den neuen Stand und erganzt ihn um die damals noch fehlenden Abschnitte.

Corrective Justice

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Author: Ernest J. Weinrib

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019163638X

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 5120

Private law governs our most pervasive relationships with other people: the wrongs we do to one another, the property we own and exclude from others' use, the contracts we make and break, and the benefits realized at another's expense that we cannot justly retain. The major rules of private law are well known, but how they are organized, explained, and justified is a matter of fierce debate by lawyers, economists, and philosophers. Ernest Weinrib made a seminal contribution to the understanding of private law with his first book, The Idea of Private Law. In it, he argued that there is a special morality intrinsic to private law: the morality of corrective justice. By understanding the nature of corrective justice we understand the purpose of private law - which is simply to be private law. In this book Weinrib takes up and develops his account of corrective justice, its nature, and its role in understanding the law. He begins by setting out the conceptual components of corrective justice, drawing a model of a moral relationship between two equals and the rights and duties that exist between them. He then explains the significance of corrective justice for various legal contexts: for the grounds of liability in negligence, contract, and unjust enrichment; for the relationship between right and remedy; for legal education; for the comparative understanding of private law; and for the compatibility of corrective justice with state support for the poor. Combining legal and philosophical analysis, Corrective Justice integrates a concrete and wide-ranging treatment of legal doctrine with a unitary and comprehensive set of theoretical ideas. Alongside the revised edition of The Idea of Private Law, it is essential reading for all academics, lawyers, and students engaged in understanding the foundations of private law.

Corrective and Distributive Justice

From Aristotle to Modern Times

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Author: Izhak Englard

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 237

View: 1115

"Englard's unique contribution to this aspect of legal history grants the contemporary reader a historical perspective that is vital for a deepened understanding of the distinction and modern concerns. This book offers the modern reader a touchstone synthesis of intellectual and legal history."--BOOK JACKET.

Enrichment in the Law of Unjust Enrichment and Restitution

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Author: Andrew Lodder

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847319726

Category: Law

Page: 276

View: 8296

Enrichment is key to understanding the law of unjust enrichment and restitution. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the concept of enrichment and its implications for restitutionary awards. Dr Lodder argues that enrichment may be characterised either factually or legally, and explores the consequences of that distinction. In factual enrichment cases, the measure of enrichment is the objective value received. This is the basis of many awards of money had and received, quantum meruit, quantum valebat and money paid. In legal enrichment cases, the benefit is the acquisition of a specific right or the release of a specific obligation. The remedy is restitution of that right or reinstatement of that obligation. It is demonstrated that specific restitution of the defendant's legal enrichment is often the basis for resulting trusts, rescission, rectification and subrogation. This book has profound implications for understanding restitutionary awards and the relationship between the enrichment inquiry and other aspects of the law of unjust enrichment, including the 'at the expense of' inquiry and the defence of change of position.

European Private Law

A Handbook

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Author: Mauro Bussani,Franz Werro

Publisher: Carolina Academic Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 586

View: 6961

This book provides reliable information on private law in an increasingly integrated Europe. It contains a collection of specially commissioned essays, including contributions on: corporation law, trust, law of sales, competition law, products liability, personal injuries law, limitation periods, the harmonization of European private law, and more.

Law and morality

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Author: College of William and Mary. School of Law

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 592

View: 6728