Forests and Global Change

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Author: David A. Coomes,David F. R. P. Burslem,William D. Simonson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107783070

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 4682

Forests hold a significant proportion of global biodiversity and terrestrial carbon stocks and are at the forefront of human-induced global change. The dynamics and distribution of forest vegetation determines the habitat for other organisms, and regulates the delivery of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Presenting recent research across temperate and tropical ecosystems, this volume synthesises the numerous ways that forests are responding to global change and includes perspectives on: the role of forests in the global carbon and energy budgets; historical patterns of forest change and diversification; contemporary mechanisms of community assembly and implications of underlying drivers of global change; and the ways in which forests supply ecosystem services that support human lives. The chapters represent case studies drawn from the authors' expertise, highlighting exciting new research and providing information that will be valuable to academics, students, researchers and practitioners with an interest in this field.

Why Forests? Why Now?

The Science, Economics, and Politics of Tropical Forests and Climate Change

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Author: Frances Seymour,Jonah Busch

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 1933286865

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 429

View: 6512

Tropical forests are an undervalued asset in meeting the greatest global challenges of our time—averting climate change and promoting development. Despite their importance, tropical forests and their ecosystems are being destroyed at a high and even increasing rate in most forest-rich countries. The good news is that the science, economics, and politics are aligned to support a major international effort over the next five years to reverse tropical deforestation. Why Forests? Why Now? synthesizes the latest evidence on the importance of tropical forests in a way that is accessible to anyone interested in climate change and development and to readers already familiar with the problem of deforestation. It makes the case to decisionmakers in rich countries that rewarding developing countries for protecting their forests is urgent, affordable, and achievable.

Carbon Sinks and Climate Change

Forests in the Fight Against Global Warming

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Author: Colin A. G. Hunt

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849802106

Category: Nature

Page: 236

View: 2529

The importance of this book lies in being one of the first comprehensive attempts to summarise major findings in the field of carbon sinks and climate change. . . The book also deals comprehensively with the present and future role of forests in climate change policy and practice. . . This timely book is essential reading for policy decision-makers and foresters alike. Wasantha Athukorala, Economic Analysis and Policy Reforestation and avoiding deforestation are methods of harnessing nature to tackle global warming the greatest challenge facing humankind. In this book, Colin Hunt deals comprehensively with the present and future role of forests in climate change policy and practice. The author provides signposts for the way ahead in climate change policy and offers practical examples of forestry s role in climate change mitigation in both developed and tropical developing countries. Chapters on measuring carbon in plantations, their biodiversity benefits and potential for biofuel production complement the analysis. He also discusses the potential for forestry in climate change policy in the United States and other countries where policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have been foreshadowed. The author employs scientific and socio-economic analysis and lays bare the complexity of forestry markets. A review of the workings of carbon markets, based both on the Kyoto Protocol and voluntary participation, provides a foundation from which to explore forestry s role. Emphasis is placed on acknowledging how forests idiosyncrasies affect the design of markets for sequestered carbon. The realization of forestry s potential in developed countries depends on the depth of cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, together with in-country rules on forestry. An increase in funding for carbon retention in tropical forests is an immediate imperative, but complexities dictate that the sources of finance will likely be dedicated funds rather than carbon markets. This timely and comprehensive book will be of great value to any reader interested in climate change. Policy-makers within international agencies and governments, academics and students in the fields of geography, economics, science policy, forestry, development studies as well as carbon market participants and forest developers in the private sector will find it especially useful.

Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics

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Author: Trevor R. Hodkinson,Michael B. Jones,Stephen Waldren,John A. N. Parnell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500473

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9865

Climate change has shaped life in the past and will continue to do so in the future. Understanding the interactions between climate and biodiversity is a complex challenge to science. With contributions from 60 key researchers, this book examines the ongoing impact of climate change on the ecology and diversity of life on earth. It discusses the latest research within the fields of ecology and systematics, highlighting the increasing integration of their approaches and methods. Topics covered include the influence of climate change on evolutionary and ecological processes such as adaptation, migration, speciation and extinction, and the role of these processes in determining the diversity and biogeographic distribution of species and their populations. This book ultimately illustrates the necessity for global conservation actions to mitigate the effects of climate change in a world that is already undergoing a biodiversity crisis of unprecedented scale.

Climate Change and United States Forests

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Author: Peterson David L.,James M. Vose,Toral Patel-Weynand

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400775156

Category: Science

Page: 261

View: 8073

This volume offers a scientific assessment of the effects of climatic variability and change on forest resources in the United States. Derived from a report that provides technical input to the 2013 U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment, the book serves as a framework for managing U.S. forest resources in the context of climate change. The authors focus on topics having the greatest potential to alter the structure and function of forest ecosystems, and therefore ecosystem services, by the end of the 21st century. Part I provides an environmental context for assessing the effects of climate change on forest resources, summarizing changes in environmental stressors, followed by state-of-science projections for future climatic conditions relevant to forest ecosystems. Part II offers a wide-ranging assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems and ecosystem services to climate change. The authors anticipate that altered disturbance regimes and stressors will have the biggest effects on forest ecosystems, causing long-term changes in forest conditions. Part III outlines responses to climate change, summarizing current status and trends in forest carbon, effects of carbon management, and carbon mitigation strategies. Adaptation strategies and a proposed framework for risk assessment, including case studies, provide a structured approach for projecting and responding to future changes in resource conditions and ecosystem services. Part IV describes how sustainable forest management, which guides activities on most public and private lands in the United States, can provide an overarching structure for mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands

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Author: Chandrakasan Sivaperuman,A. Velmurugan,Awnindra Kumar Singh,I. Jaisankar

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128130652

Category: Science

Page: 805

View: 3836

Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands provides comprehensive information on climate change, biodiversity, possible impacts, adaptation measures and policy challenges to help users rehabilitate and preserve the natural resources of tropical islands. While biodiversity and climate change of tropical islands has previously received less attention, it is ironically one of the most vulnerable regions in this regard. The core content of the work derives largely from the ideas and research output from various reputed scientists and experts who have recorded climate change impacts on aquatic and coastal life in tropical regions. Contributors have direct working experience with the tribes in some of the tropical islands. All of their expertise and information is compiled and presented in the work, including coverage related to climate change. This work highlights the ever-growing need to develop and apply strategies that optimize the use of natural resources, both on land and in water and judicious use of biodiversity. It functions as a critical resource on tropical island biodiversity for researchers, academicians, practitioners and policy makers in a variety of related disciplines. Covers a huge range of biodiversity documentation, conservation measures and strategies that can be applied to various sectors, from forests to agriculture Brings together expertise from researchers in the area who have direct experience in the regions described Contains a wealth of field research related to biodiversity conservation and its applications from a variety of tropical islands

Managing Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems

Building Resilience to the Challenge of Global Change

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Author: Christian Messier,Klaus J. Puettmann,K. David Coates

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136335218

Category: Nature

Page: 368

View: 5158

This book links the emerging concepts of complexity, complex adaptive system (CAS) and resilience to forest ecology and management. It explores how these concepts can be applied in various forest biomes of the world with their different ecological, economic and social settings, and history. Individual chapters stress different elements of these concepts based on the specific setting and expertise of the authors. Regions and authors have been selected to cover a diversity of viewpoints and emphases, from silviculture and natural forests to forest restoration, and from boreal to tropical forests. The chapters show that there is no single generally applicable approach to forest management that applies to all settings. The first set of chapters provides a global overview of how complexity, CAS and resilience theory can benefit researchers who study forest ecosystems. A second set of chapters provides guidance for managers in understanding how these concepts can help them to facilitate forest ecosystem change and renewal (adapt or self-organize) in the face of global change while still delivering the goods and services desired by humans. The book takes a broad approach by covering a variety of forest biomes and the full range of management goals from timber production to forest restoration to promote the maintenance of biodiversity, quality of water, or carbon storage.

Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests

Ecology and Conservation

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Author: Rodolfo Dirzo,Hillary S. Young,Harold A. Mooney,Gerardo Ceballos

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610910214

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 5806

Though seasonally dry tropical forests are equally as important to global biodiversity as tropical rainforests, and are one of the most representative and highly endangered ecosystems in Latin America, knowledge about them remains limited because of the relative paucity of attention paid to them by scientists and researchers and a lack of published information on the subject. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests seeks to address this shortcoming by bringing together a range of experts in diverse fields including biology, ecology, biogeography, and biogeochemistry, to review, synthesize, and explain the current state of our collective knowledge on the ecology and conservation of seasonally dry tropical forests. The book offers a synthetic and cross-disciplinary review of recent work with an expansive scope, including sections on distribution, diversity, ecosystem function, and human impacts. Throughout, contributors emphasize conservation issues, particularly emerging threats and promising solutions, with key chapters on climate change, fragmentation, restoration, ecosystem services, and sustainable use. Seasonally dry tropical forests are extremely rich in biodiversity, and are seriously threatened. They represent scientific terrain that is poorly explored, and there is an urgent need for increased understanding of the system's basic ecology. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests represents an important step in bringing together the most current scientific information about this vital ecosystem and disseminating it to the scientific and conservation communities.

Tropical Fire Ecology

Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics

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Author: Mark Cochrane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540773819

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 9961

This book is a global synthesis of fire in tropical ecosystems. In detailing the fire situations of 17 tropical systems, it discusses all relevant subjects ranging from causes of fire to human land use and climate change to long range implications.

Climate Change and Forests

Emerging Policy and Market Opportunities

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Author: Charlotte Streck,Robert O'Sullivan,Toby Janson-Smith,Richard Tarasofsky

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815701484

Category: Political Science

Page: 346

View: 6860

The global climate change problem has finally entered the world's consciousness. While efforts to find a solution have increased momentum, international attention has focused primarily on the industrial and energy sectors. The forest, and land-use sector, however, remains one of the most significant untapped opportunities for carbon mitigation. The expiration of the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period in 2012 presents an opportunity for the international community to put this sector back on the agenda. In this timely, wide-ranging volume, an international team of experts explain the links between climate change and forests, highlighting the potential utility of this sector within emerging climate policy frameworks and carbon markets. After framing forestry activities within the larger context of climate-change policy, the contributors analyze the operation and efficacy of market-based mechanisms for forest conservation and climate change. Drawing on experiences from around the world, the authors present concrete recommendations for policymakers, project developers, and market participants. They discuss sequestration rights in Chile, carbon offset programs in Australia and New Zealand, and emerging policy incentives at all levels of the U.S. government. The book also explores the different voluntary schemes for carbon crediting, provides an overview of best practices in carbon accounting, and presents tools for use in future sequestration and offset programs. It concludes with consideration of various incentive options for slowing deforestation and protecting the world's remaining forests. Climate Change and Forests provides a realistic view of the role that the forest and land-use sector can play in a post-Kyoto regime. It will serve as a practical reference manual for anyone concerned about climate policy, including the negotiators working to define a robust and enduring international framework for addressing climate change.

Routledge Handbook of Forest Ecology

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Author: Kelvin S.-H. Peh,Richard T. Corlett,Yves Bergeron

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317816439

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 2745

This comprehensive handbook provides a unique resource covering all aspects of forest ecology from a global perspective. It covers both natural and managed forests, from boreal, temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world. The book is divided into seven parts, addressing the following themes: forest types forest dynamics forest flora and fauna energy and nutrients forest conservation and management forests and climate change human impacts on forest ecology. While each chapter can stand alone as a suitable resource for a lecture or seminar, the complete book provides an essential reference text for a wide range of students of ecology, environmental science, forestry, geography and natural resource management. Contributors include leading authorities from all parts of the world.

Biosequestration and Ecological Diversity

Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Environmental Degradation

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Author: Wayne A. White

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439853681

Category: Nature

Page: 250

View: 8704

Increased throughput of carbon-based fossil energy, the destruction of Earth’s forests, and other land use changes have resulted in ever higher levels of waste in the form of greenhouse gases—as well as a diminished capacity of the planet to absorb and store those wastes. This means that to avoid catastrophic global warming and maintain the habitability of Earth by protecting essential soil and water resources, we will need to not only reduce emissions, but also increase carbon storage in the land system. Biosequestration and Ecological Diversity: Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Environmental Degradation discusses ways to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and build soil by changing the way people use and manage land. Principles and Practices for Better Land Management Examining biosequestration in social, economic, and political context, the book reviews recent scientific evidence on climate change and global ecological degradation and explains how the carbon cycle has been transformed by destructive land use practices, such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. It describes the principles of biosequestration and restorative land management practices and discusses the potential of carbon storage. The author offers specific examples of inexpensive, proven practices that build soil, protect scarce water resources, and enhance ecological diversity. He also identifies conservation policies that provide technical assistance and financial resources for ecological protection and restoration. How You Can Help Mitigate Climate Change with a Little Piece of Land Restorative land use and land management practices are critical components of any comprehensive strategy for mitigating and adapting to climate change and global environmental degradation. This book explains how anyone who owns or manages land—from an apartment to a city lot to a farm, forest, park, or even a golf course—can help protect and enhance the biological sequestration of carbon.

Global change

effects on coniferous forests and grasslands

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Author: Alicja I. Breymeyer,International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd

ISBN: 9780471968375

Category: Nature

Page: 459

View: 3784

This volume critically assesses the present state of our knowledge, reviews extant forest and grasslands models, and develops foundations for the design of diagnostic and predictive models, as well as identifying plans for future research on ecosystem response to global change. Carbon flow and storage are emphasised, although the flow and storage of key nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus are also considered when deemed necessary to understand changes in the carbon budget of coniferous forests and grasslands.

Forest Ecosystems

Analysis at Multiple Scales

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Author: Richard H. Waring,Steven W. Running

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080546087

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 2956

This revision maintains the position of Forest Ecosystems as the one source for the latest information on the advanced methods that have enhanced our understating of forest ecosystems. Further understanding is given to techniques to explore the changes in climatic cycles, the implications of wide-scale pollution, fire and other ecological disturbances that have a global effect. The inclusion of models, equations, graphs, and tabular examples provides readers with a full understanding of the methods and techniques. Includes a revised section on important advances in regional scale analyses Features an update to global scale analyses including revised color images Provides a detailed comparison of predicted vs. observed tree diversity across 65 eco-regions

Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change

Livelihoods in the Redd?

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Author: Luca Tacconi,Sango Mahanty,Helen Suich

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849806012

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 9701

This resourceful book draws on several case studies to derive implications for the design of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) schemes that are very relevant to current climate change negotiations and the implementation of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) schemes at the national level. With its focus on livelihoods, the book also provides important lessons that are relevant to the design of PES schemes focusing on environmental services other than carbon conservation. Drawing practical lessons for the design of activities aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation while benefiting rural people, this book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students involved in the fields of environment and natural resource management, forestry and development studies. This insightful study is accessible also to non-experts in presenting the key issues faced in avoiding deforestation and benefiting livelihoods.

Ecological Forest Management

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Author: Jerry F. Franklin,K. Norman Johnson,Debora L. Johnson

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 147863720X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 646

View: 9691

Fundamental changes have occurred in all aspects of forestry over the last 50 years, including the underlying science, societal expectations of forests and their management, and the evolution of a globalized economy. This textbook is an effort to comprehensively integrate this new knowledge of forest ecosystems and human concerns and needs into a management philosophy that is applicable to the vast majority of global forest lands. Ecological forest management (EFM) is focused on policies and practices that maintain the integrity of forest ecosystems while achieving environmental, economic, and cultural goals of human societies. EFM uses natural ecological models as its basis contrasting it with modern production forestry, which is based on agronomic models and constrained by required return-on-investment. Sections of the book consider: 1) Basic concepts related to forest ecosystems and silviculture based on natural models; 2) Social and political foundations of forestry, including law, economics, and social acceptability; 3) Important current topics including wildfire, biological diversity, and climate change; and 4) Forest planning in an uncertain world from small privately-owned lands to large public ownerships. The book concludes with an overview of how EFM can contribute to resolving major 21st century issues in forestry, including sustaining forest dependent societies.

The Human Dimensions of Forest and Tree Health

Global Perspectives

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Author: Julie Urquhart,Mariella Marzano,Clive Potter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319769561

Category: Social Science

Page: 498

View: 5804

This book explores the specifically human dimensions of the problem posed by a new generation of invasive pests and pathogens to tree health worldwide. The growth in global trade and transportation in recent decades, along with climate change, is allowing invasive pests and pathogens to establish in new environments, with profound consequences for the ecosystem services provided by trees and forests, and impacts on human wellbeing. The central theme of the book is to consider the role that social science can play in better understanding the social, economic and environmental impacts of such tree disease and pest outbreaks. Contributions include explorations of how pest outbreaks are socially constructed, drawing on the historical, cultural, social and situated contexts of outbreaks; the governance and economics of tree health for informing policy and decision-making; stakeholder engagement and communication tools; along with more philosophical approaches that draw on environmental ethics to consider ‘non-human’ perspectives. Taken together the book makes theoretical, methodological and applied contributions to our understanding of this important subject area and encourages researchers from across the social sciences and humanities to bring their own disciplinary perspectives and expertise to address the complexity that is the human dimensions of forest and tree health. Chapters 5 and 11 are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.

Climate Change Biology

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Author: Lee Hannah

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012799923X

Category: Science

Page: 470

View: 939

Climate Change Biology, 2e examines the evolving discipline of human-induced climate change and the resulting shifts in the distributions of species and the timing of biological events. The text focuses on understanding the impacts of human-induced climate change by drawing on multiple lines of evidence, including paleoecology, modeling, and current observation. This revised and updated second edition emphasizes impacts of human adaptation to climate change on nature and greater emphasis on natural processes and cycles and specific elements. With four new chapters, an increased emphasis on tools for critical thinking, and a new glossary and acronym appendix, Climate Change Biology, 2e is the ideal overview of this field. Expanded treatment of processes and cycles Additional exercises and elements to encourage independent and critical thinking Increased on-line supplements including mapping activities and suggested labs and classroom activities.