Forests and Global Change

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Author: David A. Coomes,David F. R. P. Burslem,William D. Simonson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107041856

Category: Nature

Page: 492

View: 4735

Forests hold a significant proportion of global biodiversity and terrestrial carbon stocks and are at the forefront of human-induced global change. The dynamics and distribution of forest vegetation determines the habitat for other organisms, and regulates the delivery of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Presenting recent research across temperate and tropical ecosystems, this volume synthesises the numerous ways that forests are responding to global change and includes perspectives on: • the role of forests in the global carbon and energy budgets • historical patterns of forest change and diversification • contemporary mechanisms of community assembly and implications of underlying drivers of global change • the ways in which forests supply ecosystem services that support human lives. The chapters represent case studies drawn from the authors' expertise, highlighting exciting new research and providing information that will be valuable to academics, students, researchers and practitioners with an interest in this field.

Global change

effects on coniferous forests and grasslands

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Author: Alicja I. Breymeyer,International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd

ISBN: 9780471968375

Category: Nature

Page: 459

View: 7610

This volume critically assesses the present state of our knowledge, reviews extant forest and grasslands models, and develops foundations for the design of diagnostic and predictive models, as well as identifying plans for future research on ecosystem response to global change. Carbon flow and storage are emphasised, although the flow and storage of key nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus are also considered when deemed necessary to understand changes in the carbon budget of coniferous forests and grasslands.

The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems

Report No. 3 of the IUFRO Task Force on Environmental Change

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Author: N.A

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9780851997162

Category: Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Page: 357

View: 1630

This book provides a review, written by international forest scientists, of what is known about the impact of elevated CO2 and other greenhouse gases, on forest ecosystems.

Forest Landscapes and Global Change

Challenges for Research and Management

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Author: João C. Azevedo,Ajith H. Perera,M. Alice Pinto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493909533

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 5439

Climate change, urban sprawl, abandonment of agriculture, intensification of forestry and agriculture, changes in energy generation and use, expansion of infrastructure networks, habitat destruction and degradation, and other drivers of change occur at increasing rates. They affect patterns and processes in forest landscapes, and modify ecosystem services derived from those ecosystems. Consequently, rapidly changing landscapes present many new challenges to scientists and managers. While it is not uncommon to encounter the terms “global change” and “landscape” together in the ecological literature, a global analyses of drivers of change in forest landscapes, and their ecological consequences have not been addressed adequately. That is the goal of this volume: an exploration of the state of knowledge of global changes in forested landscapes with emphasis on causes and effects, and challenges faced by researchers and land managers. Initial chapters identify and describe major agents of landscape change: climate, fire, and human activities. The next series of chapters address implications of changes on ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and carbon flux. A chapter that describes methodologies of detecting and monitoring landscape changes is presented followed by chapter that highlights the many challenges forest landscape managers face amidst of global change. Finally, we present a summary and a synthesis of the main points presented in the book. Each chapter will contain the individual research experiences of chapter authors, augmented by review and synthesis of global scientific literature on relevant topics, as well as critical input from multiple peer reviewers.

Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests

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Author: Roy C. Sidle

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845933362

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 7030

This book reviews current knowledge of most types of geohazards in forested areas. The 11 chapters cover hydrologic impacts, including flooding and soil erosion, desertification in Mediterranean Europe and Africa, landslides, and hazards in mangrove forests and along shorelines. Examples covered are from all five continents.

Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape

Patterns and Processes of Forest Landscapes in Ontario

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Author: Ajith H. Perera,David L. Euler,Ian Douglas Thompson

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 9780774807500

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 3472

The growing popularity of the broad, landscape-scale approach to forest management represents a dramatic shift from the traditional, stand-based focus on timber production. Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape responds to the increasing need of forest policy developers, planners, and managers for an integrated, comprehensive perspective on ecological landscapes. The book examines the "big picture" of ecological patterns and processes through a case study of the vast managed forest region in Ontario. The contributors synthesize current landscape ecological knowledge of this area and look at gaps and future research directions from several points of view: spatial patterns, ecological functions and processes, natural disturbances, and ecological responses to disturbance. They also discuss the integration of landscape ecological knowledge into policies of forest management policies, particularly with respect to Ontario's legislative goals of forest sustainability. Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape is the first book to describe the landscape ecology of a continuously forested landscape in a comprehensive manner. It is written for instructors and students in forest management, wildlife ecology, and landscape ecology, and for forest managers, planners, and policy developers in North America.

Ecology and Recovery of Eastern Old-Growth Forests

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Author: Andrew M. Barton,William S. Keeton

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610918908

Category: Nature

Page: 368

View: 2933

The landscapes of North America, including eastern forests, have been shaped by humans for millennia, through fire, agriculture, hunting, and other means. But the arrival of Europeans on America’s eastern shores several centuries ago ushered in the rapid conversion of forests and woodlands to other land uses. By the twentieth century, it appeared that old-growth forests in the eastern United States were gone, replaced by cities, farms, transportation networks, and second-growth forests. Since that time, however, numerous remnants of eastern old growth have been discovered, meticulously mapped, and studied. Many of these ancient stands retain surprisingly robust complexity and vigor, and forest ecologists are eager to develop strategies for their restoration and for nurturing additional stands of old growth that will foster biological diversity, reduce impacts of climate change, and serve as benchmarks for how natural systems operate. Forest ecologists William Keeton and Andrew Barton bring together a volume that breaks new ground in our understanding of ecological systems and their importance for forest resilience in an age of rapid environmental change. This edited volume covers a broad geographic canvas, from eastern Canada and the Upper Great Lakes states to the deep South. It looks at a wide diversity of ecosystems, including spruce-fir, northern deciduous, southern Appalachian deciduous, southern swamp hardwoods, and longleaf pine. Chapters authored by leading old-growth experts examine topics of contemporary forest ecology including forest structure and dynamics, below-ground soil processes, biological diversity, differences between historical and modern forests, carbon and climate change mitigation, management of old growth, and more. This thoughtful treatise broadly communicates important new discoveries to scientists, land managers, and students and breathes fresh life into the hope for sensible, effective management of old-growth stands in eastern forests.

Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia

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Author: T. Hirose,B.H. Walker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401103437

Category: Science

Page: 191

View: 2664

Forest vegetation is distributed in monsoon Asia continuously from boreal forests through temperate to tropical rain forests. This vegetation - the richest in the world - is being subjected to global change on an unprecedented scale. It has been predicted that boreal forests will experience the most significant change in response to global warming, while tropical forests are endangered by rapid changes in land use due to high population pressure. An increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration will severely affect ecosystem function in this area. This volume presents a review of terrestrial ecosystems in monsoon Asia and assesses possible effects of global change on the structure and function of forest ecosystems and feedback routes to the global carbon cycle. Audience: Vital reading for plant ecologists, vegetation scientists, environmental managers and government decision makers.

Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests

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Author: William F. Laurance,Carlos A. Peres

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226470229

Category: Science

Page: 563

View: 1322

Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests reveals the remarkably diverse panoply of perils to tropical forests and their biota, with particular emphasis on recent dangers. William F. Laurance and Carlos A. Peres identify four categories of emerging threats: those that have only recently appeared, such as the virulent chytrid fungus that is decimating rainforest amphibians throughout the tropical world; those that are growing rapidly in importance, like destructive surface fires; those that are poorly understood, namely global warming and other climatic and atmospheric changes; and environmental synergisms, whereby two or more simultaneous threats—such as habitat fragmentation and wildfires, or logging and hunting—can dramatically increase local extinction of tropical species. In addition to documenting the vulnerability of tropical rainforests, the volume focuses on strategies for mitigating and combating emerging threats. A timely and compelling book intended for researchers, students, and conservation practitioners, Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests will interest anyone concerned about the fate of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems.

Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests

Ecology and Conservation

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Author: Rodolfo Dirzo,Hillary S. Young,Harold A. Mooney,Gerardo Ceballos

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610910214

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 6478

Though seasonally dry tropical forests are equally as important to global biodiversity as tropical rainforests, and are one of the most representative and highly endangered ecosystems in Latin America, knowledge about them remains limited because of the relative paucity of attention paid to them by scientists and researchers and a lack of published information on the subject. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests seeks to address this shortcoming by bringing together a range of experts in diverse fields including biology, ecology, biogeography, and biogeochemistry, to review, synthesize, and explain the current state of our collective knowledge on the ecology and conservation of seasonally dry tropical forests. The book offers a synthetic and cross-disciplinary review of recent work with an expansive scope, including sections on distribution, diversity, ecosystem function, and human impacts. Throughout, contributors emphasize conservation issues, particularly emerging threats and promising solutions, with key chapters on climate change, fragmentation, restoration, ecosystem services, and sustainable use. Seasonally dry tropical forests are extremely rich in biodiversity, and are seriously threatened. They represent scientific terrain that is poorly explored, and there is an urgent need for increased understanding of the system's basic ecology. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests represents an important step in bringing together the most current scientific information about this vital ecosystem and disseminating it to the scientific and conservation communities.

Forests in Time

The Environmental Consequences of 1,000 Years of Change in New England

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Author: David R. Foster,John D. Aber

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300115376

Category: History

Page: 477

View: 2725

The Eastern Hemlock, massive and majestic, has played a unique role in structuring northeastern forest environments, from Nova Scotia to Wisconsin and through the Appalachian Mountains to North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama. A "foundation species" influencing all the species in the ecosystem surrounding it, this iconic North American tree has long inspired poets and artists as well as naturalists and scientists. Five thousand years ago, the hemlock collapsed as a result of abrupt global climate change. Now this iconic tree faces extinction once again because of an invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid. Drawing from a century of studies at Harvard University's Harvard Forest, one of the most well-regarded long-term ecological research programs in North America, the authors explore what hemlock's modern decline can tell us about the challenges facing nature and society in an era of habitat changes and fragmentation, as well as global change.

Understanding the Earth System

Global Change Science for Application

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Author: Sarah E. Cornell,I. Colin Prentice,Joanna I. House,Catherine J. Downy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560549

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1851

Explaining the what, the how and the why of climate science, this multidisciplinary new book provides a review of research from the last decade, illustrated with cutting-edge data and observations. A key focus is the development of analysis tools that can be used to demonstrate options for mitigating and adapting to increasing climate risks. Emphasis is given to the importance of Earth system feedback mechanisms and the role of the biosphere. The book explains advances in modelling, process understanding and observations, and the development of consistent and coherent studies of past, present and 'possible' climates. This highly illustrated, data-rich book is written by leading scientists involved in QUEST, a major UK-led research programme. It forms a concise and up-to-date reference for academic researchers or students in the fields of climatology, Earth system science and ecology, and also a vital resource for professionals and policymakers working on any aspect of global change.

Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests under Global Change

Ecological and Socio-economic Valuations

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Author: Teja Tscharntke,Christoph Leuschner,Edzo Veldkamp,Heiko Faust,Edi Guhardja,Arifuddin Bidin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642004938

Category: Science

Page: 519

View: 7794

not only for land use systems that depend on the regular supply of rain or irrigation water but also for the future development of natural rainforests as drought stress has been shown to a?ect tree growth and species composition in old-growth forests (Wright 1991, Walsh and Newbery 1999, Engelbrecht et al. 2007). A drought experiment conducted in a cacao agroforestry plantation showed that this plantation was surprisingly resilient to an induced drought of more than a year (Schwendenmann et al. 2009). However, droughts can have a strong impact on household incomes from agriculture, they strongly a?ect the vulnerability to poverty and thus have to be analyzed as important exogenous shocks to households, forcing them to adjust their behaviour and develop strategies to cope with these problems. The stability of rainforest margins is a critical factor in the protection of tropical rainforests (Tscharntke et al. 2007). At present, however, rainf- est margins in many parts of the tropics are far from stable, both in soc- economic and in ecological terms. For example, protected areas may attract, rather than repel, human settlement, which may be due to international donor investment in national conservation programs (Wittemeyer et al. 2008). An alternative hypothesis is that protected areas might be compromised if leakage takes place, that is, if impacts that would take place inside the restricted area are displaced to a nearby, undisturbed area (Ewers and Rodrigues 2008).

Wildlife, Fire and Future Climate

A Forest Ecosystem Analysis

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Author: Brendan Mackey,David Lindenmayer,Malcolm Gill,Michael McCarthy,Janette Lindesay

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 0643099859

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 9107

The conservation of Earth's forest ecosystems is one of the great environmental challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. All of Earth's ecosystems now face the spectre of the accelerated greenhouse effect and rates of change in climatic regimes that have hitherto been unknown. In addition, multiple use forestry – where forests are managed to provide for both a supply of wood and the conservation of biodiversity – can change the floristic composition and vegetation structure of forests with significant implications for wildlife habitat. Wildlife, fire and future climate: a forest ecosystem analysis explores these themes through a landscape-wide study of refugia and future climate in the tall, wet forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria. It represents a model case study for the kind of integrated investigation needed throughout the world in order to deal with the potential response of terrestrial ecological systems to global change. The analyses presented in this book represent one of the few ecosystem studies ever undertaken that has attempted such a complex synthesis of fire, wildlife, vegetation, and climate. Wildlife, fire and future climate: a forest ecosystem analysis is written by an experienced team of leading world experts in fire ecology, modelling, terrain and climate analysis, vegetation and wildlife habitat. Their collaboration on this book represents a unique and exemplary, multi-disciplinary venture.

Europe's Changing Woods and Forests

From Wildwood to Managed Landscapes

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Author: Keith Kirby,Charles Watkins

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780643373

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 391

View: 1279

Our understanding of the ecological history of European forests has been transformed in the last twenty years. Bringing together key findings from across the continent, this book provides a comprehensive account of the relevance of historical studies to current conservation and management of forests. It combines theory with a series of regional case studies to show how different aspects of forestry play out according to the landscape and historical context of the local area.

Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere

Achievements and Challenges

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Author: H. H. Shugart,F. I. Woodward

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348345

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 5781

Global climate change challenges ecologists to synthesize what we know to solve a problem with deep historical roots in our discipline. In ecology, the question, “How do terrestrial ecosystems interact with the other earth systems to produce planetary change?” has sufficient depth to be the focal challenge. This central question is sharpened further as the changes that we may be manifesting upon our planet’s systems of land, sea, air and ice can have potential consequences for the future of human civilization. This book provides the depth of the history of global ecology and reviews the breadth of the ideas being studied today. Each chapter starts with a brief narrative about a scientist whose work traces forward into today’s issues in global ecosystems. The discussions are framed in a growing realization that we may be altering the way our planet functions almost before we have gained the necessary knowledge of how it works at all.

Climate Change 2014 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Global and Sectoral Aspects

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Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107058074

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 1150

View: 1411

This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.

Ecology and Conservation of Forest Birds

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Author: Grzegorz Mikusiński,Jean-Michel Roberge,Robert Fuller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107072131

Category: Nature

Page: 580

View: 1069

An authoritative review of the ecology of forest birds and their conservation issues throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

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Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann G. Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364259171X

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 5341

Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.