Forests and Global Change

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Author: David A. Coomes,David F. R. P. Burslem,William D. Simonson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107041856

Category: Nature

Page: 492

View: 7087

Forests hold a significant proportion of global biodiversity and terrestrial carbon stocks and are at the forefront of human-induced global change. The dynamics and distribution of forest vegetation determines the habitat for other organisms, and regulates the delivery of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Presenting recent research across temperate and tropical ecosystems, this volume synthesises the numerous ways that forests are responding to global change and includes perspectives on: • the role of forests in the global carbon and energy budgets • historical patterns of forest change and diversification • contemporary mechanisms of community assembly and implications of underlying drivers of global change • the ways in which forests supply ecosystem services that support human lives. The chapters represent case studies drawn from the authors' expertise, highlighting exciting new research and providing information that will be valuable to academics, students, researchers and practitioners with an interest in this field.

Global change

effects on coniferous forests and grasslands

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Author: Alicja I. Breymeyer,International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd

ISBN: 9780471968375

Category: Nature

Page: 459

View: 2217

This volume critically assesses the present state of our knowledge, reviews extant forest and grasslands models, and develops foundations for the design of diagnostic and predictive models, as well as identifying plans for future research on ecosystem response to global change. Carbon flow and storage are emphasised, although the flow and storage of key nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus are also considered when deemed necessary to understand changes in the carbon budget of coniferous forests and grasslands.

Forest Landscapes and Global Change

Challenges for Research and Management

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Author: João C. Azevedo,Ajith H. Perera,M. Alice Pinto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493909533

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 9675

Climate change, urban sprawl, abandonment of agriculture, intensification of forestry and agriculture, changes in energy generation and use, expansion of infrastructure networks, habitat destruction and degradation, and other drivers of change occur at increasing rates. They affect patterns and processes in forest landscapes, and modify ecosystem services derived from those ecosystems. Consequently, rapidly changing landscapes present many new challenges to scientists and managers. While it is not uncommon to encounter the terms “global change” and “landscape” together in the ecological literature, a global analyses of drivers of change in forest landscapes, and their ecological consequences have not been addressed adequately. That is the goal of this volume: an exploration of the state of knowledge of global changes in forested landscapes with emphasis on causes and effects, and challenges faced by researchers and land managers. Initial chapters identify and describe major agents of landscape change: climate, fire, and human activities. The next series of chapters address implications of changes on ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and carbon flux. A chapter that describes methodologies of detecting and monitoring landscape changes is presented followed by chapter that highlights the many challenges forest landscape managers face amidst of global change. Finally, we present a summary and a synthesis of the main points presented in the book. Each chapter will contain the individual research experiences of chapter authors, augmented by review and synthesis of global scientific literature on relevant topics, as well as critical input from multiple peer reviewers.

Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape

Patterns and Processes of Forest Landscapes in Ontario

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Author: Ajith H. Perera,David L. Euler,Ian Douglas Thompson

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 9780774807500

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 6006

The growing popularity of the broad, landscape-scale approach to forest management represents a dramatic shift from the traditional, stand-based focus on timber production. Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape responds to the increasing need of forest policy developers, planners, and managers for an integrated, comprehensive perspective on ecological landscapes. The book examines the "big picture" of ecological patterns and processes through a case study of the vast managed forest region in Ontario. The contributors synthesize current landscape ecological knowledge of this area and look at gaps and future research directions from several points of view: spatial patterns, ecological functions and processes, natural disturbances, and ecological responses to disturbance. They also discuss the integration of landscape ecological knowledge into policies of forest management policies, particularly with respect to Ontario's legislative goals of forest sustainability. Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape is the first book to describe the landscape ecology of a continuously forested landscape in a comprehensive manner. It is written for instructors and students in forest management, wildlife ecology, and landscape ecology, and for forest managers, planners, and policy developers in North America.

Ecology and Recovery of Eastern Old-Growth Forests

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Author: Andrew M. Barton,William S. Keeton

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610918908

Category: Nature

Page: 368

View: 3974

The landscapes of North America, including eastern forests, have been shaped by humans for millennia, through fire, agriculture, hunting, and other means. But the arrival of Europeans on America’s eastern shores several centuries ago ushered in the rapid conversion of forests and woodlands to other land uses. By the twentieth century, it appeared that old-growth forests in the eastern United States were gone, replaced by cities, farms, transportation networks, and second-growth forests. Since that time, however, numerous remnants of eastern old growth have been discovered, meticulously mapped, and studied. Many of these ancient stands retain surprisingly robust complexity and vigor, and forest ecologists are eager to develop strategies for their restoration and for nurturing additional stands of old growth that will foster biological diversity, reduce impacts of climate change, and serve as benchmarks for how natural systems operate. Forest ecologists William Keeton and Andrew Barton bring together a volume that breaks new ground in our understanding of ecological systems and their importance for forest resilience in an age of rapid environmental change. This edited volume covers a broad geographic canvas, from eastern Canada and the Upper Great Lakes states to the deep South. It looks at a wide diversity of ecosystems, including spruce-fir, northern deciduous, southern Appalachian deciduous, southern swamp hardwoods, and longleaf pine. Chapters authored by leading old-growth experts examine topics of contemporary forest ecology including forest structure and dynamics, below-ground soil processes, biological diversity, differences between historical and modern forests, carbon and climate change mitigation, management of old growth, and more. This thoughtful treatise broadly communicates important new discoveries to scientists, land managers, and students and breathes fresh life into the hope for sensible, effective management of old-growth stands in eastern forests.

Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia

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Author: T. Hirose,B.H. Walker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401103437

Category: Science

Page: 191

View: 5431

Forest vegetation is distributed in monsoon Asia continuously from boreal forests through temperate to tropical rain forests. This vegetation - the richest in the world - is being subjected to global change on an unprecedented scale. It has been predicted that boreal forests will experience the most significant change in response to global warming, while tropical forests are endangered by rapid changes in land use due to high population pressure. An increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration will severely affect ecosystem function in this area. This volume presents a review of terrestrial ecosystems in monsoon Asia and assesses possible effects of global change on the structure and function of forest ecosystems and feedback routes to the global carbon cycle. Audience: Vital reading for plant ecologists, vegetation scientists, environmental managers and government decision makers.

The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems

Report No. 3 of the IUFRO Task Force on Environmental Change

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Author: N.A

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9780851997162

Category: Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Page: 357

View: 4483

This book provides a review, written by international forest scientists, of what is known about the impact of elevated CO2 and other greenhouse gases, on forest ecosystems.

Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests

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Author: Roy C. Sidle

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845933362

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 4593

This book reviews current knowledge of most types of geohazards in forested areas. The 11 chapters cover hydrologic impacts, including flooding and soil erosion, desertification in Mediterranean Europe and Africa, landslides, and hazards in mangrove forests and along shorelines. Examples covered are from all five continents.

Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests under Global Change

Ecological and Socio-economic Valuations

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Author: Teja Tscharntke,Christoph Leuschner,Edzo Veldkamp,Heiko Faust,Edi Guhardja,Arifuddin Bidin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642004938

Category: Science

Page: 519

View: 6143

not only for land use systems that depend on the regular supply of rain or irrigation water but also for the future development of natural rainforests as drought stress has been shown to a?ect tree growth and species composition in old-growth forests (Wright 1991, Walsh and Newbery 1999, Engelbrecht et al. 2007). A drought experiment conducted in a cacao agroforestry plantation showed that this plantation was surprisingly resilient to an induced drought of more than a year (Schwendenmann et al. 2009). However, droughts can have a strong impact on household incomes from agriculture, they strongly a?ect the vulnerability to poverty and thus have to be analyzed as important exogenous shocks to households, forcing them to adjust their behaviour and develop strategies to cope with these problems. The stability of rainforest margins is a critical factor in the protection of tropical rainforests (Tscharntke et al. 2007). At present, however, rainf- est margins in many parts of the tropics are far from stable, both in soc- economic and in ecological terms. For example, protected areas may attract, rather than repel, human settlement, which may be due to international donor investment in national conservation programs (Wittemeyer et al. 2008). An alternative hypothesis is that protected areas might be compromised if leakage takes place, that is, if impacts that would take place inside the restricted area are displaced to a nearby, undisturbed area (Ewers and Rodrigues 2008).

Europe's Changing Woods and Forests

From Wildwood to Managed Landscapes

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Author: Keith Kirby,Charles Watkins

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780643373

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 391

View: 6182

Our understanding of the ecological history of European forests has been transformed in the last twenty years. Bringing together key findings from across the continent, this book provides a comprehensive account of the relevance of historical studies to current conservation and management of forests. It combines theory with a series of regional case studies to show how different aspects of forestry play out according to the landscape and historical context of the local area.

Climate Change 2014 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Volume 1, Global and Sectoral Aspects

Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

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Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316240347

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6728

This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

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Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann G. Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364259171X

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 8379

Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

A Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Strategic Plan

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Author: Committee to Advise the U.S. Global Change Research Program,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Board on Environmental Change and Society,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309252385

Category: Science

Page: 61

View: 2517

The U.S. government supports a large, diverse suite of activities that can be broadly characterized as "global change research." Such research offers a wide array of benefits to the nation, in terms of protecting public health and safety, enhancing economic strength and competitiveness, and protecting the natural systems upon which life depends. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which coordinates the efforts of numerous agencies and departments across the federal government, was officially established in 1990 through the U.S. Global Change Research Act (GCRA). In the subsequent years, the scope, structure, and priorities of the Program have evolved, (for example, it was referred to as the Climate Change Science Program [CCSP] for the years 2002-2008), but throughout, the Program has played an important role in shaping and coordinating our nation's global change research enterprise. This research enterprise, in turn, has played a crucial role in advancing understanding of our changing global environment and the countless ways in which human society affects and is affected by such changes. In mid-2011, a new NRC Committee to Advise the USGCRP was formed and charged to provide a centralized source of ongoing whole-program advice to the USGCRP. The first major task of this committee was to provide a review of the USGCRP draft Strategic Plan 2012-2021 (referred to herein as "the Plan"), which was made available for public comment on September 30, 2011. A Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Strategic Plan addresses an array of suggestions for improving the Plan, ranging from relatively small edits to large questions about the Program's scope, goals, and capacity to meet those goals. The draft Plan proposes a significant broadening of the Program's scope from the form it took as the CCSP. Outlined in this report, issues of key importance are the need to identify initial steps the Program will take to actually achieve the proposed broadening of its scope, to develop critical science capacity that is now lacking, and to link the production of knowledge to its use; and the need to establish an overall governance structure that will allow the Program to move in the planned new directions.

Global Change Ecosystems Research

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Author: National Research Council,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Oversight Group for the Ecosystems Panel,Ecosystems Panel

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309183901

Category: Science

Page: 60

View: 9545

Research Council established the Ecosystems Panel in response to a request from the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The panel's charge included periodic reviews of the ecosystems aspects of the USGCRP, and this is the first of those reviews. It is based on information provided by the USGCRP, including Our Changing Planet (NSTC 1997 and earlier editions 1); ideas and conversations provided by participants in a workshop held in St. Michaels, Maryland, in July 1998; and the deliberations of the panel. In addition, the panel reviewed the ecosystems chapter of the NRC report Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade (NRC 1999a, known as the Pathways report). The USGCRP is an interagency program established in 1989 and codified by the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (PL 101-606). The USGCRP comprises representatives of the departments of Agriculture, Commerce (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services (the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences), Interior, and State, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Office of Management and Budget, and the intelligence community (NSTC 1997). The USGCRP's research program is described in detail in Our Changing Planet (NSTC 1997, 1999). In brief, the program focuses on four major areas of earth-system science: 1) Seasonal to interannual climate variability; 2) Climate change over decades to centuries; 3) Changes in ozone, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atmospheric chemistry, and 4) Changes in land cover and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The fourth topic is the area in which advice was requested from the ecosystems panel. The Ecosystems Panel's charge has three parts: to provide a forum for the discussion of questions of ecosystem science of interest to scientists in and out of the federal agencies, to periodically review the ecosystem aspects of the USGCRP's research program, and to help identify general areas of ecosystem science that need additional attention, especially areas that cut across ecosystems and levels of ecological organization. In addressing the second item of its charge for this report, the panel first identified the most significant and challenging areas in ecosystem science, then used that identification as a basis to make recommendations to the USGCRP. Thus, this report is not a detailed review of the USGCRP's program, but rather an attempt to identify those areas that the panel concludes are most in need of attention by a general research program on global change. As noted in this report, some of those areas are already receiving attention by the USGCRP.

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology

The Legacy of Charles Elton

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Author: David M. Richardson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444330004

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3452

Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.

Tourism and Global Environmental Change

Ecological, Economic, Social and Political Interrelationships

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Author: Stefan Gössling,Michael C. Hall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113423418X

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 2353

This fascinating book is the first comprehensive analysis of the economic, social and political interrelationships between tourism and global environmental change: one of the most significant issues facing humankind today. Its contributors argue that the impacts of these changes are potentially extremely serious both for the tourism industry, and for the communities dependent upon it. Integrating knowledge from the social and physical sciences, this significant book explores they key issues surrounding global environmental change, as well as government and industry willingness to meet the challenges posed by it. Divided into four main sections, it investigates: the tourism and global environmental change relationship in specific environments global issues related to environmental change differing perceptions of global environmental change held by tourists and the tourist industry. Comprehensive in scope, topical and integrative, this key text is essential reading for students, scholars and researchers in all aspects of tourism, geography and environmental studies.

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resource Systems

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Author: Kenneth D. Frederick,Norman J. Rosenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401102074

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 5595

This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.

Understanding the Earth System

Global Change Science for Application

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Author: Sarah E. Cornell,I. Colin Prentice,Joanna I. House,Catherine J. Downy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560549

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6877

Explaining the what, the how and the why of climate science, this multidisciplinary new book provides a review of research from the last decade, illustrated with cutting-edge data and observations. A key focus is the development of analysis tools that can be used to demonstrate options for mitigating and adapting to increasing climate risks. Emphasis is given to the importance of Earth system feedback mechanisms and the role of the biosphere. The book explains advances in modelling, process understanding and observations, and the development of consistent and coherent studies of past, present and 'possible' climates. This highly illustrated, data-rich book is written by leading scientists involved in QUEST, a major UK-led research programme. It forms a concise and up-to-date reference for academic researchers or students in the fields of climatology, Earth system science and ecology, and also a vital resource for professionals and policymakers working on any aspect of global change.

The New Normal

The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate

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Author: University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center

Publisher: University of Regina Press

ISBN: 9780889772311

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 3863

The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate is a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of climate change in the prairie provinces, the impacts on natural resources, communities, human health and sectors of the economy, and the adaptation options that are available for alleviating adverse impacts and taking advantage of new opportunities provided by a warmer climate.