Fish Cognition and Behavior

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Author: Culum Brown,Kevin Laland,Jens Krause

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470996048

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 2100

The study of animal cognition has been largely confined to birds and mammals; a historical bias which has led to the belief that learning plays little or no part in the development of behaviour in fishes and reptiles. Research in recent decades has begun to redress this misconception and it is now recognised that fishes exhibit a rich array of sophisticated behaviour with impressive learning capabilities entirely comparable with those of mammals and other terrestrial animals. In this fascinating book an international team of experts have been brought together to explore all major areas of fish learning, including: foraging skills Predator recognition Social organisation and learning Welfare and pain Fish Cognition and Behavior is an important contribution to all fish biologists and ethologists and contains much information of commercial importance for fisheries managers and aquaculture personnel. Libraries in universities and research establishments will find it an important addition to their shelves.

Hormones, Brain and Behavior

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128036087

Category: Medical

Page: 2474

View: 3203

Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Third Edition offers a state-of-the-art overview of hormonally-mediated behaviors, including an extensive discussion of the effects of hormones on insects, fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, and humans. Entries have been carefully designed to provide a valuable source of information for students and researchers in neuroendocrinology and those working in related areas, such as biology, psychology, psychiatry, and neurology. This third edition has been substantially restructured to include both foundational information and recent developments in the field. Continuing the emphasis on interdisciplinary research and practical applications, the book includes articles aligned in five main subject sections, with new chapters included on genetic and genomic techniques and clinical investigations. This reference provides unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics. The topics cover an unusual breadth (from molecules to ecophysiology), ranging from basic science to clinical research, making this reference of interest to a broad range of scientists in a variety of fields. Comprehensive and updated coverage of a rapidly growing field of research Unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics Covers an unusual breadth of topics and subject fields, ranging from molecules to ecophysiology, and from basic science to clinical research Ideal resource for interdisciplinary learning and understanding in the fields of hormones and behavior

Ecological Connectivity among Tropical Coastal Ecosystems

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Author: Ivan Nagelkerken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048124069

Category: Science

Page: 615

View: 5013

Mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and coral reefs are circumtropical ecosystems that are highly productive, and provide many important biological functions and economic services. These ecosystems cover large surface areas in the shallow tropical coastal seascape but have suffered from serious human degradation, especially in the last few decades. Part of their diversity, productivity, and functioning seems to be based on their juxtaposition. Especially in the last decade significant advances have been made on new insights into their ecological connectivity. This authoritative book provides a first-time comprehensive review of the major ecological interactions across tropical marine ecosystems that result from the mutual exchange of nutrients, organic matter, fish, and crustaceans. A group of leading authors from around the world reviews the patterns and underlying mechanisms of important biogeochemical and biological linkages among tropical coastal ecosystems in 15 chapters. Included are chapters that review cutting-edge tools to study and quantify these linkages, the importance of such linkages for fisheries, and how tropical ecosystems should be conserved and managed for sustainable use by future generations. The book uses examples from all over the world and provides an up-to-date review of the latest published literature. This book is a ‘must read’ for professionals working on the conservation, management, and ecology of mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems.

Guided Self-Organization: Inception

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Author: Mikhail Prokopenko

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642537340

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 475

View: 4907

Is it possible to guide the process of self-organisation towards specific patterns and outcomes? Wouldn’t this be self-contradictory? After all, a self-organising process assumes a transition into a more organised form, or towards a more structured functionality, in the absence of centralised control. Then how can we place the guiding elements so that they do not override rich choices potentially discoverable by an uncontrolled process? This book presents different approaches to resolving this paradox. In doing so, the presented studies address a broad range of phenomena, ranging from autopoietic systems to morphological computation, and from small-world networks to information cascades in swarms. A large variety of methods is employed, from spontaneous symmetry breaking to information dynamics to evolutionary algorithms, creating a rich spectrum reflecting this emerging field. Demonstrating several foundational theories and frameworks, as well as innovative practical implementations, Guided Self-Organisation: Inception, will be an invaluable tool for advanced students and researchers in a multiplicity of fields across computer science, physics and biology, including information theory, robotics, dynamical systems, graph theory, artificial life, multi-agent systems, theory of computation and machine learning.

Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience

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Author: Michael Wibral,Raul Vicente,Joseph T. Lizier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642544746

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 225

View: 2124

Analysis of information transfer has found rapid adoption in neuroscience, where a highly dynamic transfer of information continuously runs on top of the brain's slowly-changing anatomical connectivity. Measuring such transfer is crucial to understanding how flexible information routing and processing give rise to higher cognitive function. Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience reviews recent developments of concepts and tools for measuring information transfer, their application to neurophysiological recordings and analysis of interactions. Written by the most active researchers in the field the book discusses the state of the art, future prospects and challenges on the way to an efficient assessment of neuronal information transfer. Highlights include the theoretical quantification and practical estimation of information transfer, description of transfer locally in space and time, multivariate directed measures, information decomposition among a set of stimulus/responses variables and the relation between interventional and observational causality. Applications to neural data sets and pointers to open source software highlight the usefulness of these measures in experimental neuroscience. With state-of-the-art mathematical developments, computational techniques and applications to real data sets, this book will be of benefit to all graduate students and researchers interested in detecting and understanding the information transfer between components of complex systems.

What a Fish Knows

The Inner Lives of Our Underwater Cousins

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Author: Jonathan Balcombe

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 0374288216

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 8584

Do fishes think? Do they really have three-second memories? And can they recognize the humans who peer back at them from above the surface of the water? In What a Fish Knows, the myth-busting ethologist Jonathan Balcombe addresses these questions and more, taking us under the sea, through streams and estuaries, and to the other side of the aquarium glass to reveal the surprising capabilities of fishes. Although there are more than thirty thousand species of fish—more than all mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians combined—we rarely consider how individual fishes think, feel, and behave. Balcombe upends our assumptions about fishes, portraying them not as unfeeling, dead-eyed feeding machines but as sentient, aware, social, and even Machiavellian—in other words, much like us. What a Fish Knows draws on the latest science to present a fresh look at these remarkable creatures in all their breathtaking diversity and beauty. Fishes conduct elaborate courtship rituals and develop lifelong bonds with shoalmates. They also plan, hunt cooperatively, use tools, curry favor, deceive one another, and punish wrongdoers. We may imagine that fishes lead simple, fleeting lives—a mode of existence that boils down to a place on the food chain, rote spawning, and lots of aimless swimming. But, as Balcombe demonstrates, the truth is far richer and more complex, worthy of the grandest social novel. Highlighting breakthrough discoveries from fish enthusiasts and scientists around the world and pondering his own encounters with fishes, Balcombe examines the fascinating means by which fishes gain knowledge of the places they inhabit, from shallow tide pools to the deepest reaches of the ocean. Teeming with insights and exciting discoveries, What a Fish Knows offers a thoughtful appraisal of our relationships with fishes and inspires us to take a more enlightened view of the planet’s increasingly imperiled marine life. What a Fish Knows will forever change how we see our aquatic cousins—the pet goldfish included.

An Introduction to Transfer Entropy

Information Flow in Complex Systems

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Author: Terry Bossomaier,Lionel Barnett,Michael Harré,Joseph T. Lizier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319432222

Category: Computers

Page: 190

View: 4126

This book considers a relatively new metric in complex systems, transfer entropy, derived from a series of measurements, usually a time series. After a qualitative introduction and a chapter that explains the key ideas from statistics required to understand the text, the authors then present information theory and transfer entropy in depth. A key feature of the approach is the authors' work to show the relationship between information flow and complexity. The later chapters demonstrate information transfer in canonical systems, and applications, for example in neuroscience and in finance. The book will be of value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the areas of computer science, neuroscience, physics, and engineering.

Do Fish Feel Pain?

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Author: Victoria Braithwaite

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191613967

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 208

View: 9618

While there has been increasing interest in recent years in the welfare of farm animals, fish are frequently thought to be different. In many people's perception, fish, with their lack of facial expressions or recognisable communication, are not seen to count when it comes to welfare. Angling is a major sport, and fishing a big industry. Millions of fish are caught on barbed hooks, or left to die by suffocation on the decks of fishing boats. Here, biologist Victoria Braithwaite explores the question of fish pain and fish suffering, explaining what we now understand about fish behaviour, and examining the related ethical questions about how we should treat these animals. She asks why the question of pain in fish has not been raised earlier, indicating our prejudices and assumptions; and argues that the latest and growing scientific evidence would suggest that we should widen to fish the protection currently given to birds and mammals.

Fish Behaviour

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Author: Carin Magnhagen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439843023

Category: Science

Page: 662

View: 947

Fishes are by far the most species-rich vertebrate taxon, and it is also the vertebrate group with the most strikingly diverse repertoire of behaviours and behavioural adaptations. As such, they provide us with many opportunities to explore the fascinating complexities of animal behaviour. Central questions addressed in this book include: How do sensory input, hormones, genetics and experience interact to shape individual behaviour? What should a fish do to be in the right place at the right time and how should it behave to be an efficient predator yet not become the subject of predation itself? How to find a mate or to find the best mate? Should all fish do the same, or is the optimal behaviour dependent on individual characteristics? How does reproductive behaviour affect what fish look like, in terms of colour, body form or body size? And how do fish cope with their complex social and biological environment, including parasites, competitors and collaborators? This new book provides an exciting overview of the many new insights offered by recent research on fish behaviour. The chapters are written by prominent international scientists and are aimed not only at fish biology students and researchers but anyone interested in the interplay between behaviour, ecology and evolution.

Hakes

Biology and Exploitation

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Author: Hugo Arancibia

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118568354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 376

View: 1316

The species of hake, making up the genus Merluccius, are commercially important and currently largely over exploited, with many stocks badly depleted and showing only limited signs of recovery. From the end of the 1990s, concepts such as sustainability, ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, a code for the responsible conduct for fisheries, governance and others have emerged or have been considered by politicians, stakeholders and society. Moreover, new tools for stock assessment have been developed. But many hake stocks of the genus Merluccius show no sign of restoration. Hakes: Biology and Exploitation brings together a wealth of important information on the biology and exploitation of hake and hoki stocks around the world. Each chapter provides an overview of the fisheries of each species in an ecological and environmental context, looking at stock distribution, characteristics of the environment, life history, reproduction, diet, growth, mortality, pricing and markets of each geographical region and the hake species found there. With chapters written by regional experts on hake species and included within Wiley-Blackwell’s prestigious Fish and Aquatic Resources Series, Hakes: Biology and Exploitation provides up-to-date and comparative information, including new approaches to fisheries management, for all those involved in fisheries management, aquatic ecology and biological sciences.

Dolphin Cognition and Behavior

A Comparative Approach

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Author: R. J. Schusterman,J. A. Thomas,F. G. Wood,Ronald Schusterman

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135060002

Category: Psychology

Page: 408

View: 2017

Published in 1986, Dolphin Cognition and Behavior is a valuable contribution to the field of Cognitive Psychology.

Flatfishes

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Author: Robin N. Gibson,Richard D.M. Nash,Audrey J. Geffen,Henk W. Van der Veer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118501195

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 600

View: 6101

Bird Minds

Cognition and Behaviour of Australian Native Birds

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Author: Gisela Kaplan

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 1486300197

Category: Nature

Page: 280

View: 2260

In her comprehensive and carefully crafted book, Gisela Kaplan demonstrates how intelligent and emotional Australian birds can be. She describes complex behaviours such as grieving, deception, problem solving and the use of tools. Many Australian birds cooperate and defend each other, and exceptional ones go fishing by throwing breadcrumbs in the water, extract poisonous parts from prey and use tools to crack open eggshells and mussels. The author brings together evidence of many such cognitive abilities, suggesting plausible reasons for their appearance in Australian birds. Bird Minds is the first attempt to shine a critical and scientific light on the cognitive behaviour of Australian land birds. In this fascinating volume, the author also presents recent changes in our understanding of the avian brain and links these to life histories and longevity. Following on from Gisela’s well-received books on the Australian Magpie and the Tawny Frogmouth, as well as two earlier titles on birds, Bird Minds contends that the unique and often difficult conditions of Australia's environment have been crucial for the evolution of unusual complexities in avian cognition and behaviour.

Neurology of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders

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Author: Orrin Devinsky,Mark D'Esposito

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195137647

Category: Medical

Page: 451

View: 6945

This reference text provides an insightful and unified synthesis of cognitive neuroscience and behavioral neurology. The strong clinical emphasis will provide neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, and psychologists with a solid foundation to the major neurobehavioral syndromes.

Cognitive and Behavioral Rehabilitation

From Neurobiology to Clinical Practice

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Author: Jennie Ponsford

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9781572309906

Category: Psychology

Page: 366

View: 9815

Written by leading experts in the field, this invaluable text situates the practice of cognitive and behavioral rehabilitation in the latest research from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience. Initial chapters review current findings on neuronal injury, plasticity, and recovery. The volume next examines the neurobiology of core cognitive domains--attention, memory, language, visuospatial awareness, and executive functioning--focusing on the processes underpinning both healthy and impaired functioning. Highlighting the practical applications of the research, authors describe available interventions in each domain and set forth clear recommendations for clinical practice. Also addressed are ways to understand and manage challenging behaviors, such as aggression, that may emerge in brain-injured persons. The concluding chapter provides overall strategies for helping people recover from the two most common forms of acquired neurological disability: traumatic brain injury and stroke.

Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology

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Author: M.-Marsel Mesulam

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195134753

Category: Medical

Page: 540

View: 6112

This thoroughly revised new edition of a classic book provides a clinically inspired but scientifically guided approach to the biological foundations of human mental function in health and disease. It includes authoritative coverage of all the major areas related to behavioral neurology, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry. Each chapter, written by a world-renowned expert in the relevant area, provides an introductory background as well as an up-to-date review of the most recent developments. Clinical relevance is emphasized but is placed in the context of cognitive neuroscience, basic neuroscience, and functional imaging. Major cognitive domains such as frontal lobe function, attention and neglect, memory, language, prosody, complex visual processing, and object identification are reviewed in detail. A comprehensive chapter on behavioral neuroanatomy provides a background for brain-behavior interactions in the cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebullum. Chapters on temperolimbic epilepsy, major psychiatric syndromes, and dementia provide in-depth analyses of these neurobehavioral entities and their neurobiological coordinates. Changes for this second edition include the reflection throughout the book of the new and flourishing alliance of behavioral neurology, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry with cognitive science;major revision of all chapters; new authorship of those on language and memory; and the inclusion of entirely new chapters on psychiatric syndromes and the dementias. Both as a textbook and a reference work, the second edition of Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology represents an invaluable resource for behavioral neurologists, neuropsychologists, neuropsychiatrists, cognitive and basic neuroscientists, geriatricians, physiatrists, and their students and trainees.

Computational Models of Brain and Behavior

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Author: Ahmed A. Moustafa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119159075

Category: Psychology

Page: 584

View: 6482

A comprehensive Introduction to the world of brain and behavior computational models This book provides a broad collection of articles covering different aspects of computational modeling efforts in psychology and neuroscience. Specifically, it discusses models that span different brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, visual cortex), different species (humans, rats, fruit flies), and different modeling methods (neural network, Bayesian, reinforcement learning, data fitting, and Hodgkin-Huxley models, among others). Computational Models of Brain and Behavior is divided into four sections: (a) Models of brain disorders; (b) Neural models of behavioral processes; (c) Models of neural processes, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and (d) Neural modeling approaches. It provides in-depth coverage of models of psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and dyslexia; models of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy; early sensory and perceptual processes; models of olfaction; higher/systems level models and low-level models; Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning; linking information theory to neurobiology; and more. Covers computational approximations to intellectual disability in down syndrome Discusses computational models of pharmacological and immunological treatment in Alzheimer's disease Examines neural circuit models of serotonergic system (from microcircuits to cognition) Educates on information theory, memory, prediction, and timing in associative learning Computational Models of Brain and Behavior is written for advanced undergraduate, Master's and PhD-level students—as well as researchers involved in computational neuroscience modeling research.

The Complex Mind

An Interdisciplinary Approach

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Author: David McFarland,Keith Stenning,Maggie McGonigle

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230247571

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 295

View: 8433

Combining the study of animal minds, artificial minds, and human evolution, this book examine the advances made by comparative psychologists in explaining the intelligent behavior of primates, the design of artificial autonomous systems, and the cognitive products of language evolution.

Seafood Choices:

Balancing Benefits and Risks

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Author: Committee on Nutrient Relationships in Seafood: Selections to Balance Benefits and Risks,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309102189

Category: Medical

Page: 738

View: 861

The fragmented information that consumers receive about the nutritional value and health risks associated with fish and shellfish can result in confusion or misperceptions about these food sources. Consumers are therefore confronted with a dilemma: they are told that seafood is good for them and should be consumed in large amounts, while at the same time the federal government and most states have issued advisories urging caution in the consumption of certain species or seafood from specific waters. Seafood Choices carefully explores the decision-making process for selecting seafood by assessing the evidence on availability of specific nutrients (compared to other food sources) to obtain the greatest nutritional benefits. The book prioritizes the potential for adverse health effects from both naturally occurring and introduced toxicants in seafood; assesses evidence on the availability of specific nutrients in seafood compared to other food sources; determines the impact of modifying food choices to reduce intake of toxicants on nutrient intake and nutritional status within the U.S. population; develops a decision path for U.S. consumers to weigh their seafood choices to obtain nutritional benefits balanced against exposure risks; and identifies data gaps and recommendations for future research. The information provided in this book will benefit food technologists, food manufacturers, nutritionists, and those involved in health professions making nutritional recommendations.