First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631205661

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 8505

First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631205654

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 2396

First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

Last hunters, first farmers

new perspectives on the prehistoric transition to agriculture

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Author: Theron Douglas Price,Anne Birgitte Gebauer,School of American Research (Santa Fe, N.M.)

Publisher: School for Advanced Research on the

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 6932

During virtually the entire four-million-year history of our habitation on this planet, humans have been hunters and gatherers, dependent for nourishment on the availability of wild plants and animals. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, however, the most remarkable phenomenon in the course of human prehistory was set in motion. At locations around the world, over a period of about 5000 years, hunters became farmers. The implications of this revolution in human activity and social organization reverberate down to the present day.In case studies ranging from the Far East to the American Southwest, the authors of Last Hunters-First Farmers provide a global perspective on contemporary research into the origins of agriculture. Downplaying more traditional explanations of the turn to agriculture, such as the influence of marginal environments and population pressures, the authors emphasize instead the importance of the resource-rich areas in which agriculture began, the complex social organizations already in place, the role of sedentism, and, in some locales, the advent of economic intensification and competition.

Houses in the Rainforest

Ethnicity and Inequality Among Farmers and Foragers in Central Africa

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Author: Roy Richard Grinker

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520089758

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 1466

"Roy Richard Grinker, writing about the relationship between Pygmies and their farmer counterparts, breaks new ground in the theory of social institutions and ethnicity."—Jan Vansina, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

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Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393609294

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 7460

"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.

A History of World Agriculture

From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis

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Author: Marcel Mazoyer,Laurence Roudart

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1583671218

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 528

View: 8624

Only once we understand the long history of human efforts to draw sustenance from the land can we grasp the nature of the crisis that faces humankind today, as hundreds of millions of people are faced with famine or flight from the land. From Neolithic times through the earliest civilizations of the ancient Near East, in savannahs, river valleys and the terraces created by the Incas in the Andean mountains, an increasing range of agricultural techniques have developed in response to very different conditions. These developments are recounted in this book, with detailed attention to the ways in which plants, animals, soil, climate, and society have interacted. Mazoyer and Roudart’s A History of World Agriculture is a path-breaking and panoramic work, beginning with the emergence of agriculture after thousands of years in which human societies had depended on hunting and gathering, showing how agricultural techniques developed in the different regions of the world, and how this extraordinary wealth of knowledge, tradition and natural variety is endangered today by global capitialism, as it forces the unequal agrarian heritages of the world to conform to the norms of profit. During the twentieth century, mechanization, motorization and specialization have brought to a halt the pattern of cultural and environmental responses that characterized the global history of agriculture until then. Today a small number of corporations have the capacity to impose the farming methods on the planet that they find most profitable. Mazoyer and Roudart propose an alternative global strategy that can safegaurd the economies of the poor countries, reinvigorate the global economy, and create a livable future for mankind.

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?

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Author: Graeme Barker

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199559953

Category: History

Page: 598

View: 7656

Addressing one of the most debated revolutions in the history of our species, the change from hunting and gathering to farming, this title takes a global view, and integrates an array of information from archaeology and many other disciplines, including anthropology, botany, climatology, genetics, linguistics, and zoology.

Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago

Revised Edition

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921313129

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 4397

Since its publication in 1985, Peter Bellwood's Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago has been hailed as the sole authoritative work on the subject by the leading expert in the field. Now that work has been fully revised and includes a complete up-to-date summary of the archaeology of the region (and relevant neighboring areas of China and Oceania), as well as a comprehensive discussion of new and important issues (such as the "Eve-Garden of Eden" hypothesis and its relevance to the Indo-Malaysian region) and recent advances in macrofamily linguistic classification. Moving north to south from northern Peninsular Malaysia to Timor and west to east from Sumatra to the Moluccas, Bellwood describes human prehistory from initial hominid settlement more than one million years ago to the eve of historical Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic cultures of the region. The archaeological record provides the central focus, but chapters also incorporate essential information from the paleoenvironmental sciences, biological anthropology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Bellwood approaches questions about past cultural and biological developments in the region from a multidisciplinary perspective. Historical issues given extended treatment include the significance of the Homo erectus populations of Java, the dispersal of the present Austronesian-speaking peoples of the region within the past 4,000 years, and the spread of metallurgy since 500 B.C. Bellwood also discusses relationships between the prehistoric populations of the archipelago and those of neighboring regions such as Australia, New Guinea, and mainland Asia.

Against the Grain

A Deep History of the Earliest States

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Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300231687

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3948

An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.

The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East

Transforming the Human Landscape

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Author: Alan H. Simmons

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816501270

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 5553

One of humanity's most important milestones was the transition from hunting and gathering to food production and permanent village life. This Neolithic Revolution first occurred in the Near East, changing the way humans interacted with their environment and each other, setting the stage, ultimately, for the modern world. Based on more than thirty years of fieldwork, this timely volume examines the Neolithic Revolution in the Levantine Near East and the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Alan H. Simmons explores recent research regarding the emergence of Neolithic populations, using both environmental and theoretical contexts, and incorporates specific case studies based on his own excavations. In clear and graceful prose, Simmons traces chronological and regional differences within this land of immense environmental contrasts—woodland, steppe, and desert. He argues that the Neolithic Revolution can be seen in a variety of economic, demographic, and social guises and that it lacked a single common stimulus. Each chapter includes sections on history, terminology, geographic range, specific domesticated species, the composition of early villages and households, and the development of social, symbolic, and religious behavior. Most chapters include at least one case study and conclude with a concise summary. In addition, Simmons presents a unique chapter on the island of Cyprus, where intriguing new research challenges assumptions about the impact and extent of the Neolithic. The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East conveys the diversity of our Neolithic ancestors, providing a better understanding of the period and the new social order that arose because of it. This insightful volume will be especially useful to Near Eastern scholars and to students of archaeology and the origins of agriculture.

The Polynesians

Prehistory of an Island People

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Author: Peter S. Bellwood

Publisher: Thames & Hudson

ISBN: 9780500274507

Category: Ethnology

Page: 175

View: 8750

Describes what is known or surmised through archaeological records about the prehistoric culture of Polynesian peoples, their languages, navigational skills, arts and customs.

The Creation of Inequality

How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire

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Author: Kent Flannery

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674064976

Category: History

Page: 622

View: 6556

Flannery and Marcus demonstrate that the rise of inequality was not simply the result of population increase, food surplus, or the accumulation of valuables but resulted from conscious manipulation of the unique social logic that lies at the core of every human group. Reversing the social logic can reverse inequality, they argue, without violence.

The Origin of Capitalism

A Longer View

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Author: Ellen Meiksins Wood

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859843925

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 213

View: 1537

Contains extensive new material, especially on imperialism, anti Eurocentric history, capitalism and the nation-state, and the differences betwee ncapitalism and non-capitalist commerce. Traces the links between the origin of capitalism and globalization, ecological degradation and the current agricultural crisis.

Agricultural Beginnings in the American Southwest

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Author: Barbara J. Roth

Publisher: Issues in Southwest Archaeolog

ISBN: 9781498582018

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 9703

Roth synthesizes wide-ranging CRM and academic data to explore the factors that led to plant cultivation in the American Southwest--and how the adoption of agriculture in turn affected the ancient peoples of the region.

The First Farmers of Europe

An Evolutionary Perspective

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Author: Stephen Shennan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108422926

Category: History

Page: 325

View: 9326

The book shows how the spread of farming across Europe was the result a population expansion from present-day Turkey.

Examining the Farming/language Dispersal Hypothesis

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Author: Peter S. Bellwood,Colin Renfrew,McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

Publisher: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

ISBN: 9781902937205

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 505

View: 4146

Here, a radical new theory of how languages were dispersed around the globe is debated by experts in historical linguistics, prehistoric archaeology, molecular genetics and human ecology.

The Origins of Pottery and Agriculture

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Author: Yoshinori Yasuda

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Agriculture

Page: 400

View: 5746

Predominantly on rice cultivation and pottery in Middle East and East Asian countries.

Domesday England

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Author: H. C. Darby

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521310260

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 4867

Domesday Book is the most famous English public record, and it is probably the most remarkable statistical document in the history of Europe. It calls itself merely a descriptio and it acquired its name in the following century because its authority seemed comparable to that of the Book by which one day all will be judged (Revelation 20:12). It is not surprising that so many scholars have felt its fascination, and have discussed again and again what it says about economic, social and legal matters. But it also tells us much about the countryside of the eleventh century, and the present volume is the seventh of a series concerned with this geographical information. As the final volume, it seeks to sum up the main features of the Domesday geography of England as a whole, and to reconstruct, as far as the materials allow, the scene which King William's clerks saw as they made their great inquest.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Signal

ISBN: 9780771038518

Category:

Page: 464

View: 2628

Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

An Edible History of Humanity

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Author: Tom Standage

Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd

ISBN: 1782391657

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 9363

Throughout history, food has done more than simply provide sustenance. It has acted as a tool of social transformation, political organization, geopolitical competition, industrial development, military conflict and economic expansion. In An Edible History of Humanity Tom Standage serves up a hugely satisfying account of ways in which food has, indirectly, helped to shape and transform societies around the world. It is a dazzling account of gastronomic revolutions from pre-history to the present.