First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631205661

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 5037

First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631205654

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 6784

First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

The Peopling of East Asia

Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics

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Author: Roger Blench,Laurent Sagart,Alicia Sanchez-Mazas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134353111

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 4549

One of the most dynamic research areas in the prehistory of East Asian regions is the synthesis of the findings of archaeology, linguistics and genetics. Several countries have only recently opened to field research and highly active local groups have made possible a raft of collaborative studies that would have been impossible even a decade ago. This book presents an overview of the most recent findings in all these fields. It will be of great interest to scholars of all disciplines working on the reconstruction of the East Asian past.

A History of World Agriculture

From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis

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Author: Marcel Mazoyer,Laurence Roudart

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1583674918

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 6289

Only once we understand the long history of human efforts to draw sustenance from the land can we grasp the nature of the crisis that faces humankind today, as hundreds of millions of people are faced with famine or flight from the land. From Neolithic times through the earliest civilizations of the ancient Near East, in savannahs, river valleys and the terraces created by the Incas in the Andean mountains, an increasing range of agricultural techniques have developed in response to very different conditions. These developments are recounted in this book, with detailed attention to the ways in which plants, animals, soil, climate, and society have interacted. Mazoyer and Roudart’s A History of World Agriculture is a path-breaking and panoramic work, beginning with the emergence of agriculture after thousands of years in which human societies had depended on hunting and gathering, showing how agricultural techniques developed in the different regions of the world, and how this extraordinary wealth of knowledge, tradition and natural variety is endangered today by global capitialism, as it forces the unequal agrarian heritages of the world to conform to the norms of profit. During the twentieth century, mechanization, motorization and specialization have brought to a halt the pattern of cultural and environmental responses that characterized the global history of agriculture until then. Today a small number of corporations have the capacity to impose the farming methods on the planet that they find most profitable. Mazoyer and Roudart propose an alternative global strategy that can safegaurd the economies of the poor countries, reinvigorate the global economy, and create a livable future for mankind.

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?

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Author: Graeme Barker

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199559953

Category: History

Page: 598

View: 4246

Addressing one of the most debated revolutions in the history of our species, the change from hunting and gathering to farming, this title takes a global view, and integrates an array of information from archaeology and many other disciplines, including anthropology, botany, climatology, genetics, linguistics, and zoology.

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

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Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393609294

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 9033

"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.

The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East

Transforming the Human Landscape

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Author: Alan H. Simmons

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816501270

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 2653

One of humanity's most important milestones was the transition from hunting and gathering to food production and permanent village life. This Neolithic Revolution first occurred in the Near East, changing the way humans interacted with their environment and each other, setting the stage, ultimately, for the modern world. Based on more than thirty years of fieldwork, this timely volume examines the Neolithic Revolution in the Levantine Near East and the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Alan H. Simmons explores recent research regarding the emergence of Neolithic populations, using both environmental and theoretical contexts, and incorporates specific case studies based on his own excavations. In clear and graceful prose, Simmons traces chronological and regional differences within this land of immense environmental contrasts—woodland, steppe, and desert. He argues that the Neolithic Revolution can be seen in a variety of economic, demographic, and social guises and that it lacked a single common stimulus. Each chapter includes sections on history, terminology, geographic range, specific domesticated species, the composition of early villages and households, and the development of social, symbolic, and religious behavior. Most chapters include at least one case study and conclude with a concise summary. In addition, Simmons presents a unique chapter on the island of Cyprus, where intriguing new research challenges assumptions about the impact and extent of the Neolithic. The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East conveys the diversity of our Neolithic ancestors, providing a better understanding of the period and the new social order that arose because of it. This insightful volume will be especially useful to Near Eastern scholars and to students of archaeology and the origins of agriculture.

The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture

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Author: Jacques Cauvin,Trevor Watkins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521651356

Category: History

Page: 259

View: 9212

A study of social and economic transformations in the Near East during Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition, first published in 2000.

Hunter-Gatherers

An Interdisciplinary Perspective

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Author: Catherine Panter-Brick,Robert H. Layton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521776721

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 9661

This 2001 volume is an interdisciplinary text on hunter-gatherer populations world-wide.

Houses in the Rainforest

Ethnicity and Inequality Among Farmers and Foragers in Central Africa

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Author: Roy Richard Grinker

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520089758

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 7655

"Roy Richard Grinker, writing about the relationship between Pygmies and their farmer counterparts, breaks new ground in the theory of social institutions and ethnicity."—Jan Vansina, University of Wisconsin, Madison

First Migrants

Ancient Migration in Global Perspective

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118325893

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 4767

The first publication to outline the complex global story of human migration and dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory. Utilizing archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence, Peter Bellwood traces the journeys of the earliest hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist migrants as critical elements in the evolution of human lifeways. The first volume to chart global human migration and population dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory, in all regions of the world An archaeological odyssey that details the initial spread of early humans out of Africa approximately two million years ago, through the Ice Ages, and down to the continental and island migrations of agricultural populations within the past 10,000 years Employs archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence to demonstrate how migration has always been a vital and complex element in explaining the evolution of the human species Outlines how significant migrations have affected population diversity in every region of the world Clarifies the importance of the development of agriculture as a migratory imperative in later prehistory Fully referenced with detailed maps throughout

Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago

Revised Edition

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921313129

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6023

Since its publication in 1985, Peter Bellwood's Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago has been hailed as the sole authoritative work on the subject by the leading expert in the field. Now that work has been fully revised and includes a complete up-to-date summary of the archaeology of the region (and relevant neighboring areas of China and Oceania), as well as a comprehensive discussion of new and important issues (such as the "Eve-Garden of Eden" hypothesis and its relevance to the Indo-Malaysian region) and recent advances in macrofamily linguistic classification. Moving north to south from northern Peninsular Malaysia to Timor and west to east from Sumatra to the Moluccas, Bellwood describes human prehistory from initial hominid settlement more than one million years ago to the eve of historical Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic cultures of the region. The archaeological record provides the central focus, but chapters also incorporate essential information from the paleoenvironmental sciences, biological anthropology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Bellwood approaches questions about past cultural and biological developments in the region from a multidisciplinary perspective. Historical issues given extended treatment include the significance of the Homo erectus populations of Java, the dispersal of the present Austronesian-speaking peoples of the region within the past 4,000 years, and the spread of metallurgy since 500 B.C. Bellwood also discusses relationships between the prehistoric populations of the archipelago and those of neighboring regions such as Australia, New Guinea, and mainland Asia.

Examining the Farming/language Dispersal Hypothesis

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Author: Peter S. Bellwood,Colin Renfrew,McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

Publisher: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

ISBN: 9781902937205

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 505

View: 7929

Here, a radical new theory of how languages were dispersed around the globe is debated by experts in historical linguistics, prehistoric archaeology, molecular genetics and human ecology.

Against the Grain

A Deep History of the Earliest States

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Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300231687

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 1074

An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.

The Origins of Pottery and Agriculture

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Author: Yoshinori Yasuda

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Agriculture

Page: 400

View: 4379

Predominantly on rice cultivation and pottery in Middle East and East Asian countries.

Changing Natures

Hunter-gatherers, First Famers and the Modern World

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Author: Bill Finlayson,Graeme M. Warren

Publisher: Bristol Classical Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 4563

A new critical perspective on the dominant narratives of the 'Neolithic Revolution', with an emphasis on local histories and hunter-gatherer dynamics.

Nonzero

The Logic of Human Destiny

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Author: Robert Wright

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780375727818

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 3954

In his bestselling The Moral Animal, Robert Wright applied the principles of evolutionary biology to the study of the human mind. Now Wright attempts something even more ambitious: explaining the direction of evolution and human history–and discerning where history will lead us next. In Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny, Wright asserts that, ever since the primordial ooze, life has followed a basic pattern. Organisms and human societies alike have grown more complex by mastering the challenges of internal cooperation. Wright's narrative ranges from fossilized bacteria to vampire bats, from stone-age villages to the World Trade Organization, uncovering such surprises as the benefits of barbarian hordes and the useful stability of feudalism. Here is history endowed with moral significance–a way of looking at our biological and cultural evolution that suggests, refreshingly, that human morality has improved over time, and that our instinct to discover meaning may itself serve a higher purpose. Insightful, witty, profound, Nonzero offers breathtaking implications for what we believe and how we adapt to technology's ongoing transformation of the world. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Agriculture in World History

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Author: Mark B. Tauger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136941614

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 8363

Civilization from its origins has depended on the food, fibre, and other commodities produced by farmers. In this unique exploration of the world history of agriculture, Mark B. Tauger looks at farmers, farming, and their relationships to non-farmers from the classical societies of the Mediterranean and China through to the twenty-first century.? Viewing farmers as the most important human interface between civilization and the natural world, Agriculture in World History examines the ways that urban societies have both exploited and supported farmers, and together have endured the environmental changes and crises that threatened food production.? Accessibly written and following a chronological structure, Agriculture in World History illuminates these topics through studies of farmers in numerous countries all over the world from Antiquity to the contemporary period. Key themes addressed include the impact of global warming, the role of political and social transformations, and the development of agricultural technology. In particular, the book highlights the complexities of recent decades: increased food production, declining numbers of farmers, and environmental, economic, and political challenges to increasing food production against the demands of a growing population. This wide-ranging survey will be an indispensable text for students of world history, and for anyone interested in the historical development of the present agricultural and food crises.?

Dirt

The Erosion of Civilizations

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Author: David R. Montgomery

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520272900

Category: Nature

Page: 285

View: 1394

Ranging from ancient times to modern-day environmental threats, a natural and cultural history of soil explains how an elimination of protective vegetation and an exposure to wind and rain causes severe erosion of cultivated soils, how the use and abuse of soil has shaped human history, and the how the rise of organic and no-till farming holds hope for the future.

Last hunters, first farmers

new perspectives on the prehistoric transition to agriculture

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Author: Theron Douglas Price,Anne Birgitte Gebauer,School of American Research (Santa Fe, N.M.)

Publisher: School for Advanced Research on the

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 1490

During virtually the entire four-million-year history of our habitation on this planet, humans have been hunters and gatherers, dependent for nourishment on the availability of wild plants and animals. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, however, the most remarkable phenomenon in the course of human prehistory was set in motion. At locations around the world, over a period of about 5000 years, hunters became farmers. The implications of this revolution in human activity and social organization reverberate down to the present day.In case studies ranging from the Far East to the American Southwest, the authors of Last Hunters-First Farmers provide a global perspective on contemporary research into the origins of agriculture. Downplaying more traditional explanations of the turn to agriculture, such as the influence of marginal environments and population pressures, the authors emphasize instead the importance of the resource-rich areas in which agriculture began, the complex social organizations already in place, the role of sedentism, and, in some locales, the advent of economic intensification and competition.