First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

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Author: Peter Bellwood

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631205654

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 5862

First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

Arm und reich

die Schicksale menschlicher Gesellschaften

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Author: Jared M. Diamond

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783596149674

Category: Kontinent - Gesellschaft - Entwicklung - Umweltfaktor - Vor- und Frühgeschichte

Page: 550

View: 6657

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 4891

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Die Mühlen der Zivilisation

Eine Tiefengeschichte der frühesten Staaten

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Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518761528

Category: Social Science

Page: 329

View: 5796

Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihren Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

The Origins of the Civilisation of Angkor Volume 3

The Excavation of Ban Non Wat

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Author: Charles Higham,A. Kijngam,Tom Higham,T. Boer-Mah

Publisher: Fine Arts Department of Thailand

ISBN: 974417997X

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 7373

Ban Non Wat is the fourth major excavation undertaken as part of the project, The Origins of the Civilization of Angkor. It is a site of great importance because of its long occupation period, and the very large area opened by excavation over seven seasons of fieldwork. The site was initially occupied by hunter-gatherers, then by Neolithic rice farmers. By 1000 BC, this community began to cast bronzes, and six centuries later, the first iron was being forged. It is possible at Ban Non Wat, to follow the history of a community over a period of about 100 generations. This book describes the site's stratigraphy, chronology, and then covers the mortuary sequence and the material culture. It covers the early period of hunter-gatherers, the initial settlement by Neolithic rice farmers the princely early Bronze Age graves, with their outstanding painted ceramic vessels, and the extensive Iron Age cemetery that reveals a remarkable image of the rituals of burial, with its wooden coffins, bimetallic spears and exotic jewellery.

A History of Communications

Media and Society from the Evolution of Speech to the Internet

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Author: Marshall T. Poe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495577

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 2671

A History of Communications advances a theory of media that explains the origins and impact of different forms of communication - speech, writing, print, electronic devices and the Internet - on human history in the long term. New media are 'pulled' into widespread use by broad historical trends and these media, once in widespread use, 'push' social institutions and beliefs in predictable directions. This view allows us to see for the first time what is truly new about the Internet, what is not, and where it is taking us.

The Global Prehistory of Human Migration

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Author: Immanuel Ness

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118970586

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 9628

Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopediaof Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively toprehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from thefirst hominin migrations out of Africa through the end ofprehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, includingscholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics,biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team ofauthors, representing 17 countries and a variety ofdisciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene andHolocene; each section examines human migration through chaptersthat focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

Landscape of the Mind

Human Evolution and the Archaeology of Thought

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Author: John F. Hoffecker

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023151848X

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 637

In Landscape of the Mind, John F. Hoffecker explores the origin and growth of the human mind, drawing on archaeology, history, and the fossil record. He suggests that, as an indirect result of bipedal locomotion, early humans developed a feedback relationship among their hands, brains, and tools that evolved into the capacity to externalize thoughts in the form of shaped stone objects. When anatomically modern humans evolved a parallel capacity to externalize thoughts as symbolic language, individual brains within social groups became integrated into a "neocortical Internet," or super-brain, giving birth to the mind. Noting that archaeological traces of symbolism coincide with evidence of the ability to generate novel technology, Hoffecker contends that human creativity, as well as higher order consciousness, is a product of the superbrain. He equates the subsequent growth of the mind with human history, which began in Africa more than 50,000 years ago. As anatomically modern humans spread across the globe, adapting to a variety of climates and habitats, they redesigned themselves technologically and created alternative realities through tools, language, and art. Hoffecker connects the rise of civilization to a hierarchical reorganization of the super-brain, triggered by explosive population growth. Subsequent human history reflects to varying degrees the suppression of the mind's creative powers by the rigid hierarchies of nationstates and empires, constraining the further accumulation of knowledge. The modern world emerged after 1200 from the fragments of the Roman Empire, whose collapse had eliminated a central authority that could thwart innovation. Hoffecker concludes with speculation about the possibility of artificial intelligence and the consequences of a mind liberated from its organic antecedents to exist in an independent, nonbiological form.

Early Mesoamerican Social Transformations

Archaic and Formative Lifeways in the Soconusco Region

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Author: Richard G. Lesure

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520950569

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 1276

Between 3500 and 500 bc, the social landscape of ancient Mesoamerica was completely transformed. At the beginning of this period, the mobile lifeways of a sparse population were oriented toward hunting and gathering. Three millennia later, protourban communities teemed with people. These essays by leading Mesoamerican archaeologists examine developments of the era as they unfolded in the Soconusco region along the Pacific coast of Mexico and Guatemala, a region that has emerged as crucial for understanding the rise of ancient civilizations in Mesoamerica. The contributors explore topics including the gendered division of labor, changes in subsistence, the character of ceremonialism, the emergence of social inequality, and large-scale patterns of population distribution and social change. Together, they demonstrate the contribution of Soconusco to cultural evolution in Mesoamerica and challenge what we thought we knew about the path toward social complexity.

Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia

Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange

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Author: Pierre-Yves Manguin,A. Mani,Geoff Wade

Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

ISBN: 9814345105

Category: History

Page: 514

View: 1042

This book takes stock of the results of some two decades of intensive archaeological research carried out on both sides of the Bay of Bengal, in combination with renewed approaches to textual sources and to art history. To improve our understanding of the trans-cultural process commonly referred to as Indianisation, it brings together specialists of both India and Southeast Asia, in a fertile inter-disciplinary confrontation. Most of the essays reappraise the millennium-long historiographic no-man's land during which exchanges between the two shores of the Bay of Bengal led, among other processes, to the Indianisation of those parts of the region that straddled the main routes of exchange. Some essays follow up these processes into better known "classical" times or even into modern times, showing that the localisation process of Indian themes has long remained at work, allowing local societies to produce their own social space and express their own ethos.

The Solar Revolution

One World. One Solution. Providing the Energy and Food for 10 Billion People.

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Author: Steve McKevitt,Tony Ryan

Publisher: Icon Books Ltd

ISBN: 1848317875

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 4081

It’s an astonishing fact that capturing all the energy in just one hour’s worth of sunlight would enable us to meet the planet’s food and energy needs for an entire year. The Solar Revolution tells the story of how scientists are working to reconnect us to the ‘solar economy’, harnessing the power of the sun to provide sustainable food and energy for a global population of 10 billion people: an achievement that would end our dependence on ‘fossilised sunshine’ in the form of coal, oil and gas and remake our connection with the soil that grows our food. Steve McKevitt and Tony Ryan describe the human race’s complex relationship with the sun and take us back through history to see how our world became the place it is today – chemically, geologically, ecologically, climatically and economically – before moving on to the cutting-edge science and technology that will enable us to live happily in a sustainable future.

The Neolithisation of Iran

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Author: Roger Matthews,Hassan Fazeli Nashli

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782971939

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 5289

The period c. 10,000-5000 BC witnessed fundamental changes in the human condition with societies across the Fertile Crescent shifting their alignment from millennia-old practices of seasonally mobile hunting and foraging to year-round sedentism, plant cultivation and animal herding. The significant role of Iran in the early stages of this transition was recognised more than half a century ago but has not been to the fore of academic consciousness in recent decades. In the meantime, investigations into Neolithic transformation have proceeded apace in all other regions of the Fertile Crescent and beyond. Here, 18 studies attempt to redress that balance in re-assessing the role of Iran in the early neolithisation of human societies. These studies, many of them by Iranian scholars, consider patterns of change and/or continuity across a variety of topographical landscapes; investigate Neolithic settlement patterns, the use of caves, animal exploitation and environmental indicators and present new insights into some well-known and some newly investigated sites. The results re-affirm the formative role of this region in the transition to sedentary farming.

The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

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Author: Peter Mitchell,Paul Lane

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191626155

Category: Social Science

Page: 1080

View: 8094

Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.

China

A Religious State

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Author: Cho-yun Hsu,John Lagerwey

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528183

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 5622

An internationally recognized authority on Chinese history and a leading innovator in its telling, Cho-yun Hsu constructs an original portrait of Chinese culture. Unlike most historians, Hsu resists centering his narrative on China's political evolution, focusing instead on the country's cultural sphere and its encounters with successive waves of globalization. Beginning long before China's written history and extending through the twentieth century, Hsu follows the content and expansion of Chinese culture, describing the daily lives of commoners, their spiritual beliefs and practices, the changing character of their social and popular thought, and their advances in material culture and technology. In addition to listing the achievements of emperors, generals, ministers, and sages, Hsu builds detailed accounts of these events and their everyday implications. Dynastic change, the rise and fall of national ambitions, and the growth and decline of institutional systems take on new significance through Hsu's careful research, which captures the multiple strands that gave rise to China's pluralistic society. Paying particular attention to influential relationships occurring outside of Chinese cultural boundaries, he demonstrates the impact of foreign influences on Chinese culture and identity and identifies similarities between China's cultural developments and those of other nations.

Die Grenzen des Wachstums

Bericht des Club of Rome zur Lage der Menschheit

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Author: Dennis Meadows,Donella H. Meadows

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economic history

Page: 183

View: 1939

Archaeology: The Basics

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Author: Clive Gamble

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134240139

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6757

This second edition from our successful Basics series presents another chance to delve into this increasingly popular subject. Fully updated, Archaeology: The Basics has been revised to reflect growth in areas such as material culture, human evolution and the political use of the past. Lively and engaging, some of the key questions answered include: What are the basic concepts of archaeology? How and what do we know about people and objects from the past? What makes a good explanation in archaeology? How do we know where to look? From everyday examples to the more obscure, this is essential reading for all students, independent archaeologists and indeed all those who want to know more about archaeological thought, history and practice. A piece of broken pottery will never seem the same again.

Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach

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Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119968518

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 915

One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

The great transformation

politische und ökonomische Ursprünge von Gesellschaften und Wirtschaftssystemen

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Author: Karl Polanyi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economic history

Page: 378

View: 7020

Project Sunshine

How science can use the sun to fuel and feed the world

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Author: Steve McKevitt,Tony Ryan

Publisher: Icon Books Ltd

ISBN: 1848315627

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 5996

It’s an astonishing fact that capturing all the energy in just one hour’s worth of sunlight would enable us to meet the planet’s food and energy needs for an entire year. Project Sunshine tells the story of how scientists are working to reconnect us to the ‘solar economy’, harnessing the power of the sun to provide sustainable food and energy for a global population of 10 billion people: an achievement that would end our dependence on ‘fossilised sunshine’ in the form of coal, oil and gas and remake our connection with the soil that grows our food. Steve McKevitt and Tony Ryan describe the human race’s complex relationship with the sun and take us back through history to see how our world became the place it is today – chemically, geologically, ecologically, climatically and economically – before moving on to the cutting-edge science and technology that will enable us to live happily in a sustainable future.

The Improbable Primate

How Water Shaped Human Evolution

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Author: Clive Finlayson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191503789

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5244

Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.