Family and Child Well-being After Welfare Reform

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Author: Douglas Besharov

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351520504

Category: Political Science

Page: 305

View: 9668

Since their historic high in 1994, welfare caseloads in the United States have dropped an astounding 59 percent--more than 5 million fewer families receive welfare. Family and Child Well-Being after Welfare Reform, now in paperback, explores how low-income children and their families are faring in the wake of welfare reform. Contributors to the volume include leading social researchers. Can existing surveys and other data be used to measure trends in the area? What key indicators should be tracked? What are the initial trends after welfare reform? What other information or approaches would be helpful? The book covers a broad range of topics: an update on welfare reform (Douglas J. Besharov and Peter Germanis); ongoing major research (Peter H. Rossi); material well-being, such as earnings, benefits, and consumption (Richard Bavier); family versus household (Wendy D. Manning); fatherhood, cohabitation, and marriage (Wade F. Horn); teenage sex, pregnancy, and nonmarital births (Isabel V. Sawhill); child maltreatment and foster care (Richard J. Gelles); homelessness and housing (John C. Weicher); child health and well-being (Lorraine V. Klerman); nutrition, food security, and obesity (Harold S. Beebout); crime, juvenile delinquency, and dysfunctional behavior (Lawrence W. Sherman); drug use (Peter Reuter); mothers' work and child care (Julia B. Isaacs); and the activities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Don Winstead and Ann McCormick). When welfare reform was first debated, many people feared that it would hurt the poor, especially children. The contributors find little evidence to suggest this has occurred. As time limits and other programmatic requirements take hold, more information will be needed to assess the condition of low-income families after welfare reform. This informative volume establishes a baseline for that assessment.

Before and After Welfare Reform

The Work and Well-being of Low-income Single Parent Families

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Author: Avis Jones-DeWeever,Xue Song,Janice Peterson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781878428813

Category: Poor families

Page: 51

View: 6332

Mothers' Work and Children's Lives

Low-income Families After Welfare Reform

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Author: Rucker C. Johnson,Ariel Kalil,Rachel Elizabeth Dunifon

Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute

ISBN: 0880993561

Category: Political Science

Page: 147

View: 9765

This book examines the effects of work requirements imposed by welfare reform on low-income women and their families. The authors pay particular attention to the nature of work, whether it is stable or unstable, the number of hours worked in a week, and regularity and flexibility of work schedules. They also show how these factors make it more difficult for low-income women to balance work and family requirements.

From Child Welfare to Child Well-Being

An International Perspective on Knowledge in the Service of Policy Making

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Author: Sheila Kamerman,Shelley Phipps,Asher Ben-Arieh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048133777

Category: Social Science

Page: 437

View: 5991

This chapter provides a brief overview of the book highlighting the modest progress from child welfare to child well-being re?ected in these chapters, and the parallel movement in Kahn’s career and research, as his scholarship developed over the years. It then moves to explore the relationship between two overarching themes, child and family policy stressing a universal approach to children and social prot- tion stressing a more targeted approach to disadvantaged and vulnerable individuals including children and the complementarity of these strategies. Introduction To a large extent Alfred J. Kahn was at the forefront of the developments in the ?eld of child welfare services (protective services, foster care, adoption, and family preservationandsupport). Overtimehisscholarshipmovedtoafocusonthebroader policy domain of child and family policy and the outcomes for child wellbeing. His work, as is true for this volume, progressed from a focus on poor, disadvantaged and vulnerable children to a focus on all children. He was convinced that children, by de?nition, are a vulnerable population group and that targeting all children, empl- ing a universal policy as a strategy would do more for poor children than a narrowly focused policy targeted on poor children alone, As we ?rst argued more than three decades ago (Not for the Poor Alone; “Universalism and Income Testing in Family Policy”), one could target the most disadvantaged within a universal framework, and this would lead to more successful results than targeting only the poor.

For Better and For Worse

Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families

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Author: Greg J. Duncan,Lindsay P. Chase-Lansdale

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448286

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 624

The 1996 welfare reform bill marked the beginning of a new era in public assistance. Although the new law has reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. In For Better and For Worse, editors Greg J. Duncan and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and a roster of distinguished experts examine the evidence and evaluate whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals-improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. For Better and For Worse opens with a lively political history of the welfare reform legislation, which demonstrates how conservative politicians capitalize on public concern over such social problems as single parenthood to win support for the radical reforms. Part I reviews how individual states redesigned, implemented, and are managing their welfare systems. These chapters show that most states appear to view maternal employment, rather that income enhancement and marriage, as key to improving child well-being. Part II focuses on national and multistate evaluations of the changes in welfare to examine how families and children are actually faring under the new system. These chapters suggest that work-focused reforms have not hurt children, and that reforms that provide financial support for working families can actually enhance children's development. Part III presents a variety of perspectives on policy options for the future. Remarkable here is the common ground for both liberals and conservatives on the need to support work and at the same time strengthen safety-net programs such as Food Stamps. Although welfare reform-along with the Earned Income Tax Credit and the booming economy of the nineties-has helped bring mothers into the labor force and some children out of poverty, the nation still faces daunting challenges in helping single parents become permanent members of the workforce. For Better and For Worse gathers the most recent data on the effects of welfare reform in one timely volume focused on improving the life chances of poor children.

To review outcomes of 1996 welfare reforms

hearing before the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, second session, July 19, 2006

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Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Ways and Means

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 126

View: 8571

Working Families and Growing Kids:

Caring for Children and Adolescents

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Author: Committee on Family And Work Policies,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth and Families

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309087031

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 1685

An informative mix of data and discussion, this book presents conclusions and recommendations for policies that can respond to the new conditions shaping America’s working families. Among the family and work trends reviewed: • Growing population of mothers with young children in the workforce. • Increasing reliance of nonparental child care. • Growing challenges of families on welfare. • Increased understanding of child and adolescent development. Included in this comprehensive review of the research and data on family leave, child care, and income support issues are: the effects of early child care and school age child care on child development, the impacts of family work policies on child and adolescent well-being and family functioning, the impacts of family work policies on child and adolescent well-being and family functioning the changes to federal and state welfare policy, the emergence of a 24/7 economy, the utilization of paid family leave, and an examination of the ways parental employment affects children as they make their way through childhood and adolescence. The book also evaluates the support systems available to working families, including family and medical leave, child care options, and tax policies. The committee’s conclusions and recommendations will be of interest to anyone concerned with issues affecting the working American family, especially policy makers, program administrators, social scientists, journalist, private and public sector leaders, and family advocates.

Welfare Reform and Beyond

The Future of the Safety Net

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Author: Isabel V. Sawhill,R. Kent Weaver,Ron Haskins,Andrea Kane

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815798828

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 3032

The Brookings Institution's Welfare Reform & Beyond Initiative was created to inform the critical policy debates surrounding the upcoming congressional reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and a number of related programs that were created or dramatically altered by the 1996 landmark welfare reform legislation. The goal of the project has been to take the large volume of existing and forthcoming research studies and shape them into a more coherent and policy-oriented whole. This capstone collection gathers twenty brief essays (published between January 2001 and February 2002) that focus on assessing the record of welfare reform, specific issues likely to be debated before the TANF reauthorization, and a broader set of policy options for low-income families. It is a reader-friendly volume that will provide policymakers, the press, and the interested public with a comprehensive guide to the numerous issues that must be addressed as Congress considers the future of the nation's antipoverty policies. The collection covers the following topics and features a new introduction from the editors: - An Overview of Effects to Date - Welfare Reform Reauthorization: An Overview of Problems and Issues - A Tax Proposal for Working Families with Children - Welfare Reform and Poverty - Reducing Non-Marital Births - Which Welfare Reforms are Best for Children? - Welfare and the Economy - What Can Be Done to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Out-of-Wedlock Births? - Changing Welfare Offices - State Programs - Welfare Reform and Employment - Fragile Families, Welfare Reform, and Marriage - Health Insurance, Welfare, and Work - Helping the Hard-to-Employ - Sanctions and Welfare Reform - Child Care and Welfare Reform - Job Retention and Advancement in Welfare Reform - Housing and Welfare Reform - Non-Citizens - Block Grant Structure - Food Stamps - Work Support System - Possible Welfare Reform in the Cities

African American Children and Families in Child Welfare

Cultural Adaptation of Services

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Author: Ramona Denby,Carla M. Curtis

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231536208

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8847

This text proposes corrective action to improve the institutional care of African American children and their families, calling attention to the specific needs of this population and the historical, social, and political factors that have shaped its experience within the child welfare system. The authors critique policy and research and suggest culturally targeted program and policy responses for more positive outcomes.

Economic Restructuring and Family Well-Being in Rural America

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Author: Kristin E. Smith,Ann R. Tickamyer

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 027104862X

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 695

Rural areas have been hit hard by economic restructuring. Traditionally male jobs with good pay and benefits (such as in manufacturing) have declined dramatically, only to be replaced with low-paying service-oriented jobs&—jobs that do not offer benefits or wages sufficient to raise a family. Concurrently, rural areas have experienced changes in family life, namely an increase in women&’s labor force participation, a decline in married-couple families, and a rise in cohabitation and single-parent families. How have rural families coped with these social and economic changes? Economic Restructuring and Family Well-Being in Rural America documents the intertwined changes in employment and family and explores the outcomes for family well-being in rural America. Here a multidisciplinary group of scholars examines the impacts of economic restructuring on rural Americans and provides policy recommendations for addressing the challenges they face. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Cynthia D. Anderson, Guangqing Chi, Alisha Coleman-Jensen, Katherine Jewsbury Conger, Nicole D. Forry, Deborah Roempke Graefe, Steven Michael Grice, Andrew Hahn, Debra Henderson, Eric B. Jensen, Leif Jensen, Marlene Lee, Daniel T. Lichter, Elaine McCrate, Diane K. McLaughlin, Margaret K. Nelson, Domenico Parisi, Liliokanaio Peaslee, Jed Pressgrove, Jennifer Sherman, Anastasia Snyder, Susan K. Walker, and Chih-Yuan Weng.

Life After Welfare

Reform and the Persistence of Poverty

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Author: Laura Lein,Deanna T. Schexnayder,Karen Douglas,Daniel Schroeder

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292778066

Category: Political Science

Page: 191

View: 1558

In the decade since President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 into law—amidst promises that it would "end welfare as we know it"—have the reforms ending entitlements and moving toward time limits and work requirements lifted Texas families once living on welfare out of poverty, or merely stricken their names from the administrative rolls? Under welfare reform, Texas has continued with low monthly payments and demanding eligibility criteria. Many families who could receive welfare in other states do not qualify in Texas, and virtually any part-time job makes a family ineligible. In Texas, most families who leave welfare remain in or near poverty, and many are likely to return to the welfare rolls in the future. This compelling work, which follows 179 families after leaving welfare, is set against a backdrop of multiple types of data and econometric modeling. The authors' multi-method approach draws on administrative data from nine programs serving low-income families and a statewide survey of families who have left welfare. Survey data on health problems, transportation needs, and child-care issues shed light on the patterns of employment and welfare use seen in the administrative data. In their lives after welfare, the families chronicled here experience poverty even when employed; a multiplicity of barriers to employment that work to exacerbate one another; and a failing safety net of basic human services as they attempt to sustain low-wage employment.

Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Fall 2010

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Author: David H. Romer,Justin Wolfers

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815721587

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 7461

Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (BPEA) provides academic and business economists, government officials, and members of the financial and business communities with timely research on current economic issues. Contents: • Editors' Summary • The Increase in Income Cyclicality of High-Income Households and Its Relation to the Rise in Top Income Shares By Jonathan A. Parker and Annette Vissing-Jorgensen (Northwestern University) • The State of the Social Safety Net in the Post-Welfare Reform Era By Marianne P. Bitler (University of California, Irvine) and Hilary W. Hoynes (University of California, Davis) • The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Students, Teacheres, and Schools By Thomas S. Dee (University of Virginia) and Brian A. Jacob (University of Michigan) • How Useful Are Estimated DSGE Model Forecasts for Central Bankers? By Rochelle M. Edge (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System) and Refet S. Gürkaynak (Bilkent University) • Regulating the Shadow Banking System By Gary Gorton and Andrew Metrick (Yale University) • State Fiscal Policies and Transitory Income Fluctuations By James R. Hines, Jr. (University of Michigan)

Trends in Welfare, Work and the Economic Well-being of Female-headed Families with Children

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Author: Thomas Gabe

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781590335086

Category: Political Science

Page: 57

View: 9251

Sure to raise the hackles of many across the nation is any mention of welfare and federal entitlement programs. All agree that no one should be on welfare, but the question is what to do about those who really need the income provided by the federal government. In 1996, welfare reform legislation enacted the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which is a block grant provided to the state with a chief purpose of ending the dependence of needy families on government assistance. Among the principal groups impacted by the welfare reform legislation are female headed families with children. Recent analyses have revealed that single mothers are more likely to be working than in the past and that welfare receipt among poor families with women at the head has declined. Despite these trends, single mothers' net income has shown no increase, suggesting that full-time work may not be enough to eliminate poverty and welfare dependency among female families. This book reports on several current trends in the economic status of female headed families, providing an overview of federal programs and their effects along with several useful charts based on Census Bureau information. The combination of statistics and evaluation make for an important contribution to the study of initiatives to defeat poverty and income deficiencies in a significant part of the population.

Education, Poverty, Malnutrition and Famine

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Author: Lorraine Pe Symaco

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1472512111

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 3175

Education, Poverty, Malnutrition and Famine provides an overview of education response – what it is and how it can be improved in relation to one of the more persistent issues globally. Poverty, famine and/or malnutrition exist in variant degrees among developing and developed nations and the issue figures prominently in international development. This book provides a global overview of education and such issues through case study samples of countries within various regions and offers insights and proposes solutions on how educational response can help alleviate this challenge. Each chapter contains contemporary questions to encourage active engagement with the material and an annotated list of suggested reading to support further exploration.

Creating Positive Systems of Child and Family Welfare

Congruence with the Everyday Lives of Children and Parents

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Author: Gary Cameron,Marshall Fine,Sarah Maiter,Karen Frensch,Nancy Freymond

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442666277

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9320

The North American approach to child protection is broadly accepted, despite frequent criticisms of its core limitations: parental fear and resistance, the limited range of services and supports available to families, escalating costs, and high stress and turnover among service providers. Could these shortcomings be improved through organizational or system reform? Based on findings from a decade’s worth of research, Creating Positive Systems of Child and Family Welfare provides original reflections on the everyday realities of families and front-line service providers involved with the system. It includes data from a variety of regions and situations, all linked together through a common investigatory framework. The contributors highlight areas of concern in current approaches to child and family welfare, but also propose new solutions that would make the system more welcoming and helpful both for families and for service providers.

New Findings on Welfare and Children's Development:

Summary of a Research Briefing

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Author: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council and Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309056896

Category: Social Science

Page: 32

View: 2103

Welfare Reform

State Sanction Policies and Number of Families Affected

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Author: Clarita A. Mrena,Patricia Elston

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9780756705893

Category: Block grants

Page: 59

View: 7817

Temp. Assist. for Needy Families (TANF) provided block grants to states, giving them increased flexibility to determine how they will meet program goals. Most families who receive TANF must assume responsibility for achieving self-sufficiency by participating in work activities. This report provides info. on: state sanction policies under TANF; state procedures to reconcile noncompliance before imposing sanctions and state policies on families' right to appeal sanctions; the number of benefit reductions and terminations that results from sanctions; and state studies of families whose benefits are reduced or terminated as a result of sanctions.