Evidence Matters

Science, Proof, and Truth in the Law

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Author: Susan Haack

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113999266X

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 9682

Is truth in the law just plain truth - or something sui generis? Is a trial a search for truth? Do adversarial procedures and exclusionary rules of evidence enable, or impede, the accurate determination of factual issues? Can degrees of proof be identified with mathematical probabilities? What role can statistical evidence properly play? How can courts best handle the scientific testimony on which cases sometimes turn? How are they to distinguish reliable scientific testimony from unreliable hokum? These interdisciplinary essays explore such questions about science, proof, and truth in the law. With her characteristic clarity and verve, Haack brings her original and distinctive work in theory of knowledge and philosophy of science to bear on real-life legal issues. She includes detailed analyses of a wide variety of cases and lucid summaries of relevant scientific work, of the many roles of the scientific peer-review system, and of relevant legal developments.

Evidence in the Psychological Therapies

A Critical Guidance for Practitioners

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Author: Chris Mace,Stirling Moorey,Bernard Roberts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134615752

Category: Psychology

Page: 232

View: 1279

Evidence-based practice is likely to determine standards for publicly and insurance-funded psychotherapies in the near future. How should practitioners prepare themselves for this? Evidence in the Psychological Therapies takes a critical look at the meaning of evidence. It examines which kinds of evidence are most relevant to psychological therapies, and Mow the quality of evidence can be assessed. The potential impact of evidence on practice is illustrated across a range of clinical settings and therapeutic models. The contributors include distinguished academics in law and philosophy, clinical researchers who have contributed to the evidence base for psychological therapies, and prominent therapists who have put research into practice and pioneered effective methods of audit. This accessible discussion of a topic no practitioner can ignore is recommended to all psychotherapists, including psychoanalysts, CBT therapists, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, counsellors and those in training.

Knowledge into Action: Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science

Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science

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Author: Danny P. Wallace,Connie J Van Fleet

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610692667

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 388

View: 8975

The only book currently available that comprehensively integrates research and evaluation for evidence-based library and information science practice.

Idealism and Realism in International Relations

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Author: Robert M. A. Crawford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134733216

Category: Political Science

Page: 212

View: 2345

The author argues for a revised conception of international relations that acknowledges the irreconcilability of realist and idealist theories, and concerns itself instead with important substantive issues.

Drogen

Die Geschichte eines langen Krieges

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Author: Johann Hari

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104035687

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 9753

»Hari vereint präzise Recherche mit einer zutiefst menschlichen Erzählung. Dieses Buch wird eine dringend notwendige Debatte auslösen.« Glenn Greenwald Der Krieg gegen die Drogen gilt inzwischen als gescheitert, der Handel mit Drogen ist ein blühendes Geschäft, alle Maßnahmen gegen den Konsum sind weitgehend erfolglos. Woran liegt das? Der britische Journalist Johann Hari begibt sich auf eine einzigartige Reise – von Brooklyn über Mexiko bis nach Deutschland – und erzählt die Geschichten derjenigen, deren Leben vom immerwährenden Kampf gegen Drogen geprägt ist: von Dealern, Süchtigen, Kartellmitgliedern, den Verlierern und Profiteuren. Mit seiner grandiosen literarischen Reportage schreibt Hari sowohl eine Geschichte des Krieges gegen Drogen als auch ein mitreißendes und streitbares Plädoyer zum Umdenken. »Hervorragender Journalismus, packend erzählt.« Naomi Klein »Phantastisch!« Noam Chomsky

The Secret - Das Geheimnis

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Author: Rhonda Byrne

Publisher: Arkana

ISBN: 364110579X

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 240

View: 4312

Alle Leser sind im Grunde auf der Suche nach der einen Erkenntnis, die nicht nur ihre intellektuelle Neugier befriedigt, sondern ihnen Anleitung gibt, ihr Leben glücklicher und erfüllter zu gestalten. Diese eine Erkenntnis – „The Secret“, wie Autorin Rhonda Byrne es nennt – war wenigen Auserwählten der Menschheitsgeschichte gegenwärtig. Die Smaragdtafel des Hermes Trismegistos, die Keimzelle aller heute bestehenden esoterischen Systeme, hat es ausgedrückt mit den Worten: „Wie innen, so außen“. Große Geister wie Platon, Leonardo da Vinci und Einstein haben um das Geheimnis gewusst; moderne Autoren wie Neale Donald Walsch und Bärbel Mohr haben in jüngster Zeit eine Millionen-Leserschaft damit inspiriert. „The Secret“, das als Dokumentarfilm schon weltweit erfolgreich lief, beweist in einer überzeugenden Mischung aus Erklärungen der Autorin und Zitaten bekannter Weisheitslehrer die Wahrheit einiger grundlegender Erkenntnisse: Wir sind selbst Schöpfer unserer Realität. Die Dinge, die uns im Alltag begegnen, haben wir durch die eigene Gedankenenergie angezogen. Die Kraft, die wir „Gott“ nennen, war und ist nie wirklich von uns getrennt. Einige Bestsellerautoren schicken ihre Helden auf die spannende Suche nach einem fiktiven Geheimnis. Mit „The Secret“ werden Sie selbst zum Sucher und können einen Schatz finden – nicht fiktiv, sondern wirklich.

Hidden Figures - Unerkannte Heldinnen

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Author: Margot Lee Shetterly

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 3959676433

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 4636

1943 stellt das Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory der NACA,die später zur NASA wird, erstmalig afroamerikanische Frauen ein. "Menschliche Rechner" - unter ihnen Dorothy Vaughan, die 1953 Vorgesetzte der brillanten afroamerikanischen Mathematikerin Katherine Johnson wird. Trotz Diskriminierung und Vorurteilen, treiben sie die Forschungen der NASA voran und Katherine Johnsons Berechnungen werden maßgeblich für den Erfolg der Apollo-Missionen. Dies ist ihre Geschichte. "Mit dieser unglaublich mitreißenden und vielschichtigen Erzählung zeigt Shetterly ihr Können. Die Geschichte begeistert in allen Aspekten." Booklist

Legal Argumentation and Evidence

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Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048338

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 2206

A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.

Criminal Evidence

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Author: Jefferson L. Ingram

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1437735045

Category: Law

Page: 1040

View: 4269

Part of the John C. Klotter Justice Administration Legal Series, this revision presents the latest developments in the law of evidence that are of interest to criminal justice personnel. Highlights include: chapter outlines, lists of key terms and concepts for each chapter, a glossary, and new, up-to-date cases in Part II. Introduces the reader to the basics of collecting, preserving, and presenting evidence in a criminal court to convict the guilty and acquit the innocent. Highlights include: chapter outlines, lists of key terms and concepts for each chapter, briefs of judicial decisions, a glossary, appendices, and up-to-date table of cases. New eleventh edition presents the latest developments in the law of evidence that are of interest to criminal justice personnel. Student aids include chapter outlines, key terms and concepts lists, a glossary, a table of cases cited, and online case study questons. Professor resources are available on the publisher's homepage, and include Instructor's Guide, Test Bank, and Lecture PowerPoint Slides.

Knowing and the Mystique of Logic and Rules

including True Statements in Knowing and Action * Computer Modelling of Human Knowing Activity * Coherent Description as the Core of Scholarship and Science

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Author: P. Naur

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792336808

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 1935

Human knowing is examined as it emerges from classical empirical psychology, with its ramifications into language, computing, science, and scholarship. While the discussion takes empirical support from a wide range, claims for the significance of logic and rules are challenged throughout. Highlights of the discussion: knowing is a matter of habits or dispositions that guide the person's stream of consciousness; rules of language have no significance in language production and understanding, being descriptions of linguistic styles; statements that may be true or false enter into ordinary linguistic activity, not as elements of messages, but merely as summaries of situations, with a view to action; in computer programming the significance of logic, proof, and formalized description, is incidental and subject to the programmer's personality; analysis of computer modelling of the mental activity shows that in describing human knowing the computer is irrelevant; in accounting for the scholarly/scientific activity, logic and rules are impotent; a novel theory: scholarship and science have coherent descriptions as their core. The discussion addresses questions that are basic to advanced applications of computers and to students of language and science.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

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Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540251873

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 4459

Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.

Presumption and the Practices of Tentative Cognition

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Author: Nicholas Rescher

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139457187

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 8569

Presumption is a remarkably versatile and pervasively useful resource. Firmly grounded in the law of evidence from its origins in classical antiquity, it made its way in the days of medieval scholasticism into the theory and practice of disputation and debate. Subsequently, it extended its reach to play an increasingly significant role in the philosophical theory of knowledge. It has thus come to represent a region where lawyers, debaters, and philosophers can all find some common around. In Presumption and the Practices of Tentative Cognition, Nicholas Rescher endeavors to show that the process of presumption plays a role of virtually indispensable utility in matters of rational inquiry and communication. The origins of presumption may lie in law, but its importance is reinforced by its service to the theory of information management and philosophy.

The Law-Science Chasm

Bridging Law's Disaffection with Science as Evidence

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Author: Cedric Charles Gilson

Publisher: Quid Pro Books

ISBN: 1610271459

Category: Law

Page: 238

View: 8765

"THE LAW-SCIENCE CHASM" is a socio-legal study that takes seriously the varying approaches to science that physicians and scientists use, as compared to legal actors such as judges and lawyers. Offering a way to mediate and translate their different perspectives and assumptions, Gilson uses sociological and philosophical methodologies to explain each discipline to the other. "Gilson's book takes seriously the idea of the autopoietic closure of society's communicative subsystems and works out the consequences in particular for science and law. This analysis both lends support to the credibility of the approach adopted and sheds light on the problems and the direction in which potential solutions might lie.... The book consequently makes an important contribution not only to the literature dealing with the relationship between science and law but also to the literature dealing with the application of autopoietic systems theory to tangible concerns. This book is therefore of clear significance to those continuing to wrestle with the challenges thrown up by science for law and policy even when the spotlight of public attention is directed elsewhere." -- JOHN PATERSON, Professor of Law, University of Aberdeen (from the Foreword) Part of the new "Dissertation Series" from Quid Pro Books.

The God of Covenant and Creation

Scientific Naturalism and its Challenge to the Christian Faith

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Author: Larry S. Chapp

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0567595277

Category: Religion

Page: 304

View: 3570

A new exciting attempt to reconcile theology and science in a contemporara "theology of nature".

Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert

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Author: Thomas Piketty

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406671322

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 816

View: 1495

Wie entstehen die Akkumulation und die Distribution von Kapital? Welche Dynamiken sind dafür maßgeblich? Fragen der langfristigen Evolution von Ungleichheit, der Konzentration von Wohlstand in wenigen Händen und nach den Chancen für ökonomisches Wachstum bilden den Kern der Politischen Ökonomie. Aber befriedigende Antworten darauf gab es bislang kaum, weil aussagekräftige Daten und eine überzeugende Theorie fehlten. In Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert analysiert Thomas Piketty ein beeindruckendes Datenmaterial aus 20 Ländern, zurückgehend bis ins 18. Jahrhundert, um auf dieser Basis die entscheidenden ökonomischen und sozialen Abläufe freizulegen. Seine Ergebnisse stellen die Debatte auf eine neue Grundlage und definieren zugleich die Agenda für das künftige Nachdenken über Wohlstand und Ungleichheit. Piketty zeigt uns, dass das ökonomische Wachstum in der Moderne und die Verbreitung des Wissens es uns ermöglicht haben, den Ungleichheiten in jenem apokalyptischen Ausmaß zu entgehen, das Karl Marx prophezeit hatte. Aber wir haben die Strukturen von Kapital und Ungleichheit andererseits nicht so tiefgreifend modifiziert, wie es in den prosperierenden Jahrzehnten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg den Anschein hatte. Der wichtigste Treiber der Ungleichheit – nämlich die Tendenz von Kapitalgewinnen, die Wachstumsrate zu übertreffen – droht heute extreme Ungleichheiten hervorzubringen, die am Ende auch den sozialen Frieden gefährden und unsere demokratischen Werte in Frage stellen. Doch ökonomische Trends sind keine Gottesurteile. Politisches Handeln hat gefährliche Ungleichheiten in der Vergangenheit korrigiert, so Piketty, und kann das auch wieder tun.

Digital Archaeology

The Art and Science of Digital Forensics

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Author: Michael W Graves

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 0132853795

Category: Computers

Page: 600

View: 6011

The Definitive, Up-to-Date Guide to Digital Forensics The rapid proliferation of cyber crime is increasing the demand for digital forensics experts in both law enforcement and in the private sector. In Digital Archaeology, expert practitioner Michael Graves has written the most thorough, realistic, and up-to-date guide to the principles and techniques of modern digital forensics. Graves begins by providing a solid understanding of the legal underpinnings of and critical laws affecting computer forensics, including key principles of evidence and case law. Next, he explains how to systematically and thoroughly investigate computer systems to unearth crimes or other misbehavior, and back it up with evidence that will stand up in court. Drawing on the analogy of archaeological research, Graves explains each key tool and method investigators use to reliably uncover hidden information in digital systems. His detailed demonstrations often include the actual syntax of command-line utilities. Along the way, he presents exclusive coverage of facilities management, a full chapter on the crucial topic of first response to a digital crime scene, and up-to-the-minute coverage of investigating evidence in the cloud. Graves concludes by presenting coverage of important professional and business issues associated with building a career in digital forensics, including current licensing and certification requirements. Topics Covered Include Acquiring and analyzing data in ways consistent with forensic procedure Recovering and examining e-mail, Web, and networking activity Investigating users’ behavior on mobile devices Overcoming anti-forensics measures that seek to prevent data capture and analysis Performing comprehensive electronic discovery in connection with lawsuits Effectively managing cases and documenting the evidence you find Planning and building your career in digital forensics Digital Archaeology is a key resource for anyone preparing for a career as a professional investigator; for IT professionals who are sometimes called upon to assist in investigations; and for those seeking an explanation of the processes involved in preparing an effective defense, including how to avoid the legally indefensible destruction of digital evidence.

21 Lektionen für das 21. Jahrhundert

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406727794

Category: History

Page: 459

View: 9057

Yuval Noah Harari ist der Weltstar unter den Historikern. In «Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit» erzählte er vom Aufstieg des Homo Sapiens zum Herrn der Welt. In «Homo Deus» ging es um die Zukunft unserer Spezies. Sein neues Buch schaut auf das Hier und Jetzt und konfrontiert uns mit den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit. Wie unterscheiden wir Wahrheit und Fiktion im Zeitalter der Fake News? Was sollen wir unseren Kindern beibringen? Wie können wir in unserer unübersichtlichen Welt moralisch handeln? Wie bewahren wir Freiheit und Gleichheit im 21. Jahrhundert? Seit Jahrtausenden hat die Menschheit über den Fragen gebrütet, wer wir sind und was wir mit unserem Leben anfangen sollen. Doch jetzt setzen uns die heraufziehende ökologische Krise, die wachsende Bedrohung durch Massenvernichtungswaffen und der Aufstieg neuer disruptiver Technologien unter Zeitdruck. Bald schon wird irgendjemand darüber entscheiden müssen, wie wir die Macht nutzen, die künstliche Intelligenz und Biotechnologie bereit halten. Dieses Buch will möglichst viele Menschen dazu anregen, sich an den großen Debatten unserer Zeit zu beteiligen, damit die Antworten nicht von den blinden Kräften des Marktes gegeben werden.

Acting under Uncertainty

Multidisciplinary Conceptions

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Author: George M. von Furstenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401578737

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 486

View: 7433

Uncertainty could be associated with wisdom, enterprise, and discovery. In ordinary speech, however, it has mostly negative connotations. There is "fear of the unknown" and "ignorance is bliss;" there are maxims to the effect that "what you don't know doesn't hurt you" (or: "bother you") in several languages. This volume suggests that we need be bothered by the excessive confidence with which scientists, particularly social scientists, present some of their conclusions and overstate their range of application. Otherwise many of the questions that should be raised about all the major uncertainties attending a particular issue routinely may continue to be thwarted or suppressed. Down playing uncertainty does not lead to more responsible or surer action, it sidetracks research agendas, and leaves the decision makers exposed to nasty surprise. This volume demonstrates that recognizing the many forms of uncertainty that enter into the development of any particular subject matter is a precondition for more responsible choice and deeper knowledge. Our purpose is to contribute to a broader appreciation of uncertainty than regularly accorded in any of the numerous disciplines represented here. The seventeenth-century French philosopher Descartes, quoted in this volume, wrote that "whoever is searching after truth must, once in his life, doubt all things; insofar as this is possible. " White areas left on maps of the world in past centuries were a much more productive challenge than marking the end of the known world with the pillars of Hercules.

Representation and Productive Ambiguity in Mathematics and the Sciences

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Author: Emily R. Grosholz

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191538515

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 8853

Emily Grosholz offers an original investigation of demonstration in mathematics and science, examining how it works and why it is persuasive. Focusing on geometrical demonstration, she shows the roles that representation and ambiguity play in mathematical discovery. She presents a wide range of case studies in mechanics, topology, algebra, logic, and chemistry, from ancient Greece to the present day, but focusing particularly on the seventeenth and twentieth centuries. She argues that reductive methods are effective not because they diminish but because they multiply and juxtapose modes of representation. Such problem-solving is, she argues, best understood in terms of Leibnizian 'analysis' - the search for conditions of intelligibility. Discovery and justification are then two aspects of one rational way of proceeding, which produces the mathematician's formal experience. Grosholz defends the importance of iconic, as well as symbolic and indexical, signs in mathematical representation, and argues that pragmatic, as well as syntactic and semantic, considerations are indispensable for mathematical reasoning. By taking a close look at the way results are presented on the page in mathematical (and biological, chemical, and mechanical) texts, she shows that when two or more traditions combine in the service of problem solving, notations and diagrams are sublty altered, multiplied, and juxtaposed, and surrounded by prose in natural language which explains the novel combination. Viewed this way, the texts yield striking examples of language and notation that are irreducibly ambiguous and productive because they are ambiguous. Grosholtz's arguments, which invoke Descartes, Locke, Hume, and Kant, will be of considerable interest to philosophers and historians of mathematics and science, and also have far-reaching consequences for epistemology and philosophy of language.