A Physical Introduction


Author: Keith R. Dyer

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited


Category: Science

Page: 195

View: 4491

Estuaries is a comprehensive introductory text emphasizing the physical processes involved in the mixing of sea and river water and the transport of fine sediments within the complex estuarine topographic context. The theoretical and mathematical formulation of these processes are treated at a fairly elementary level, and are used to develop a foundation for more extensive study. The second edition retains the classical approaches to the tidally averaged circulation and mixing conditions but broadens them to consider recent advances in the understanding of processes occurring within the tide. The scope has also been widened to include more detail on the morphology of estuaries and their development, the fluxes of suspended fine sediments, and the generation and maintenance of turbidity maximum. The book provides an excellent introduction for research students in oceanography, environmental science, geography, geology, and water and coastal engineering. It will also be useful as a reference book for those working in water quality, morphological modelling and estuarine environmental management.

Fundamentals of Estuarine Physical Oceanography


Author: Luiz Bruner de Miranda,Fernando Pinheiro Andutta,Björn Kjerfve,Belmiro Mendes de Castro Filho

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811030413

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 7796

This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

Salt Intrusion, Tides and Mixing in Multi-Channel Estuaries

PhD: UNESCO-IHE Institute, Delft


Author: Anh Duc Nguyen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439828342

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 3757

Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps in multi-channel estuaries by developing a predictive analytical approach for salinity intrusion and discharge estimate in multi-channel estuaries. The new approach agrees well with 1-D hydrodynamic models and observations, indicating its applicability in practice. Most importantly, the study has successfully developed a new theory and a new equation to quantify tidal pumping due to ebb-flood channel residual circulation and the related salt dispersion.

Physical Processes in Estuaries


Author: Job Dronkers,Wim van Leussen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642736912

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 442

In Physical Processes in Estuaries the present day knowledge of the physics of transport phenomena in estuaries and their mathematical treatment is summarized: It is divided into following parts: - Water movements in estuaries - Estuarine fronts and river plumes - Internal waves and interface stability - Fine sediment transport, aggregation of particles, settling velocity of mud flocs - Sedimentation and erosion of fine sediments. For each topic an up-to-date review and recommendations for future research are given, followed by results of original studies. Since estuarine environments are the first to be threatened by urbanization and industrial exploitation this book is an important tool for students and researchers of environmental problems as well as for consultants and water authorities.

Salinity and Tides in Alluvial Estuaries


Author: H.H.G. Savenije

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080461618

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 3489

The book describes an integrated theory that links estuary shape to tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion. The shape of an alluvial estuary is characterised by exponentially varying width and the absence of bottom slope. This topography is closely related to tidal parameters, hydraulic parameters and parameters that describe 1-dimensional mixing and salt intrusion. Starting from the fundamental equations for conservation of mass and momentum, analytical equations are derived that relate the topography to tidal parameters (tidal excursion, phase lag, tidal damping, tidal amplification), wave celerity, lateral and vertical mixing and salt intrusion. The book presents a review of the state of the art, a comprehensive theoretical background and ample case illustrations from all over the world. It provides tools with which human interference in estuary dynamics can be described and predicted, resulting from, for instance: upstream fresh water abstraction, dredging, climate change or sea-level rise. In describing the interactions between tide, topography, water quality and river discharge, it provides useful information for hydraulic engineers, morphologists, ecologists and people concerned with water quality in alluvial estuaries. Although the book can be used as a text book, it is mainly a monograph aimed at graduate students and researchers. * Provides new integrated theory for tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries * Presents a consistent set of analytical equations to compute tidal movement, tidal mixing and salt intrusion, derived from the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and momentum * Serves as a practical guide with many illustrations of applications in real estuaries

A Rehabilitated Estuarine Ecosystem

The environment and ecology of the Thames Estuary


Author: Martin J. Attrill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412496806

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 3866

Jim Green 1.1 THE THAMES ESTUARY:A PERSONAL VIEW For almost 50 years I have lived close to the Thames estuary (Figure 1.1). In the early 1950s, from our flat in Pimlico, we could walk along the embankment opposite Battersea Power Station. At low tide, the exposed mud had large red patches caused by the haemoglobin in innumerable tubificid worms. These formed the basis of a minor trade. Men with waders and sieves would collect the worms and sell them to the aquarium trade as food for fishes.The superabundance of these worms depended on the gross organic pollution of this reach of the Thames. Towards the end of the 1950s we moved to Teddington, within a few minutes' walk from the lock. Casual observation of the birds on the river indicates an increase in the piscivores over the last 20 years.Cormorants tPhalacrocorax carbo) are regularly seen, and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) are more abundant. On a good day it is possible to see up to eight herons around the weir and below the lock. Another bird that is now common­ place in the area is the great-crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus).The regular mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)are some­ times joined by tufted duck (Aythafuligula)and mandarin (Aixgalericulata).

Descriptive physical oceanography

an introduction


Author: George L. Pickard,William J. Emery

Publisher: Pergamon

ISBN: 9780080262796

Category: Science

Page: 249

View: 5542

Estuarine Science

A Synthetic Approach to Research and Practice


Author: John E. Hobbie

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559637008

Category: Nature

Page: 539

View: 4650

Estuaries are the point of convergence for almost the entire array of coastal and ocean environmental issues. Management of these rapidly changing environments requires a whole-system perspective that includes integration of all available knowledge of the ecology, chemistry, and physics of estuaries. Yet estuarine research has been primarily short-term and site-specific, providing few insights that can be generalized and applied to a broader understanding of these complex ecosystems. Estuarine Science addresses that problem by presenting examples of synthetic approaches to estuarine science. Leading scientists -- including Donald F. Boesch, W. Rockwell Geyer, Nancy Rabalais, Charles A. Simenstad, and many others -- offer twelve chapters that report on different types of ecological synthesis and summarize the current state of scientific knowledge. Additional chapters examine the adequacy of existing synthesis, and the data and models required for improving the scientific management of estuaries in the coming decade.Each of the book's five sections introduces a major area of estuarine syntheses; highlights key problems about that topic; reports case histories of successful synthesis; and recommends types of data to collect, processes to study, and models to build for a predictive understanding. Sections examine: inputs to estuaries of water, sediment, and nutrients from the drainage basin the coupling of estuarine physics with biogeochemistry and ecology the biogeochemical process in estuaries and their linkages to the food web controls on the distribution and abundance of organisms in the estuary the need for synthesis that would directly improve the scientific management of estuariesEstuarine Science synthesizes what has been learned from the intensive research in many different estuarine projects around the country. It will be an essential work for professional scientists and graduate students working in coastal or estuarine research, as well as for managers, planners and environmentalists involved with coastal and estuarine issues.

Estuarine Ecology of the Southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico


Author: Robert R. Stickney

Publisher: Texas A & M University Press


Category: Nature

Page: 310

View: 5977

Many thousands of Americans in such cities as Miami, New Orleans, Galveston, and Corpus Christi live near an estuary, one of nature’s most intriguing ecosystems. But the same citizens who depend on a neighboring estuary for fresh shrimp or who visit it on a Sunday outing often know little about the physical makeup of estuaries and their contributions to the quality of human life. In this comprehensive study, Robert Stickney examines the physical, chemical, geological, and biological characteristics of estuaries, coastal regions where fresh water and seawater intermingle. This book, the first to bring together data on estuarine ecology in the region of interest, will provide a benchmark for future studies of estuaries and their mysteries and will be invaluable to aquatic ecologists, nonbiological oceanographers and limnologists, and interested laymen. Its storehouse of technical information will assure it a continuing place in the literature of estuarine ecology.

Rivers of the United States, Estuaries


Author: Ruth Patrick

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471303459

Category: Nature

Page: 825

View: 2957

Volume I includes information on tides and other energy sources, sediment distribution and dynamics, nutrient cycling, ecology, aquatic communities, species (flora and fauna), habitats, and productivity. Volume II covers weathering, erosion, drainage classification, principal river basins (with area, flow, and discharge statistics), effects of climate, (precipitation and runoff) hydrology, organic carbon, equilibrium in groundwater, and trace metals.

Dispersion in Estuaries and Coastal Waters


Author: Roy Lewis

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471961628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 3974

Dispersion in Estuaries and Coastal Waters describes the physical processes which result in the dilution of a substance in the marine environment. The emphasis is mainly on the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion and the occurrence of these processes in estuaries and coastal waters Aspects of the present understanding of fluid dynamics in homogenous and stratified flows are discussed, with particular reference to the relevance of flow conditions to the turbulent state. The book describes how the associated dispersion processes are represented in mathematical models to quantify dilution in marine systems and the experimental techniques used to derive the mixing parameters required for the models. Concluding by discussing the application of the concepts of dispersion in well mixed, stratified and partially mixed systems, Dispersion in Estuaries and Coastal Waters acts as an excellent guide book for those needing to solve practical problems relating to marine dispersion. It also provides a useful review of dispersion as it cites key publications, both recent and long-standing, which are invaluable in interpreting and quantifying the dilution and fate of material in the marine environment.