Environmental Change in Mountains and Uplands

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Author: Martin Beniston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317836022

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 1849

Mountain environments are often perceived to be austere, isolated, and inhospitable. In fact, these areas are of immense value to mankind, providing direct life support to close to 10 percent of the world's population and sustaining a wide variety of species - many of which are endemic to this environment. 'Environmental Change in Mountains and Uplands' provides detailed account of the fragile and marginal physical and socio-economic systems which make up the world's mountain regions. Discussing the direct and indirect impacts of human interference on environmental ecosystems, it then turns to the social and economic consequences of such environmental change - both upon the mountain environment itself and upon the populations who depend on mountain resources for their economic sustenance. This book includes a review of possible implications for adaption and mitigation strategies in a global context. Working within a broad temporal scale, it draws upon paleoenvironmental records to document past changes which have occured in the absence of major anthropogenic influences, as well as utilising modelling as a means to assessing future environmental change.

Drivers of Environmental Change in Uplands

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Author: Aletta Bonn,Tim Allott,Klaus Hubacek,Jon Stewart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134061641

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 544

View: 2663

The uplands are a crucial source of ecosystem services, such as water provision, carbon retention, maintenance of biodiversity, provision of recreation value and cultural heritage. This puts them in the focus of both environmental and social scientists as well as practitioners and land managers.. This volume brings together a wealth of knowledge of the British uplands from diverse but interrelated fields of study, clearly demonstrating their importance in 21st Century Britain, and indicating how we may through interdisciplinary approaches meet the challenges provided by past and future drivers of environmental change. The upland environments are subject to change. They face imminent threats as well as opportunities from pressures such as climate change, changes in land management and related changes in fire risk, increases in erosion and water colour, degradation of habitats, altered wildlife and recreational value, as well as significant changes in the economy of these marginal areas. This book presents up-to-date scientific background information, addresses policy related issues and lays out pressing land management questions. A number of world-class experts provide a review of cutting-edge natural and social science and an assessment of past, current and potential future management strategies, policies and other drivers of change. After appraisal of key concepts and principles, chapters provide specific examples and applications by focussing on UK upland areas and specifically the Peak District National Park as a key example for other highly valuable upland regions.

Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests

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Author: Roy C. Sidle

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 0851995985

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 5777

This book reviews current knowledge of most types of geohazards in forested areas. The 11 chapters cover hydrologic impacts, including flooding and soil erosion, desertification in Mediterranean Europe and Africa, landslides, and hazards in mangrove forests and along shorelines. Examples covered are from all five continents.

Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

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Author: Münir Öztürk,Khalid Rehman Hakeem,I. Faridah-Hanum,Recep Efe

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319128590

Category: Nature

Page: 696

View: 3310

This book covers studies on the systematics of plant taxa and will include general vegetational aspects and ecological characteristics of plant life at altitudes above 1000 m. from different parts of the world. This volume also addresses how upcoming climate change scenarios will impact high altitude plant life. It presents case studies from the most important mountainous areas like the Himalayas, Caucasus and South America covering the countries like Malaysia, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kirghizia, Georgia, Russia,Turkey, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Americas. The book will serve as an invaluable resource source undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

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Author: Henry F. Diaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512523

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 3396

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

Drivers of Environmental Change in Uplands

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Author: Aletta Bonn,Tim Allott,Klaus Hubacek,Jon Stewart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134061641

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 544

View: 8645

The uplands are a crucial source of ecosystem services, such as water provision, carbon retention, maintenance of biodiversity, provision of recreation value and cultural heritage. This puts them in the focus of both environmental and social scientists as well as practitioners and land managers.. This volume brings together a wealth of knowledge of the British uplands from diverse but interrelated fields of study, clearly demonstrating their importance in 21st Century Britain, and indicating how we may through interdisciplinary approaches meet the challenges provided by past and future drivers of environmental change. The upland environments are subject to change. They face imminent threats as well as opportunities from pressures such as climate change, changes in land management and related changes in fire risk, increases in erosion and water colour, degradation of habitats, altered wildlife and recreational value, as well as significant changes in the economy of these marginal areas. This book presents up-to-date scientific background information, addresses policy related issues and lays out pressing land management questions. A number of world-class experts provide a review of cutting-edge natural and social science and an assessment of past, current and potential future management strategies, policies and other drivers of change. After appraisal of key concepts and principles, chapters provide specific examples and applications by focussing on UK upland areas and specifically the Peak District National Park as a key example for other highly valuable upland regions.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

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Author: Henry F. Diaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402013867

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 2130

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

The Royal Colloquium

Mountain Areas, a Global Resource

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Author: Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademien

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biodiversity

Page: 56

View: 1174

Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

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Author: Uli M. Huber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402035067

Category: Nature

Page: 650

View: 4803

Enviroment, mountain biodiversity, ecological changes.

Climate Change in Deserts

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Author: Martin Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107016916

Category: Science

Page: 616

View: 4780

A synthesis of the environmental and climatic history of every major desert and desert margin, for researchers and advanced students.

Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309256224

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

View: 2984

Extensively modified over the last century and a half, California's San Francisco Bay Delta Estuary remains biologically diverse and functions as a central element in California's water supply system. Uncertainties about the future, actions taken under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and companion California statues, and lawsuits have led to conflict concerning the timing and amount of water that can be diverted from the Delta for agriculture, municipal, and industrial purposes and concerning how much water is needed to protect the Delta ecosystem and its component species. Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta focuses on scientific questions, assumptions, and conclusions underlying water-management alternatives and reviews the initial public draft of the Bay Delta Conservation Plan in terms of adequacy of its use of science and adaptive management. In addition, this report identifies the factors that may be contributing to the decline of federally listed species, recommend future water-supple and delivery options that reflect proper consideration of climate change and compatibility with objectives of maintaining a sustainable Bay-Delta ecosystem, advises what degree of restoration of the Delta system is likely to be attainable, and provides metrics that can be used by resource managers to measure progress toward restoration goals.

Key Issues for Mountain Areas

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Author: Martin F. Price,Libor Jansky,Andrei A. Iatsenia

Publisher: United Nations University Press

ISBN: 9280811029

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 273

View: 3874

Mountain areas cover a quarter of the Earth's land surface, with 26 percent of the global population living in them or very close by.Mountain people and mountain environments are particularly threatened by global environmental change and economic and political forces. A disproportionate number of conflicts occur in mountain regions, and their inhabitants include many of the poorest and most vulnerable in the world.How can we preserve fragile mountain ecosystems that provide critical goods and services, while improving the conditions of those who live there? This book explores these issues, with particular emphasis on appropriate institutions and policies for sustainable mountain development. The book includes information from the Bishkek Global Mountain Summit, the concluding global event of the International Year of Mountains 2002.

Climate Change Science:

An Analysis of Some Key Questions

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Author: Committee on the Science of Climate Change,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309075742

Category: Science

Page: 42

View: 9528

The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity.

Shifting Cultivation and Environmental Change

Indigenous People, Agriculture and Forest Conservation

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Author: Malcolm F. Cairns

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317750187

Category: Nature

Page: 1058

View: 1460

Shifting cultivation is one of the oldest forms of subsistence agriculture and is still practised by millions of poor people in the tropics. Typically it involves clearing land (often forest) for the growing of crops for a few years, and then moving on to new sites, leaving the earlier ground fallow to regain its soil fertility. This book brings together the best of science and farmer experimentation, vividly illustrating the enormous diversity of shifting cultivation systems as well as the power of human ingenuity. Some critics have tended to disparage shifting cultivation (sometimes called 'swidden cultivation' or 'slash-and-burn agriculture') as unsustainable due to its supposed role in deforestation and land degradation. However, the book shows that such indigenous practices, as they have evolved over time, can be highly adaptive to land and ecology. In contrast, 'scientific' agricultural solutions imposed from outside can be far more damaging to the environment and local communities. The book focuses on successful agricultural strategies of upland farmers, particularly in south and south-east Asia, and presents over 50 contributions by scholars from around the world and from various disciplines, including agricultural economics, ecology and anthropology. It is a sequel to the much praised "Voices from the Forest: Integrating Indigenous Knowledge into Sustainable Upland Farming" (RFF Press, 2007), but all chapters are completely new and there is a greater emphasis on the contemporary challenges of climate change and biodiversity conservation.

Redefining Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Resources Management in Asia, Volume 2

Upland Natural Resources and Social Ecological Systems in Northern Vietnam

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Author: Ganesh Shivakoti,Mai Van Thanh,Tran Duc Vien,Stephen J Leisz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128104724

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 7163

Redefining Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Resources Management in Southeast Asia, Volumes 1-4 brings together scientific research and policy issues across various topographical areas in Asia to provide a comprehensive overview of the issues facing the region. Upland Natural Resources and Social Ecological Systems in Northern Vietnam, Volume 2, provides chapters on natural resource management in northern Vietnam tied together by the concept that participatory local involvement is needed in all aspects of natural resource management. The volume examines planning for climate change, managing forestland, alleviating food shortages, living with biodiversity, and assessing the development projects and policies being implemented. Without the involvement of local communities, households, and ultimately individual people, the needed action will not be effectively taken. Upland Natural Resources and Social Ecological Systems in Northern Vietnam, Volume 2, goes beyond just Northern Vietnam to address the issue of transboundary natural resource management—an issue that Vietnam is dealing with in its relations with northern neighbor, China, and western neighbor, Laos—as well as the transboundary water governance between Pakistan and India in south Asia, with the hope that some of the lessons learned may one day be useful in the case of Vietnam and its neighbors. Provides a multi-disciplinary case study into a complex environmental situation involving government institutions, planning, and practices, using northern Vietnam as the focus Covers the issues of natural resource management and biodiversity in depth using international case studies Provides examples of measuring the potential climate change impacts on food security in agricultural regions Examines topics such as planning for climate change, managing forestland, alleviating food shortages, living with biodiversity, and assessing development projects and policies

History and Climate Change

A Eurocentric Perspective

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Author: Neville Brown

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134977581

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 6215

History and Climate Change is a balanced and comprehensive overview of the links between climate and man's advance from early to modern times. It draws upon demographic, economic, urban, religious and military perspectives. It is a synthesis of the many historical and scientific theories, which have arisen regarding man's progress through the ages. Central to the book is the question of whether climate variation is a fundamental trigger mechanism from which other historical sequences develop, or one amongst a number of other factors, decisive only when a regime/society is poised for change. Evidence for prolonged climate change is not that extensive. But it is clear that climatic variation has regularly played a part in historical development. Paricular attention is here paid to Europe since AD 211. Cold and warmth, wetness and aridity can create contrary reactions within societies, which can be interpreted in vary different ways by scholars from differenct disciplines. Does climate change exacerbate famine and epidemics? Did climate fluctuation play a part in pivotal historical events such as the mass exodus of Hsuing-nu from China, the pressure of the Huns on the Romans and the genesis of the Crusades? Did the bitter Finnish winter of 1939-40 ensure the ultimate defeat of Hitler? These episodes, and many others are discussed throughout the book in the authors distinctive style, with maps and photographs to illustrate the examples given.