Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on the Science of Team Science

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309316855

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 6160

The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale and complexity of scientific research. The growing scale of science has been accompanied by a shift toward collaborative research, referred to as "team science." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving their scientific goals. How does a team-based approach work, and how can universities and research institutions support teams? Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students.

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science

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Author: Committee on the Science of Team Science,National Research Council,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780309316828

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 3404

The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale and complexity of scientific research. The growing scale of science has been accompanied by a shift toward collaborative research, referred to as "team science." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving their scientific goals. How does a team-based approach work, and how can universities and research institutions support teams? "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science" synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science" will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students.

The Strength in Numbers

The New Science of Team Science

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Author: Barry Bozeman,Jan Youtie

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888611

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 4887

Once upon a time, it was the lone scientist who achieved brilliant breakthroughs. No longer. Today, science is done in teams of as many as hundreds of researchers who may be scattered across continents and represent a range of hierarchies. These collaborations can be powerful, but they demand new ways of thinking about scientific research. When three hundred people make a discovery, who gets credit? How can all collaborators’ concerns be adequately addressed? Why do certain STEM collaborations succeed while others fail? Focusing on the nascent science of team science,The Strength in Numbers synthesizes the results of the most far-reaching study to date on collaboration among university scientists to provide answers to such questions. Drawing on a national survey with responses from researchers at more than one hundred universities, anonymous web posts, archival data, and extensive interviews with active scientists and engineers in over a dozen STEM disciplines, Barry Bozeman and Jan Youtie set out a framework to characterize different types of collaboration and their likely outcomes. They also develop a model to define research effectiveness, which assesses factors internal and external to collaborations. They advance what they have found to be the gold standard of science collaborations: consultative collaboration management. This strategy—which codifies methods of consulting all team members on a study’s key points and incorporates their preferences and values—empowers managers of STEM collaborations to optimize the likelihood of their effectiveness. The Strength in Numbers is a milestone in the science of team science and an indispensable guide for scientists interested in maximizing collaborative success.

The New ABCs of Research

Achieving Breakthrough Collaborations

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Author: Ben Shneiderman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191076651

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 2987

The problems we face in the 21st century require innovative thinking from all of us. Be it students, academics, business researchers of government policy makers. Hopes for improving our healthcare, food supply, community safety and environmental sustainability depend on the pervasive application of research solutions. The research heroes who take on the immense problems of our time face bigger than ever challenges, but if they adopt potent guiding principles and effective research lifecycle strategies, they can produce the advances that will enhance the lives of many people. These inspirational research leaders will break free from traditional thinking, disciplinary boundaries, and narrow aspirations. They will be bold innovators and engaged collaborators, who are ready to lead, yet open to new ideas, self-confident, yet empathetic to others. In this book, Ben Shneiderman recognizes the unbounded nature of human creativity, the multiplicative power of teamwork, and the catalytic effects of innovation. He reports on the growing number of initiatives to promote more integrated approaches to research so as to promote the expansion of these efforts. It is meant as a guide to students and junior researchers, as well as a manifesto for senior researchers and policy makers, challenging widely-held beliefs about how applied innovations evolve and how basic breakthroughs are made, and helping to plot the course towards tomorrow's great advancements.

Science of Science and Innovation Policy

Principal Investigators' Conference Summary

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Steering Committee on the Science of Science and Innovation Policy Principal Investigatorsââ'¬â"¢ Conference

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309302730

Category: Political Science

Page: 126

View: 5141

The National Science Foundation developed the Science of Science and Innovation Policy program (SciSIP) in 2006 to fund basic and applied research that bears on and can help guide public- and private-sector policy making for science and innovation. By design, SciSIP has engaged researchers from many domains in the development of a community of practice who work together to continually develop frameworks, tools, and datasets for implementing science and innovation policy. Since its inception, the SciSIP program has funded more than 150 researchers and their graduate students. The program also contributed to the initiation of the STAR METRICS (Science and Technology for America's Reinvestment: Measuring the Effect of Research on Innovation, Competitiveness and Science) program, a collaborative effort between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The STAR METRICS program develops tools and mechanisms for measuring federal expenditures on scientific activities, with particular focus on quantifying productivity and employment outcomes. Science of Science and Innovation Policy summarizes a public conference convened by the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council to present research funded by SciSIP and foster intellectual exchange among funded researchers, science, technology, and innovation policy practitioners, and other members of the science community. The conference highlighted advances in the emerging field of the science of science and innovation policy, in particular, models, frameworks, tools, and datasets comprising the evidentiary basis for science and innovation policy. This report focuses on return on investment models; organizational structures that foster accelerated scientific productivity; linkages between commercialized scientific knowledge and job creation; the roles of universities and government in technology transfer and innovation; technology diffusion and economic growth; non-economic impacts of science and innovation expenditures; regional and global networks of knowledge generation and innovation; mechanisms for encouraging creativity and measuring outputs and outcomes from transformative research; and development, manipulation and visualization of data representing scientific activities.

Enhancing Communication & Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research

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Author: Michael O'Rourke,Stephen Crowley,Sanford D. Eigenbrode,J. D. Wulfhorst

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483323110

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 6781

Enhancing Communication & Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research, edited by Michael O'Rourke, Stephen Crowley, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, and J. D. Wulfhorst, is a volume of previously unpublished, state-of-the-art chapters on interdisciplinary communication and collaboration written by leading figures and promising junior scholars in the world of interdisciplinary research, education, and administration. Designed to inform both teaching and research, this innovative book covers the spectrum of interdisciplinary activity, offering a timely emphasis on collaborative interdisciplinary work. The book’s four main parts focus on theoretical perspectives, case studies, communication tools, and institutional perspectives, while a final chapter ties together the various strands that emerge in the book and defines trend-lines and future research questions for those conducting work on interdisciplinary communication.

Convergence

Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Key Challenge Areas for Convergence and Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309301645

Category: Political Science

Page: 152

View: 2118

Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and implementation challenges in areas such as infrastructure, student education and training, faculty advancement, and inter-institutional partnerships.

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

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Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165488

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 2205

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee’s surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.

Resident Duty Hours:

Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

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Author: Committee on Optimizing Graduate Medical Trainee (Resident) Hours and Work Schedule to Improve Patient Safety,Institute of Medicine,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309127769

Category: Medical

Page: 428

View: 9724

Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect patients and residents from unsafe conditions resulting from excessive fatigue. Resident Duty Hours provides a timely examination of how those requirements were implemented and their impact on safety, education, and the training institutions. An in-depth review of the evidence on sleep and human performance indicated a need to increase opportunities for sleep during residency training to prevent acute and chronic sleep deprivation and minimize the risk of fatigue-related errors. In addition to recommending opportunities for on-duty sleep during long duty periods and breaks for sleep of appropriate lengths between work periods, the committee also recommends enhancements of supervision, appropriate workload, and changes in the work environment to improve conditions for safety and learning. All residents, medical educators, those involved with academic training institutions, specialty societies, professional groups, and consumer/patient safety organizations will find this book useful to advocate for an improved culture of safety.

Personality and the Fate of Organizations

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Author: Robert Hogan

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1351554492

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 178

View: 2329

Personality and performance are intricately linked, and personality has proven to have a direct influence on an individual's leadership ability and style, team performance, and overall organizational effectiveness. In Personality and the Fate of Organizations, author Robert Hogan offers a systematic account of the nature of personality, showing how to use personality to understand organizations and to understand, evaluate, select, deselect, and train people. This book brings insights from a leading industrial organizational psychologist who asserts that personality is real, and that it determines the careers of individuals and the fate of organizations. The author’s goal is to increase the reader’s ability to understand other people—how they are alike, how they are different, and why they do what they do. Armed with this understanding, readers will be able to pursue their personal, social, and organizational goals more efficiently. A practical reference, this text is extremely useful for MBA students and for all those studying organizational psychology and leadership.

The Art and Science of Teaching

A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction

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Author: Robert J. Marzano

Publisher: ASCD

ISBN: 1416605711

Category: Education

Page: 221

View: 1867

The popular author of Classroom Instruction That Works discusses 10 questions that can help teachers sharpen their craft and do what really works for the particular students in their classroom.

Families Caring for an Aging America

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Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Care Services,Committee on Family Caregiving for Older Adults

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309448093

Category: Medical

Page: 366

View: 8692

Family caregiving affects millions of Americans every day, in all walks of life. At least 17.7 million individuals in the United States are caregivers of an older adult with a health or functional limitation. The nation’s family caregivers provide the lion’s share of long-term care for our older adult population. They are also central to older adults’ access to and receipt of health care and community-based social services. Yet the need to recognize and support caregivers is among the least appreciated challenges facing the aging U.S. population. Families Caring for an Aging America examines the prevalence and nature of family caregiving of older adults and the available evidence on the effectiveness of programs, supports, and other interventions designed to support family caregivers. This report also assesses and recommends policies to address the needs of family caregivers and to minimize the barriers that they encounter in trying to meet the needs of older adults.

Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers:

Potential Uses of Information Technology, Report of a Workshop

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Author: National Academies Teacher Advisory Council,Committee on Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers,Center for Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309111110

Category: Education

Page: 88

View: 2709

Teachers, like other professionals, need to stay informed about new knowledge and technologies. Yet many express dissatisfaction with the professional development opportunities made available to them in schools and insist that the most effective development programs they have experienced have been self-initiated. Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers explores how the provision of professional development through online media has had a significant influence on the professional lives of an increasing number of teachers. Growing numbers of educators contend that online teacher professional development (OTPD) has the potential to enhance and even transform teachers' effectiveness in their classrooms and over the course of their careers. They also acknowledge that it raises many challenging questions regarding costs, equity, access to technology, quality of materials, and other issues. Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers suggests that teachers be active participants in planning and implementation of any new technologies that enhance professional development. The book recommends that federal and state policy makers take on the responsibility of promoting equal access to technology while the federal government and foundations play an important role by supporting the development, evaluation, and revision of OTPD.

Handbook of Systems and Complexity in Health

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Author: Joachim P Sturmberg,Carmel Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461449987

Category: Medical

Page: 954

View: 577

This book is an introduction to health care as a complex adaptive system, a system that feeds back on itself. The first section introduces systems and complexity theory from a science, historical, epistemological, and technical perspective, describing the principles and mathematics. Subsequent sections build on the health applications of systems science theory, from human physiology to medical decision making, population health and health services research. The aim of the book is to introduce and expand on important population health issues from a systems and complexity perspective, highlight current research developments and their implications for health care delivery, consider their ethical implications, and to suggest directions for and potential pitfalls in the future.

Enhancing Organizational Performance

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Author: Daniel Druckman,Jerome E. Singer,Harold Van Cott

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 284

View: 4969

With examples, insights, and practical criteria, this volume reviews the most popular approaches to organizational change--total quality management, reengineering, and downsizing--in terms of how they affect organizations and people, how performance improvements can be measured, and what questions remain to be answered by researchers.

Social Ecology in the Digital Age

Solving Complex Problems in a Globalized World

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Author: Daniel Stokols

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012803114X

Category: Psychology

Page: 406

View: 307

Social Ecology in the Digital Age: Solving Complex Problems in a Globalized World provides a comprehensive overview of social ecological theory, research, and practice. Written by renowned expert Daniel Stokols, the book distills key principles from diverse strands of ecological science, offering a robust framework for transdisciplinary research and societal problem-solving. The existential challenges of the 21st Century - global climate change and climate-change denial, environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, food insecurity, disease pandemics, inter-ethnic violence and the threat of nuclear war, cybercrime, the Digital Divide, and extreme poverty and income inequality confronting billions each day - cannot be understood and managed adequately from narrow disciplinary or political perspectives. Social Ecology in the Digital Age is grounded in scientific research but written in a personal and informal style from the vantage point of a former student, current teacher and scholar who has contributed over four decades to the field of social ecology. The book will be of interest to scholars, students, educators, government leaders and community practitioners working in several fields including social and human ecology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, criminology, law, education, biology, medicine, public health, earth system and sustainability science, geography, environmental design, urban planning, informatics, public policy and global governance. The book traces historical origins and conceptual foundations of biological, human, and social ecology Offers a new conceptual framework that brings together earlier approaches to social ecology and extends them in novel directions Highlights the interrelations between four distinct but closely intertwined spheres of human environments: our natural, built, sociocultural, and virtual (cyber-based) surroundings Spans local to global scales and individual, organizational, community, regional, and global levels of analysis Applies core principles of social ecology to identify multi-level strategies for promoting personal and public health, resolving complex social problems, managing global environmental change, and creating resilient and sustainable communities Underscores social ecology’s vital importance for understanding and managing the environmental and political upheavals of the 21st Century Highlights descriptive, analytic, and transformative (or moral) concerns of social ecology Presents strategies for educating the next generation of social ecologists emphasizing transdisciplinary, team-based, translational, and transcultural approaches

Enhancing Learning and Teaching Through Student Feedback in Medical and Health Sciences

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Author: Chenicheri Sid Nair,Patricie Mertova

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1780634331

Category: Education

Page: 220

View: 2004

Student feedback has appeared in the forefront of higher education quality, in particular the issues of effectiveness and the use of student feedback to improve higher education teaching and learning, and other areas of student tertiary experience. Despite this, little academic literature has focussed on the experiences of academics, higher education leaders and managers. The final title in the Chandos Learning and Teaching Series to focus on student feedback, Enhancing Learning and Teaching through Student Feedback in the Medical and Health Sciences expands on topics covered in the previous publications, focussing on the medical and health science disciplines. This edited title includes contributions from experts in higher education quality, and student feedback from a range of countries, such as Australia, Europe, Canada, the USA, the UK, South East Asia and India. The book is concerned with the practices of evaluation and higher education quality in medical and health science disciplines, with particular focus on student feedback. The book begins by giving a discipline-specific overview of student feedback in medical and health sciences, before moving on to take a global perspective. The penultimate chapter considers the accountability of student evaluations in health and medical sciences, before a conclusion summarises the practices of student feedback and accountability in medical and health sciences, and suggests future improvements. Links student feedback in medical and health science disciplines to establishing a better understanding of its forms, purposes and effectiveness in learning Provides international perspectives on student feedback in medical and health sciences Compares student feedback with key examples of best practices and approaches to enhancing learning/teaching through student feedback in the medical and health sciences

Enhancing the Art & Science of Teaching With Technology

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Author: Sonny Magana,Robert J. Marzano

Publisher: Solution Tree Press

ISBN: 0985890258

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 7827

Successfully leverage technology to enhance classroom practices with this practical resource. The authors demonstrate the importance of educational technology, which is quickly becoming an essential component in effective teaching. Included are over 100 organized classroom strategies, vignettes that show each section’s strategies in action, and a glossary of classroom-relevant technology terms. Key research is summarized and translated into classroom recommendations.

Integrity in Scientific Research:

Creating an Environment That Promotes Responsible Conduct

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Author: Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Assessing Integrity in Research Environments,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309084792

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 345

"Many people say that it is the intellect which makes a great scientist. They are wrong: it is character." -- Albert Einstein Integrity in Scientific Research attempts to define and describe those elements that encourage individuals involved with scientific research to act with integrity. Recognizing the inconsistency of human behavior, it stresses the important role that research institutions play in providing an integrity--rich environment, citing the need for institutions to provide staff with training and education, policies and procedures, and tools and support systems. It identifies practices that characterize integrity in such areas as peer review and research on human subjects and weighs the strengths and limitations of self--evaluation efforts by these institutions. In addition, it details an approach to promoting integrity during the education of researchers, including how to develop an effective curriculum. Providing a framework for research and educational institutions, this important book will be essential for anyone concerned about ethics in the scientific community.