English as a Global Language

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Author: David Crystal

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107611806

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 212

View: 400

David Crystal's classic English as a Global Language considers the history, present status and future of the English language, focusing on its role as the leading international language. English has been deemed the most 'successful' language ever, with 1500 million speakers internationally, presenting a difficult task to those who wish to investigate it in its entirety. However, Crystal explores the subject in a measured but engaging way, always backing up observations with facts and figures. Written in a detailed and fascinating manner, this is a book written by an expert both for specialists in the subject and for general readers interested in the English language.

English as a Global Language in China

Deconstructing the Ideological Discourses of English in Language Education

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Author: Lin Pan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331910392X

Category: Education

Page: 189

View: 9114

This book offers insight into the spread and impact of English language education in China within China’s broader educational, social, economic and political changes. The author's critical perspective informs readers on the connections between language education and political ideologies in the context of globalizing China. The discussion of the implications concerning language education is of interest for current and future language policy makers, language educators and learners. Including both diachronic and synchronic accounts or China’s language education policy, this volume highlights how China as a modern nation-state has been seeking a more central position globally, and the role that English education and the promotion of such education played in that effort in recent decades.

The Colonial Expansion of English - English As a Global Language

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Author: Christina Boampong,Gergana Penova

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640555627

Category:

Page: 28

View: 2351

Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, University of Luneburg (Anglistik/Amerikanistik), course: History of English and English historical linguistics, language: English, abstract: English is the language of commerce and tourism, of international politics, of science, the official language of international and multinational companies and industries, the language of air traffic control, of international news agencies, of mass entertainment, of computers and of the Internet. It is assumed that about a quarter of the worlds population is already fluent or competent in English (that means around 1,5 billion people) and that there is a total of 75 territories where English has a special place in society. These regions can be divided according to the status they give English: Either they have English as a native language, as a second or official language or as a foreign language. This classification is visualized by the so-called Three-circle-model: The inner circle compromises those countries where English is the primary language of communication and is learnt as a native language by the majority of the population. It includes the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The outer or extended circle represents the countries where English plays an important role in a non-native setting. In many cases these are former British colonies where the English language is part of the countries leading institutions and of various other domains. This circle includes India, Malawi, Singapore and 50 other territories. The expanding circle involves those countries in which English is learnt as a lingua franca by many people. These countries neither have a history of colonization nor have they given English any administrative status. Such countries are Germany, Japan, Israel and a growing number of other states. Fennel (2004) divides the global spreading of English that ha"

English as a Global Language - Killer or Promoter?

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Author: N.A

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3668170754

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 29

View: 3182

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,0, University of Hamburg, language: English, abstract: Communication expands all over the world and so does language. Although there is no functional definition of a global language, it basically refers to the language learned and spoken throughout the world. A global language is signified by the number of native speakers, second language speakers and geographical distribution, including its role in diplomatic relations and international organizations. It is a common language which enables individuals from diverse ethnicities and backgrounds in communicating on an equitable basis. English is one of the dominant languages spoken by over 1.8 billion people worldwide. It is not only a language of communication, but has emerged as a means of global conversation. The influence of the English language across the world is a combination of three major aspects. These include the number of nations using English as mother tongue or first language, number of nations embracing English as an official language and number of nations teaching English as a foreign language in schools. One of the major reasons as to why English has emerged as a global language is its intrinsic morphological quality, size of vocabulary, quality of literature all through history and relationship with great religions and cultures. Therefore, the paper discusses how English has emerged as a global language and whether the emergence of English as a global language is a language promoter or killer.

Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language

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Author: Richard S. Pinner

Publisher: Multilingual Matters

ISBN: 1783095695

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 225

View: 9959

This book examines the concept of authentic English in today’s world, where cultures are in constant interaction and the English language works as a binding agent for many cross-cultural exchanges. It offers a comprehensive review of decades of debate around authenticity in language teaching and learning and attempts to synthesise the complexities by presenting them as a continuum. This continuum builds on the work of eminent scholars and combines them within a flexible framework that celebrates the process of interaction whilst acknowledging the complexity and individual subjectivity of authenticity. Authenticity is approached as a complex dynamic construct that can only be understood by examining it from social, individual and contextual dimensions, in relation to actual people. Authenticity is a problem not just for language acquisition but one which affects us as individuals belonging to society.

The Social Psychology of English as a Global Language

Attitudes, Awareness and Identity in the Japanese Context

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Author: Robert M. McKenzie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048185665

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 212

View: 6397

This ground-breaking work is a detailed account of an innovative and in-depth study of the attitudes of in excess of 500 Japanese learners towards a number of standard and non-standard as well as native and non-native varieties of English speech. The research conducted refines the investigation of learner attitudes by employing a range of pioneering techniques of attitude measurement. These methods are largely incorporated from the strong traditions that exist in the fields of social psychology and second language acquisition and utilize both direct and indirect techniques of attitude measurement. The author locates the findings in the context of the wealth of literature on native speaker evaluations of languages and language varieties. The study is unique in that the results provide clear evidence of both attitude change and high levels of linguistic awareness among the informants of social and geographical diversity within the English language. These findings are analyzed in detail in relation to the global spread of English as well as in terms of the pedagogical implications for the choice of linguistic model employed in English language classrooms both inside and outside Japan. The issues examined are of particular interest to educators, researchers and students in the fields of applied linguistics, TESOL, second language acquisition, social psychology of language and sociolinguistics. The pedagogical and language policy implications of the findings obtained make essential reading for those with a specific focus on the role of the English language and English language teaching, both in Japan and beyond.

How English Became the Global Language

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Author: D. Northrup

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137303077

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 205

View: 3549

In this book, the first written about the globalization of the English language by a professional historian, the exploration of English's global ascendancy receives its proper historical due. This brief, accessible volume breaks new ground in its organization, emphasis on causation, and conclusions.

English, the lingua franca, as a global language and the decline of German as an international language of science

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Author: Silvia Eibel

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638490432

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 22

View: 2667

Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: Gut, University of Graz, course: The Globalisation of English, Language Attitudes and Language Contact, 18 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the topic of English as a lingua franca as well as the past and current status of German as a language of science. One issue which is discussed throughout this paper is English as a global language. The questions that arise regarding this topic are: Why did English become so important in the last century? Why do we speak of English as a global language? How could English reach such widespread acceptance? What are dangers of a global language and could anything stop globalisation? In this paper many facets of English will be presented and discussed. The second important topic this paper covers is the decline of German as an international language of science. German used to be an important language of science in the 19thcentury until World War I. But what happened at that point and why did German lose its international character? Which circumstances are responsible for the decline of German? What is the present status of German in science and what are the future perspectives? All these questions and assumptions will be discussed in the following term paper and the closing remarks will summarise the findings.

The Role of English as a World Language

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Author: Kristina Eichhorst

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3656122881

Category:

Page: 28

View: 4493

Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, language: English, abstract: For me, learning English has always been quite easy. Though I grew up as a monolingual person and my first contact with English was not until the fifth grade, I have been surrounded by this language constantly. When I first started to translate my favorite pop songs into German I became more and more familiar with English. As the following paragraphs show this is exactly one of the reasons that people are so familiar with it nowadays, and that made me think about this language a little bit more intensive: English is everywhere, even in an official monolingual country like Germany. Though it helps us to get a better understanding for many terms in the world, there is also a negative side. I think that a conversation held in German should not contain more English words than necessary or even "poison" it. Though the influence of the English language on German is undeniable it should never dominate the other language. This term paper deals with the status of English as a global language. It shows how far English is spread nowadays and also tries to find answers to the question why English of all the many languages in the world is so influential? Therefore, historical, grammatical and other reasons are investigated. Afterwards, the paper presents the two sides of the English status, namely advantages that come with it but also the negative effects that occur. Finally, there is a look at the future of the English language in order to find out if the influence will increase even more or be replaced by a different language. Many linguists have studied this field and see English especially in relation to language death. This paper shows that the topic is very complex and that it cannot be committed to either positive or negative.

How and why did English come to be a global language?

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Author: Cornelia Richter

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640151771

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 22

View: 4118

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 2,0, Martin Luther University (Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik), course: English Rules the World? The Globalisation of English, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The role of the English language among all other languages is constantly examined, researched and written about. It appears that no other language has ever had such an amazing and massive impact on other cultures, languages and world history. Statements like “English is today a truly global language” (Rubdy 2006: 5) and “World English exists as a political and cultural reality” (Crystal 2003b: xii) underpin the notion of the possibility of a language that connects all people, a notion and perhaps also a wish that is almost as old as mankind. This paper will investigate the question of what defines a language as a global one and what factors are convincing or definite. David Crystal’s explanation makes it quite obvious: “A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (Crystal 2003b: 3). However, he himself admits that this is not precise enough; a ‘special role’ can mean many things. The concept usually refers to political aspects, like, for example, the status of the language of the state defined by law, or the language being the only one in some states for historical reasons (cf. Crystal 2003b: 66). But in all cases, it can be argued, the population is living in an environment in which the English language is routinely in evidence, publicly accessible in varying degrees, and part of the nation’s recent or present identity (Crystal 2003b: 66). It also has to be clarified what processes can lead to a global status of a language, and if so-called “naïve” theories hold true. For the purpose of examining this question further, the concept of the lingua franca and the role of English as such will also be looked at. Talking about English and its world influence, it is inevitable to consider the roles and history of Britain and the United States. In order to make the attempt of getting more precise, numbers of speakers will be shown and it will be explained how these numbers came about and what they mean. ... As obvious as it may seem, English is dominant is so many spheres that it appears impossible to account for all of them thoroughly. However, the most significant domains will be explained as such in order to draw a connection between history, present and future.

The Idea of English in Japan

Ideology and the Evolution of a Global Language

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Author: Philip Seargeant

Publisher: Multilingual Matters

ISBN: 1847696910

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 192

View: 6376

This book examines the ways in which English is conceptualised as a global language in Japan, and considers how the resultant language ideologies – drawn in part from universal discourses; in part from context-specific trends in social history – inform the relationships that people in Japan have towards the language. The book analyses the specific nature of the language’s symbolic meaning in Japan, and how this meaning is expressed and negotiated in society. It also discusses how the ideologies of English that exist in Japan might have implications for the more general concept of ‘English as a global language’. To this end it considers the question of what constitutes a ‘global’ language, and how, if at all, a balance can be struck between the universal and the historically-contingent when it comes to formulating a theory of English within the world.

The Local Construction of a Global Language

Ideologies of English in South Korea

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Author: Joseph Sung-Yul Park

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110214075

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 285

View: 7166

In South Korea, English is a language of utmost importance, sought with an unprecedented zeal as an indispensable commodity in education, business, popular culture, and national policy. This book investigates how the status of English as a hegemonic language in South Korea is constructed through the mediation of language ideologies in local discourse. Adopting the framework of language ideology and its current developments, it is argued that English in Korean society is a subject of deep-rooted ambiguities, with multiple and sometimes conflicting ideologies coexisting within a tension-ridden discursive space. The complex ways in which these ideologies are reproduced, contested, and negotiated through specific metalinguistic practices across diverse sites ultimately contribute to a local realization of the global hegemony of English as an international language. Through its insightful analysis of metalinguistic discourse in language policy debates, cross-linguistic humor, television shows, and face-to-face interaction, The Local Construction of a Global Language makes an original contribution to the study of language and globalization, proposing an innovative analytic approach that bridges the gap between the investigation of large-scale global forces and the study of micro-level discourse practices.

Does Science Need a Global Language?

English and the Future of Research

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Author: Scott L. Montgomery

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022601004X

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 605

In early 2012, the global scientific community erupted with news that the elusive Higgs boson had likely been found, providing potent validation for the Standard Model of how the universe works. Scientists from more than one hundred countries contributed to this discovery—proving, beyond any doubt, that a new era in science had arrived, an era of multinationalism and cooperative reach. Globalization, the Internet, and digital technology all play a role in making this new era possible, but something more fundamental is also at work. In all scientific endeavors lies the ancient drive for sharing ideas and knowledge, and now this can be accomplished in a single tongue— English. But is this a good thing? In Does Science Need a Global Language?, Scott L. Montgomery seeks to answer this question by investigating the phenomenon of global English in science, how and why it came about, the forms in which it appears, what advantages and disadvantages it brings, and what its future might be. He also examines the consequences of a global tongue, considering especially emerging and developing nations, where research is still at a relatively early stage and English is not yet firmly established. Throughout the book, he includes important insights from a broad range of perspectives in linguistics, history, education, geopolitics, and more. Each chapter includes striking and revealing anecdotes from the front-line experiences of today’s scientists, some of whom have struggled with the reality of global scientific English. He explores topics such as student mobility, publication trends, world Englishes, language endangerment, and second language learning, among many others. What he uncovers will challenge readers to rethink their assumptions about the direction of contemporary science, as well as its future.

Global English: English is Changing the World - In what Way is the World Changing the English Language and the Way it Will be Taught?

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Author: Marc Hempel

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640537084

Category: English language

Page: 18

View: 4834

"The history and wide distribution of the English language - originally an Anglo-Frisian dialect first taken to Southern Britain by Germanic settlers in the 5th century and spoken by only a few - has been a most remarkable and unparalleled one. Nowadays, English is the world language, influencing each and every single aspect of the daily and professional lives of millions of people on an international scale. The metaphor of the Global Village often represents the ubiquitous process of globalisation - a phenomenon that has shaped the existence of mankind in the last couple of decades. Communication in all areas is ensured mostly through the use of the English language. It is remarkable, though, that English is only in the fourth place in terms of native speaker ranking and that its proportion is decreasing steadily. Yet what makes English so important is its use as a lingua franca - an international language that is used for communication by speakers of different languages. Estimates claim that about 1 billion people - that is about one sixth of the world population - have at least some knowledge of English and in most countries it has become one of the basic necessities in professional life. Does this development have any influence on the way we as future professionals explore, describe and - above all - teach the English language? Do native speakers still 'own' English or is it rather 'Globish', 'Franglais' or 'Denglisch' that should be taught? In this term paper I aim to offer some answers to these questions and examine different theories of teaching English as a global language."--p. 1, Introduction.