Eddy Covariance

A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis

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Author: Marc Aubinet,Timo Vesala,Dario Papale

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400723504

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 9510

This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology. The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to data collection, correction and analysis. With a state-of-the-art perspective, the authors examine the latest techniques and address the most up-to-date methods for data processing and quality control. The chapters provide answers to data treatment problems including data filtering, footprint analysis, data gap filling, uncertainty evaluation, and flux separation, among others. The authors cover the application of measurement techniques in different ecosystems such as forest, crops, grassland, wetland, lakes and rivers, and urban areas, highlighting peculiarities, specific practices and methods to be considered. The book also covers what to do when you have all your data, summarizing the objectives of a database as well as using case studies of the CarboEurope and FLUXNET databases to demonstrate the way they should be maintained and managed. Policies for data use, exchange and publication are also discussed and proposed. This one compendium is a valuable source of information on eddy covariance measurement that allows readers to make rational and relevant choices in positioning, dimensioning, installing and maintaining an eddy covariance site; collecting, treating, correcting and analyzing eddy covariance data; and scaling up eddy flux measurements to annual scale and evaluating their uncertainty.

Eddy Covariance

A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Marc Aubinet,Timo Vesala,Dario Papale

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400723512

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 7941

This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology. The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to data collection, correction and analysis. With a state-of-the-art perspective, the authors examine the latest techniques and address the most up-to-date methods for data processing and quality control. The chapters provide answers to data treatment problems including data filtering, footprint analysis, data gap filling, uncertainty evaluation, and flux separation, among others. The authors cover the application of measurement techniques in different ecosystems such as forest, crops, grassland, wetland, lakes and rivers, and urban areas, highlighting peculiarities, specific practices and methods to be considered. The book also covers what to do when you have all your data, summarizing the objectives of a database as well as using case studies of the CarboEurope and FLUXNET databases to demonstrate the way they should be maintained and managed. Policies for data use, exchange and publication are also discussed and proposed. This one compendium is a valuable source of information on eddy covariance measurement that allows readers to make rational and relevant choices in positioning, dimensioning, installing and maintaining an eddy covariance site; collecting, treating, correcting and analyzing eddy covariance data; and scaling up eddy flux measurements to annual scale and evaluating their uncertainty.

Eddy Covariance

A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Marc Aubinet,Timo Vesala,Dario Papale

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789400796300

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 8192

This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology. The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to data collection, correction and analysis. With a state-of-the-art perspective, the authors examine the latest techniques and address the most up-to-date methods for data processing and quality control. The chapters provide answers to data treatment problems including data filtering, footprint analysis, data gap filling, uncertainty evaluation, and flux separation, among others. The authors cover the application of measurement techniques in different ecosystems such as forest, crops, grassland, wetland, lakes and rivers, and urban areas, highlighting peculiarities, specific practices and methods to be considered. The book also covers what to do when you have all your data, summarizing the objectives of a database as well as using case studies of the CarboEurope and FLUXNET databases to demonstrate the way they should be maintained and managed. Policies for data use, exchange and publication are also discussed and proposed. This one compendium is a valuable source of information on eddy covariance measurement that allows readers to make rational and relevant choices in positioning, dimensioning, installing and maintaining an eddy covariance site; collecting, treating, correcting and analyzing eddy covariance data; and scaling up eddy flux measurements to annual scale and evaluating their uncertainty.

Handbook of Micrometeorology

A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis

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Author: Xuhui Lee,William Massman,Beverly Law

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402022647

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 8718

The Handbook of Micrometeorology is the most up-to-date reference for micrometeorological issues and methods related to the eddy covariance technique for estimating mass and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It provides useful insight for interpreting estimates of mass and energy exchange and understanding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global environmental change.

A Brief Practical Guide to Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

Principles and Workflow Examples for Scientific and Industrial Applications

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Author: George Burba,Dan Anderson

Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences

ISBN: 0615430139

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 5597

This book was written to familiarize beginners with general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the Eddy Covariance method. It is intended to assist in further understanding the method, and provides references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers. It is also intended to help students and researchers in field deployment of instruments used with the Eddy Covariance method, and to promote its use beyond micrometeorology.

Footprints in Micrometeorology and Ecology

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Author: Monique Y. Leclerc,Thomas Foken

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642545459

Category: Science

Page: 239

View: 3329

How to interpret meteorological measurements made at a given level over a surface with regard to characteristic properties such as roughness, albedo, heat, moisture, carbon dioxide, and other gases is an old question which goes back to the very beginnings of modern micrometeorology. It is made even more challenging when it is unclear whether these measurements are only valid for this point/region and precisely describe the conditions there, or if they are also influenced by surrounding areas. After 50 years of field experiments, it has become both apparent and problematic that meteorological measurements are influenced from surfaces on the windward side. As such, extending these measurements for inhomogeneous experimental sites requires a quantitative understanding of these influences. When combined with atmospheric transport models similar to air pollution models, the ‘footprint’ concept – a fundamental approach introduced roughly 20 years ago – provides us with information on whether or not the condition of upwind site homogeneity is fulfilled. Since these first models, the development of more scientifically based versions, validation experiments and applications has advanced rapidly. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of these developments, to analyze present deficits, to describe applications and to advance this topic at the forefront of micrometeorological research.

Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications

A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates

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Author: George Burba

Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences

ISBN: 061576827X

Category: Science

Page: 343

View: 1966

The “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications: A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates†book has been created to familiarize the reader with the general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and planning and processing steps of the eddy covariance method. It is intended to assist readers in furthering their understanding of the method, and provide references such as micrometeorology textbooks, networking guidelines and journal papers. In particular, it is designed to help scientific, industrial, agricultural, and regulatory research projects and monitoring programs with field deployment of the eddy covariance method in applications beyond micrometeorology.Some of the topics covered in “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications†include:Overview of eddy covariance principlesPlanning and design of an eddy covariance experiment Implementation of an eddy covariance experiment Processing eddy covariance dataAlternative flux methodsUseful resources, training and knowledge baseExample of planning, design and implementation of a complete eddy covariance station

Micrometeorology

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Author: Thomas Foken

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642254403

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 2434

The book focusses on atmospheric processes, which directly affect human environments within the lowest 100–1000 meters of the atmosphere over regions of only a few kilometres in extent. The book is the translation into English of the third edition of the German book “Applied Meteorology – Micrometeorological Methods”. It presents, with selected examples, the basics of micrometeorology applied to disciplines such as biometeorology, agrometeorology, hydrometeorology, technical meteorology, environmental meteorology, and biogeosciences. The important issues discussed in this book are the transport processes and fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. Vegetated and heterogeneous surfaces are special subjects. The author covers the areas of theory, measurement techniques, experimental methods, and modelling all in ways that can be used independently in teaching, research, or practical applications.

Learning Landscape Ecology

A Practical Guide to Concepts and Techniques

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Author: Sarah E. Gergel,Monica G. Turner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493963740

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 8768

This title meets a great demand for training in spatial analysis tools accessible to a wide audience. Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting discipline with much to offer for solving pressing and emerging problems in environmental science. Much of the strength of landscape ecology lies in its ability to address challenges over large areas, over spatial and temporal scales at which decision-making often occurs. As the world tackles issues related to sustainability and global change, the need for this broad perspective has only increased. Furthermore, spatial data and spatial analysis (core methods in landscape ecology) are critical for analyzing land-cover changes world-wide. While spatial dynamics have long been fundamental to terrestrial conservation strategies, land management and reserve design, mapping and spatial themes are increasingly recognized as important for ecosystem management in aquatic, coastal and marine systems. This second edition is purposefully more applied and international in its examples, approaches, perspectives and contributors. It includes new advances in quantifying landscape structure and connectivity (such as graph theory), as well as labs that incorporate the latest scientific understanding of ecosystem services, resilience, social-ecological landscapes, and even seascapes. Of course, as before, the exercises emphasize easy-to-use, widely available software.

Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation and Predictability

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Author: Eugenia Kalnay

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521796293

Category: Mathematics

Page: 341

View: 3856

This book, first published in 2002, is a graduate-level text on numerical weather prediction, including atmospheric modeling, data assimilation and predictability.

Understanding Urban Metabolism

A Tool for Urban Planning

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Author: Nektarios Chrysoulakis,Eduardo Anselmo de Castro,Eddy J. Moors

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317658663

Category: Architecture

Page: 224

View: 8138

Understanding Urban Metabolism addresses the gap between the bio-physical sciences and urban planning and illustrates the advantages of accounting for urban metabolism issues in urban design decisions. Urban metabolism considers a city as a system, and distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Based on research from the BRIDGE project, this book deals with how the urban surface exchanges and transforms energy, water, carbon and pollutants in cities. This book also introduces a new method for evaluating how planning alternatives can modify the physical flows of urban metabolism components and how environmental and socioeconomic components interact. The inclusion of sustainability principles into urban planning provides an opportunity to place the new knowledge provided by bio-physical sciences at the centre of the planning process, but there is a strong need to bridge knowledge and practice, as well as for a better dissemination of research results and exchange of best practice. This book meets that need and provides the reader with the necessary tools to integrate an understanding of urban metabolism into urban planning practice.

Energy and Matter Fluxes of a Spruce Forest Ecosystem

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Author: Thomas Foken

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319493892

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 5521

This book focuses on fluxes of energy, carbon dioxide and matter in and above a Central European spruce forest. The transition from a forest affected by acid rain into a heterogeneous forest occurred as a result of wind throw, bark beetles and climate change. Scientific results obtained over the last 20 years at the FLUXNET site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) are shown together with methods developed at the site, including the application of footprint models for data-quality analysis, the coupling between the trunk space and the atmosphere, the importance of the Damköhler number for trace gas studies, and the turbulent conditions at a forest edge. In addition to the many experimental studies, the book also applies model studies such as higher-order closure models, Large-Eddy Simulations, and runoff models for the catchment and compares them with the experimental data. Moreover, by highlighting processes in the atmosphere it offers insights into the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. It is of interest to ecologists, micrometeorologists and ecosystem modelers.

Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture

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Author: Todd S. Rosenstock,Mariana C. Rufino,Klaus Butterbach-Bahl,Lini Wollenberg,Meryl Richards

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319297945

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 203

View: 806

​​This book provides standards and guidelines for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural systems and comparing options for climate change mitigation based on emission reductions and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for about 11% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries. Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. However, little to no information exists on greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture. Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone, challenges only exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. Standard guidelines for use by scientists, development organizations will help generate reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. The guidelines described in this book, developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners, are intended to inform anyone conducting field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, especially to develop IPCC Tier 2 emission factors or to compare mitigation options in smallholder systems.

Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation

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Author: Constantin Andronache

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319725831

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 282

View: 8350

This book presents current applications of remote sensing techniques for clouds and precipitation for the benefit of students, educators, and scientists. It covers ground-based systems such as weather radars and spaceborne instruments on satellites. Measurements and modeling of precipitation are at the core of weather forecasting, and long-term observations of the cloud system are vital to improving atmospheric models and climate projections. The first section of the book focuses on the use of ground-based weather radars to observe and measure precipitation and to detect and forecast storms, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. It also discusses the observation of clouds using ground-based millimeter radar. The second part of the book concentrates on spaceborne remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. It includes cases from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, using satellite radars to observe precipitation systems. Then, the focus is on global cloud observations from the ClaudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), including a perspective on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite. It also addresses global atmospheric water vapor profiling for clear and cloudy conditions using microwave observations. The final part of this volume provides a perspective into advances in cloud modeling using remote sensing observations.

Ocean Modeling and Parameterization

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Author: Eric P. Chassignet,Jacques Verron

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401150966

Category: Science

Page: 451

View: 6463

The realism of large scale numerical ocean models has improved dra matically in recent years, in part because modern computers permit a more faithful representation of the differential equations by their algebraic analogs. Equally significant, if not more so, has been the improved under standing of physical processes on space and time scales smaller than those that can be represented in such models. Today, some of the most challeng ing issues remaining in ocean modeling are associated with parameterizing the effects of these high-frequency, small-space scale processes. Accurate parameterizations are especially needed in long term integrations of coarse resolution ocean models that are designed to understand the ocean vari ability within the climate system on seasonal to decadal time scales. Traditionally, parameterizations of subgrid-scale, high-frequency mo tions in ocean modeling have been based on simple formulations, such as the Reynolds decomposition with constant diffusivity values. Until recently, modelers were concerned with first order issues such as a correct represen tation of the basic features of the ocean circulation. As the numerical simu lations become better and less dependent on the discretization choices, the focus is turning to the physics of the needed parameterizations and their numerical implementation. At the present time, the success of any large scale numerical simulation is directly dependent upon the choices that are made for the parameterization of various subgrid processes.

Uncertainties and Limitations in Simulating Tropical Cyclones

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Author: Asuka Suzuki-Parker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642250297

Category: Science

Page: 78

View: 7619

The thesis work was in two major parts: development and testing of a new approach to detecting and tracking tropical cyclones in climate models; and application of an extreme value statistical approach to enable assessment of changes in weather extremes from climate models. The tracking algorithm applied a creative phase-space approach to differentiate between modeled tropical cyclones and their mid-latitude cousins. A feature here was the careful attention to sensitivity to choice of selection parameters, which is considerable. The major finding was that the changes over time were relatively insensitive to these details. This new approach will improve and add confidence to future assessments of climate impacts on hurricanes. The extremes approach utilized the Generalized Pareto Distribution (one of the standard approaches to statistics of extremes) applied to present and future hurricane distributions as modeled by a regional climate model, then applied the changes to current observations to extract the changes in the extremes. Since climate models cannot resolve these extremes directly, this provides an excellent method of determining weather extremes in general. This is of considerable societal importance as we are most vulnerable to such extremes and knowledge of their changes enables improved planning and adaptation strategies.

Analysis of Climate Variability

Applications of Statistical Techniques

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Author: Hans v. Storch,Antonio Navarra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662031671

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 2093

EUROPEAN SCHOOl OF CLiMATOlOGY AND NATURAL HAZARDS The training of scientific and technical personnel and the development of highly qualified scientists are, and have always been, among the important concerns of the European Commission. Advanced training is an important requirement for the implementation of a common EU policy in science and technology. The European School of Climatology and Natural Hazards was started as apart of the training and education activities of the European Programme on Climatology and Natural Hazards (EPOCH), and is continued under the subsequent research programme (ENVIRONMENT 1990-1994). The school consists of annual courses on specialised subjects within re search in climatology and natural hazards, and is open to graduating, grad uate and post graduate students in these fields. Each of the courses is organized in cooperation with a European Institu tion involved in the current research programme, and is aimed at giving to the students formal lectures and participation in informal discussions with leading researchers. The present volume is based on the lectures given at the course held on the island of Elba from the 30th October to the 6th of November 1993 on Statistical Analysis of Climate Variability. It features selected and extended presentations, and represents an important contribution to advanced studies in climate statistical analysis, supplementing more traditional texts. I trust that all those involved in research related to climate change and climate variability will appreciate this work and will benefit from the com prehensive and state-of-the-art information it provides.

Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring

A Landscape-Scale Approach

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Author: Coeli M Hoover

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402085060

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 2564

In the summer of 2003, a workshop was held in Portsmouth, NH, to discuss land measurement techniques for the North American Carbon Program. Over 40 sci- tists representing government agencies, academia and nonprofit research organi- tions located in Canada, the US and Mexico participated. During the course of the workshop a number of topics were discussed, with an emphasis on the following: • The need for an intermediate tier of carbon measurements. This level of study would be more extensive than state-level inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, but less detailed than intensive ecos- tem studies sites such as those in Long Term Ecological Research network. This tier would ideally provide a basis to link and scale remote sensing measurements and inventory data, and supply data required to parameterize existing models (see Wofsy and Harriss 2002, Denning et al. 2005). • The design criteria that such a network of sites should meet. The network and s- pling design should be standardized, but flexible enough to be applied across North America. The design also needs to be efficient enough to be implemented without the need for large field crews, yet robust enough to provide useful information. Finally, the spatial scale must permit easy linkage to remotely sensed data. • The key variables that should be measured at each site, and the frequency of measurement.

Impact of Climate Changes on Marine Environments

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Author: Tymon Zielinski,Marcin Weslawski,Karol Kuliński

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319142836

Category: Science

Page: 148

View: 432

This book contributes to the current discussion on global environmental changes by discussing modifications in marine ecosystems related to global climate changes. In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate changes are associated with shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen concentration and ocean acidification, which have significant biological effects on a regional and global scale. Knowing how these changes affect the distribution and abundance of plankton in the ocean currents is crucial to our understanding of how climate change impacts the marine environment. Ocean temperatures, weather and climatic changes greatly influence the amount and location of nutrients in the water column. If temperatures and currents change, the plankton production cycle may not coincide with the reproduction cycle of fish. The above changes are closely related to the changes in radiative forcing, which initiate feedback mechanisms like changes in surface temperature, circulation, and atmospheric chemistry.

The Glaucoma Book

A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care

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Author: Paul N. Schacknow,John R. Samples

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387767002

Category: Medical

Page: 1043

View: 4992

Complete evidence-based medical and surgical management of glaucoma for both the general ophthalmologist in practice and residents The only book that covers the new generation of glaucoma procedures including trabectome, trabecular bypass and canaloplasty, by the experts who developed them Includes the latest laser treatments for glaucoma including micro diode and titanium saphire trabeculoplasty as well as laser from an external approach The most comprehensive coverage of the optic nerve and the importance of nerve fiber layer hemorrhage Provides an integrated approach to neovascular glaucoma merging treatment to the retina, with the use of new anti-VEGF drugs, tubes, and shunts to achieve the best outcome Integrates clinical science with basic science to outline the next steps in glaucoma therapy