Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decisionmaking?

A Hedgefoxian Perspective

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Author: Kathleen D. Vohs,Roy F. Baumeister,George Loewenstein

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610445430

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 3322

Philosophers have long tussled over whether moral judgments are the products of logical reasoning or simply emotional reactions. From Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility to the debates of modern psychologists, the question of whether feeling or sober rationality is the better guide to decision making has been a source of controversy. In Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? Kathleen Vohs, Roy Baumeister, and George Loewenstein lead a group of prominent psychologists and economists in exploring the empirical evidence on how emotions shape judgments and choices. Researchers on emotion and cognition have staked out many extreme positions: viewing emotions as either the driving force behind cognition or its side effect, either an impediment to sound judgment or a guide to wise decisions. The contributors to Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? provide a richer perspective, exploring the circumstances that shape whether emotions play a harmful or helpful role in decisions. Roy Baumeister, C. Nathan DeWall, and Liqing Zhang show that while an individual’s current emotional state can lead to hasty decisions and self-destructive behavior, anticipating future emotional outcomes can be a helpful guide to making sensible decisions. Eduardo Andrade and Joel Cohen find that a positive mood can negatively affect people’s willingness to act altruistically. Happy people, when made aware of risks associated with altruistic acts, become wary of jeopardizing their own well-being. Benoît Monin, David Pizarro, and Jennifer Beer find that whether emotion or reason matters more in moral evaluation depends on the specific issue in question. Individual characteristics often mediate the effect of emotions on decisions. Catherine Rawn, Nicole Mead, Peter Kerkhof, and Kathleen Vohs find that whether an individual makes a decision based on emotion depends both on the type of decision in question and the individual’s level of self-esteem. And Quinn Kennedy and Mara Mather show that the elderly are better able to regulate their emotions, having learned from experience to anticipate the emotional consequences of their behavior. Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? represents a significant advance toward a comprehensive theory of emotions and cognition that accounts for the nuances of the mental processes involved. This landmark book will be a stimulus to scholarly debates as well as an informative guide to everyday decisions.

Time and Decision

Economic and Psychological Perspectives of Intertemporal Choice

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Author: George Loewenstein,Daniel Read,Roy F. Baumeister

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610443667

Category: Psychology

Page: 584

View: 8100

How do people decide whether to sacrifice now for a future reward or to enjoy themselves in the present? Do the future gains of putting money in a pension fund outweigh going to Hawaii for New Year's Eve? Why does a person's self-discipline one day often give way to impulsive behavior the next? Time and Decision takes up these questions with a comprehensive collection of new research on intertemporal choice, examining how people face the problem of deciding over time. Economists approach intertemporal choice by means of a model in which people discount the value of future events at a constant rate. A vacation two years from now is worth less to most people than a vacation next week. Psychologists, on the other hand, have focused on the cognitive and emotional underpinnings of intertemporal choice. Time and Decision draws from both disciplinary approaches to provide a comprehensive picture of the various layers of choice involved. Shane Frederick, George Loewenstein, and Ted O'Donoghue introduce the volume with an overview of the research on time discounting and focus on how people actually discount the future compared to the standard economic model. Alex Kacelnik discusses the crucial role that the ability to delay gratification must have played in evolution. Walter Mischel and colleagues review classic research showing that four year olds who are able to delay gratification subsequently grow up to perform better in college than their counterparts who chose instant gratification. The book also delves into the neurobiology of patience, examining the brain structures involved in the ability to withstand an impulse. Turning to the issue of self-control, Klaus Wertenbroch examines the relationship between consumption and available resources, showing, for example, how a high credit limit can lead people to overspend. Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin show how people's awareness of their self-control problems affects their decision-making. The final section of the book examines intertemporal choice with regard to health, drug addiction, dieting, marketing, savings, and public policy. All of us make important decisions every day-many of which profoundly affect the quality of our lives. Time and Decision provides a fascinating look at the complex factors involved in how and why we make our choices, so many of them short-sighted, and helps us understand more precisely this crucial human frailty.

How Presidents Test Reality

Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965

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Author: John P. Burke,Fred L. Greenstein

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610440978

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 5547

Just as famines and plagues can provide opportunities for medical research, the unhappy course of United States relations with Vietnam is a prime source of evidence for students of American political institutions. How Presidents Test Reality draws on the record of American decision making about Vietnam to explore the capacity of top government executives and their advisers to engage in effective reality testing. Authors Burke and Greenstein compare the Vietnam decisions of two presidents whose leadership styles and advisory systems diverged as sharply as any in the modern presidency. Faced with a common challenge—an incipient Communist take-over of Vietnam—presidents Eisenhower and Johnson engaged in intense debates with their aides and associates, some of whom favored intervention and some of whom opposed it. In the Dien Bien Phu Crisis of 1954, Eisenhower decided not to enter the conflict; in 1965, when it became evident that the regime in South Vietnam could not hold out much longer, Johnson intervened. How Presidents Test Reality uses declassified records and interviews with participants to assess the adequacy of each president’s use of advice and information. This important book advances our historical understanding of the American involvement in Vietnam and illuminates the preconditions of effective presidential leadership in the modern world. "An exceptionally thoughtful exercise in what ‘contemporary history’ ought to be. Illuminates the past in a way that suggests how we might deal with the present and the future." —John Lewis Gaddis "Burke and Greenstein have written what amounts to an owner's manual for operating the National Security Council....This is a book Reagan's people could have used and George Bush ought to read." —Bob Schieffer, The Washington Monthly

Choice Over Time

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Author: George Loewenstein,Jon Elster

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610443659

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 424

View: 9284

Many of our most urgent national problems suggest a widespread lack of concern for the future. Alarming economic conditions, such as low national savings rates, declining corporate investment in long-term capital projects, and ballooning private and public debt are matched by such social ills as diminished educational achievement, environmental degradation, and high rates of infant mortality, crime, and teenage pregnancy. At the heart of all these troubles lies an important behavioral phenomenon: in the role of consumer, manager, voter, student, or parent, many Americans choose inferior but immediate rewards over greater long-term benefits. Choice Over Time offers a rich sampling of original research on intertemporal choice—how and why people decide between immediate and delayed consequences—from a broad range of theoretical and methodological perspectives in philosophy, political science, psychology, and economics. George Loewenstein, Jon Elster, and their distinguished colleagues review existing theories and forge new approaches to understanding significant questions: Why do people seem to "discount" future benefits? Do individuals use the same decision-making strategy in all aspects of their lives? What part is played by situational factors such as the certainty of delayed consequences? How are decisions affected by personal factors such as willpower and taste? In addressing these issues, the contributors to Choice Over Time address many social, economic, psychological, and personal time problems. Their work demonstrates the predictive power of short-term preferences in behavior as varied as addiction and phobia, the effect of prices on consumption, and the dramatic rise in debt and decline in savings. Choice Over Time provides an essential source for the most recent research and theory on intertemporal choice, offering new models for time preference patterns—and their aberrations—and presenting a diversity of potential solutions to the problem of "temporal myopia."

The Emotionally Sensitive Person

Finding Peace When Your Emotions Overwhelm You

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Author: Karyn D. Hall

Publisher: New Harbinger Publications

ISBN: 1608829952

Category: Self-Help

Page: 208

View: 474

It’s a commonly heard phrase: Stop being so sensitive. These words can be frustrating to hear, and if you are an emotionally sensitive person, they often have the opposite of the desired effect. You cannot simply switch off your emotions like you would a TV show or a radio station playing an annoying song. But there are effective techniques that can help you manage these emotions before they take over your life. In The Emotionally Sensitive Person, a psychologist provides proven-effective cognitive behavioral and mindfulness techniques to help people like you who struggle with intense emotions. In the book, you will learn powerful tools for staying in the present moment, identifying emotional triggers, developing a strong and healthy identity, and experiencing overwhelming or uncomfortable emotions without becoming upset. You’ll also learn how to be more relaxed in your relationships, how your personal values can affect your thoughts and actions, and how to recognize negative thought patterns before you start acting on them. If you are tired of feeling hurt and helpless when it comes to your feelings, this book will provide you with evidence-based strategies for taking charge of your emotions—whether it’s at home, at work, or in your relationships.

Well-Being

Foundations of Hedonic Psychology

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Author: Daniel Kahneman,Edward Diener,Norbert Schwarz

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 161044325X

Category: Psychology

Page: 608

View: 3986

The nature of well-being is one of the most enduring and elusive subjects of human inquiry. Well-Being draws upon the latest scientific research to transform our understanding of this ancient question. With contributions from leading authorities in psychology, social psychology, and neuroscience, this volume presents the definitive account of current scientific efforts to understand human pleasure and pain, contentment and despair. The distinguished contributors to this volume combine a rigorous analysis of human sensations, emotions, and moods with a broad assessment of the many factors, from heredity to nationality, that bear on our well-being. Using the tools of experimental science, the contributors confront the puzzles of human likes and dislikes. Why do we grow accustomed and desensitized to changes in our lives, both good and bad? Does our happiness reflect the circumstances of our lives or is it determined by our temperament and personality? Why do humans acquire tastes for sensations that are initially painful or unpleasant? By examining the roots of our everyday likes and dislikes, the book also sheds light on some of the more extreme examples of attraction and aversion, such as addiction and depression. Among its wide ranging inquiries, Well-Being examines systematic differences in moods and behaviors between genders, explaining why women suffer higher rates of depression and anxiety than men, but are also more inclined to express positive emotions. The book also makes international comparisons, finding that some countries' populations report higher levels of happiness than others. The contributors deploy an array of methods, from the surveys and questionnaires of social science to psychological and physiological experiments, to develop a comprehensive new approach to the study of well-being. They show how the sensory pleasures of the body can tells us something about the higher pleasures of the mind and even how the effectiveness of our immune system can depend upon the health of our social relationships.

Desiring God

Meditations of a Christian Hedonist

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Author: John Piper

Publisher: Multnomah Pub

ISBN: 1601423098

Category: Religion

Page: 411

View: 1392

Experience the Lifelong Pleasures of Knowing God! Satisfaction…Happiness…Joy. According to John Piper, the pursuit of pleasure in God is not only permissible, it’s essential. Desiring God is a paradigm-shattering work that dramatically alters common perspectives on relating to God. Piper reveals that there really is no need to choose between duty and delight in the Christian life. In fact, for the follower of Jesus, delight is the duty as Christ is most magnified in His people when they are most satisfied in Him. Constantly drawing on Scripture to build his case, Piper shows why pursuing maximum joy is essential to glorifying God. He discusses the implications of this for conversion, worship, love, Scripture, prayer, money, marriage, missions, and suffering. Piper beckons us to approach God with the hedonist’s abandon. Finally, we are freed to enjoy Jesus—not only as our Lord and Savior, but also as our all-surpassing, soul-satisfying Treasure. Desiring God may turn your Christian world upside down. And that will be a good thing, for the glory of God, and for your deepest joy. Includes a study guide for individual and small group use.

Descartes' Error

Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain

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Author: Antonio Damasio

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101640138

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 5482

Since Descartes famously proclaimed, "I think, therefore I am," science has often overlooked emotions as the source of a person’s true being. Even modern neuroscience has tended, until recently, to concentrate on the cognitive aspects of brain function, disregarding emotions. This attitude began to change with the publication of Descartes’ Error in 1995. Antonio Damasio—"one of the world’s leading neurologists" (The New York Times)—challenged traditional ideas about the connection between emotions and rationality. In this wondrously engaging book, Damasio takes the reader on a journey of scientific discovery through a series of case studies, demonstrating what many of us have long suspected: emotions are not a luxury, they are essential to rational thinking and to normal social behavior.

Feeling Smart

Why Our Emotions Are More Rational Than We Think

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Author: Eyal Winter

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610394917

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 1654

Distinguished authors like Daniel Kahneman, Dan Ariely, and Nassim Nicholas Taleb have written much about the flaws in the human brain when it comes time to make a decision. Our intuitions and passions frequently fail us, leading to outcomes we don't want. In this book, Eyal Winter, Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for the Study of Rationality at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, wonders: why? If our emotions are so destructive and unreliable, why has evolution left us with them? The answer is that, even though they may not behave in a purely logical manner, our emotions frequently lead us to better, safer, more optimal outcomes. In fact, as Winter discovers, there is often logic in emotion, and emotion in logic. For instance, many mutually beneficial commitments—such as marriage, or being a member of a team—are only possible when underscored by emotion rather than deliberate thought. The difference between pleasurable music and bad noise is mathematically precise; yet it is also the result of evolution. And our inherent overconfidence—the mathematically impossible fact that most people see themselves as above average—affords us advantages in competing for things we benefit from, like food and money and romance. Other subjects illuminated in the book include the rationality of seemingly illogical feelings like trust, anger, shame, ego, and generosity. Already a bestseller in Israel, Feeling Smart brings together game theory, evolution, and behavioral science to produce a surprising and very persuasive defense of how we think, even when we don't.

Meanings of Life

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Author: Roy F. Baumeister

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9780898625318

Category: Psychology

Page: 426

View: 523

Who among us has not at some point asked, what is the meaning of life?' In this extraordinary book, an eminent social scientist looks at the big picture and explores what empirical studies from diverse fields tell us about the human condition. MEANINGS OF LIFE draws together evidence from psychology, history, anthropology, and sociology, integrating copious research findings into a clear and conclusive discussion of how people attempt to make sense of their lives. In a lively and accessible style, emphasizing facts over theories, Baumeister explores why people desire meaning in their lives, how these meanings function, what forms they take, and what happens when life loses meaning. It is the most comprehensive examination of the topic to date.

Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

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Author: David Sander,Klaus Scherer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021008

Category: Psychology

Page: 520

View: 8914

Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.

The Quality of American Life

Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions

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Author: Angus Campbell,Philip E. Converse,Willard L. Rodgers

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610441036

Category: Psychology

Page: 600

View: 5379

Considers how Americans define the quality of their life experiences, as expressed in their perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. Based on research conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, the book uses data which are representative of the national population eighteen years of age and older, and employs the major social characteristics of class, age, education, and income. The authors cover such topics as the residential environment, the experience of work, marriage, and family life, and personal resources and competence. They also report on the situation of women and the quality of the life experience of black people.

Airway Management in Emergencies

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Author: George Kovacs,J. Adam Law

Publisher: PMPH-USA

ISBN: 9781607951049

Category: Medical

Page: 454

View: 4124

Airway Management in Emergencies 2/e covers all the options both medical and surgical for managing any patient's airway in an emergency. Here, you'll find the core knowledge and accompanying management protocols necessary to assess, oxygenate, intubate and monitor patients requiring emergency airway management. This new edition expands coverage of airway management in the pre-hospital environment and chapters on airway management with airway and systemic co-morbidities. Additionally, there is enhanced content to appeal to various clinicians (MD and non-MD eg. Paramedics). Key Features

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do

Take Back Your Power, Embrace Change, Face Your Fears, and Train Your Brain for Happiness and Success

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Author: Amy Morin

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062358316

Category: Self-Help

Page: 272

View: 5161

"Kick bad mental habits and toughen yourself up."—Inc. Master your mental strength—revolutionary new strategies that work for everyone from homemakers to soldiers and teachers to CEOs. Don’t waste time feeling sorry for yourself Don’t give away your power Don’t shy away from change Don’t focus on things you can’t control Don’t worry about pleasing everyone Don’t fear taking calculated risks Don’t dwell on the past Don’t make the same mistakes over and over Don’t resent other people’s success Don’t give up after the first failure Don’t fear alone time Don’t feel the world owes you anything Don’t expect immediate results

Self and Relationships

Connecting Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes

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Author: Kathleen D. Vohs,Eli J. Finkel

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1593852711

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 5732

This volume brings together leading investigators who integrate two distinct research domains in social psychology--people's internal worlds and their close relationships. Contributors present compelling findings on the bidirectional interplay between internal processes, such as self-esteem and self-regulation, and relationship processes, such as how positively partners view each other, whether they are dependent on each other, and the level of excitement in the relationship. Methodological challenges inherent in studying these complex issues are described in depth, as are implications for understanding broader aspects of psychological functioning and well-being.

Willpower

Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength

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Author: Roy F. Baumeister,John Tierney

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101543779

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 7739

One of the world's most esteemed and influential psychologists, Roy F. Baumeister, teams with New York Times science writer John Tierney to reveal the secrets of self-control and how to master it. Pioneering research psychologist Roy F. Baumeister collaborates with New York Times science writer John Tierney to revolutionize our understanding of the most coveted human virtue: self-control. Drawing on cutting-edge research and the wisdom of real-life experts, Willpower shares lessons on how to focus our strength, resist temptation, and redirect our lives. It shows readers how to be realistic when setting goals, monitor their progress, and how to keep faith when they falter. By blending practical wisdom with the best of recent research science, Willpower makes it clear that whatever we seek—from happiness to good health to financial security—we won’t reach our goals without first learning to harness self-control. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Managing Emotions in the Workplace

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Author: Neal M. Ashkanasy,Wilfred J. Zerbe,Charmine E. J. Hartel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315290790

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 2493

The modern workplace is often thought of as cold and rational, as no place for the experience and expression of emotions. Yet it is no more emotionless than any other aspect of life. Individuals bring their affective states and emotional "buttons" to work, leaders try to engender feelings of passion and enthusiasm for the organization and its mission, and consultants seek to increase job satisfaction, commitment, and trust. This book advances the understanding of the causes and effects of emotions at work and extends existing theories to consider implications for the management of emotions. The international cast of authors examines the practical issues raised when organizations are studied as places where emotions are aroused, suppressed, used, and avoided. This book also joins the debate on how organizations and individuals ought to manage emotions in the workplace. Managing Emotions in the Workplace is designed for use in graduate level courses in Organizational Behavior, Human Resource Management, or Organizational Development - any course in which the role of emotions in the workplace is a central concern. Scholars and consultants will also find this book to be an essential resource on the latest theory and practice in this emerging field.

Emotional Agility

Get Unstuck, Embrace Change, and Thrive in Work and Life

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Author: Susan A. David

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1592409490

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 274

View: 3030

"The counterintuitive approach to achieving your true potential, heralded by the Harvard Business Review as a groundbreaking idea of the year"--

Getting Past Your Past

Take Control of Your Life with Self-Help Techniques from EMDR Therapy

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Author: Francine Shapiro

Publisher: Rodale

ISBN: 1609619951

Category: Self-Help

Page: 352

View: 9183

A totally accessible user's guide from the creator of a scientifically proven form of psychotherapy that has successfully treated millions of people worldwide. Whether we've experienced small setbacks or major traumas, we are all influenced by memories and experiences we may not remember or don't fully understand. Getting Past Your Past offers practical procedures that demystify the human condition and empower readers looking to achieve real change. Shapiro, the creator of EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), explains how our personalities develop and why we become trapped into feeling, believing and acting in ways that don't serve us. Through detailed examples and exercises readers will learn to understand themselves, and why the people in their lives act the way they do. Most importantly, readers will also learn techniques to improve their relationships, break through emotional barriers, overcome limitations and excel in ways taught to Olympic athletes, successful executives and performers. An easy conversational style, humor and fascinating real life stories make it simple to understand the brain science, why we get stuck in various ways and what to do about it. Don't let yourself be run by unconscious and automatic reactions. Read the reviews below from award winners, researchers, academics and best selling authors to learn how to take control of your life.