Grundrechte, Spielräume und Kompetenzen

Eine Untersuchung formeller Prinzipien vor dem Hintergrund der Prinzipientheorie


Author: Guilherme Augusto Azevedo Palu

Publisher: Nomos Verlag

ISBN: 3845297247

Category: Law

Page: 452

View: 4029

Die Idee, dass die Menschen grundlegende Rechtspositionen gegenüber dem Staat innehaben, die die Ausübung seiner Hoheitsgewalt begrenzen, ist eine der bedeutsamsten staatsrechtlichen Errungenschaften der Menschheit und wurde im Laufe der Gründung der modernen demokratischen Verfassungsstaaten entwickelt. Dementsprechend hängt die Legitimität demokratischer Verfassungsstaaten auch davon ab, ob Grundrechte vorgesehen sind und beachtet werden. Trotz dieses inneren Zusammenhangs stehen Grundrechte und Demokratie auch in einem Spannungsverhältnis. Die staatliche Hoheitsgewalt muss nämlich nach Maßgabe dieser grundrechtlichen Positionen ausgeübt werden. Die Bestimmung materieller Grenzen für die Willensbildung des Staates stellt die Rechtswissenschaft vor eine gewaltige Herausforderung. In diesem Zusammenhang ist unklar, wie sich Grundrechte, staatliche Kompetenzen und Entscheidungsspielräume zueinander verhalten. Dies wird hier mit Hilfe der Prinzipientheorie untersucht.

Die praktische Konkordanz von Kompetenzen

Entwickelt anhand der Jurisdiktionskonflikte im europäischen Grundrechtsschutz


Author: Matthias Klatt

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161530173

Category: Law

Page: 494

View: 2043

English summary: Jurisdictional conflicts are ubiquitous in multi-level systems, especially in a globalized world. For the first time, Matthias Klass conceives of jurisdictional competences not as policies but as principles. Based on the main idea of a practical concordance of jurisdictions, Klass analyses the jurisdictional conflicts in European protection of fundamental rights and through a new typology of these conflicts, he is able to present a theory of formal principle which extends the initial approaches of principles theory established by Robert Alexy. With help from this new method, the author formulates an assessment model of jurisdiction which advocates for a middle-way between rigid hierarchies and appeals in judicial reserve. A flexible solution is presented, which simply provides a detailed observation and develops normative guidelines. A vigorous plea for a pluralistic constitutionalism is deployed against a skeptical pluralism. German description: Kompetenzkonflikte sind in Mehrebenensystemen allgegenwartig, zumal in einer globalisierten Welt. Erstmalig begreift Matthias Klatt Kompetenzen nicht als Regeln, sondern als Prinzipien. Anhand der Leitidee einer praktischen Konkordanz von Kompetenzen analysiert er die Jurisdiktionskonflikte im europaischen Grundrechtsschutz. Neben einer neuen Typologie dieser Konflikte wird eine Theorie formeller Prinzipien vorgelegt, die Ansatze in der von Alexy begrundeten Prinzipientheorie weiterentwickelt. Mit ihrer Hilfe formuliert der Autor ein Abwagungsmodell der Kompetenz. Dieses verteidigt einen Mittelweg zwischen starren Hierarchien und Appellen an richterliche Zuruckhaltung. Damit wird eine flexible Losung prasentiert, die anders als bloss beschreibende Beobachtungen normative Leitlinien entwickelt. Gegen einen skeptischen Pluralismus wird ein kraftvolles Pladoyer fur einen pluralistischen Konstitutionalismus entfaltet.

Kazimierz Opałek Selected Papers in Legal Philosophy


Author: Jan Wolenski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401592578

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 8599

Philosophical aspects of law and jurisprudence are investigated from various points of view. This collection represents the analytic approach to legal philosophy. However, this approach is not extreme in the sense that it is limited exclusively to linguistic matters. The concept of norm as a directive of conduct is the central category analyzed in particular essays. The structure of directives as well as their semantic and pragmatic roles are studied. Pragmatic functions of directives are linked with their functioning as speech acts. Moreover, existence and validity of norms are analyzed. The author also touches on general methodological problems of legal theory and philosophy, particularly their relations to social sciences. The collection covers material interesting for philosophers, lawyers and social scientists.

On Guilt, Responsibility, and Punishment


Author: Alf Ross

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520027176

Category: Law

Page: 183

View: 6398

Selected essays originally published as a book in Danish in 1970. Three had been published before then in English, but the others are new. All deal with concepts common to law and morality. "They function in the same way in legal and moral discourse: guilt determines responsibility, and responsibility punishment. But the conditions under which a person incurs guilt differ according to whether the guilt is legal or moral, as do also the manner in which the responsibility takes effect and the penal reaction itself." Cf. Preface, page v.

The Law in Philosophical Perspectives

My Philosophy of Law


Author: Luc J. Wintgens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401593175

Category: Philosophy

Page: 274

View: 5832

In this age of collections that is ours, many volumes of collections are published. They contain contributions of several well-known authors, and their aim is to present a selective overview of a relevant field of study. This book has the same purpose. Its aim is to introduce students, scholars and all those interested in current problems of legal theory and legal philosophy to the work of the leading scholars in this field. The large number of publications, both books and articles, that have been produced over recent decades makes it quite difficult, however, for those who are making their first steps in this domain to find firm guidelines. The book is new in its genre because of its method. The choice was made not to reprint an example of contributors' earlier basic articles or a part of one of their books. This would only give a partial view of the rich texture of their work. Rather, the authors were asked to make an original synthesis of their own contributions to the field of legal theory and legal philosophy. Brought together in this volume, they constitute a truly author-ised view of their work. This book is also new in that each essay is complemented with bibliographical information in order to encourage further research on the author's self-selected work. This will help the reader rapidly to become familiar with the whole of the published work of the contributors.

Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie

Bd. 4: Ins–Loc


Author: Jürgen Mittelstraß

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3476001369

Category: Philosophy

Page: 595

View: 5507

Das ganze Wissen der Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie. Lückenlos belegt das größte allgemeine Lexikon zur Philosophie in deutscher Sprache den heutigen Kenntnisstand. Erweitert auf acht Bände dokumentiert die 2. Auflage insbesondere die jüngsten Entwicklungen in Logik, Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie sowie Sprachphilosophie. Jetzt liegt der vierte Band in Neuauflage vor mit über 100 zusätzlichen Einträgen, u. a. zu Intelligenz, Interdisziplinarität, Isotropie, Kognitionswissenschaft, Komplexitätstheorie, Konvention, Lebenswissenschaften und einer Vielzahl neuer Personenartikel.

Die Kooperationsvereinbarungen der Sekretariate multilateraler Umweltschutzübereinkommen


Author: Ayse-Martina Böhringer

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161528613

Category: Law

Page: 373

View: 7865

English summary: Due to numerous co-existing multilateral conventions, international environmental law is characterized by a decentralized and fragmented structure. Cooperation agreements made between the secretariats of multilateral environment protection protocols have emerged in the face of a need for greater coherence and legal certainty in very specific areas of international environmental law, as well as in order to overcome fragmentation. The key question surrounding the judicial description and classification of such agreements leads to the following key areas of research: firstly to the question of the international legal status of the secretariats of multilateral environment protection protocols; secondly to a representative survey of these secretarial agreements; thirdly to the question of the normative potential of these agreements. A functional classification of these agreements complements the study. Within this context it also points out the limitations of the process of implementing institutional laws or standards driven by an inherent dynamic as well as those of the actual power of the states, even though - or perhaps because - the agreements cannot all be definitely assigned to traditional legal categories. German description: Das Umweltvolkerrecht ist aufgrund der zahlreichen, nebeneinander existierenden multilateralen Ubereinkommen durch eine dezentrale und fragmentierte Struktur gepragt. Die Kooperationsvereinbarungen der Sekretariate multilateraler Umweltschutzubereinkommen haben sich vor dem Hintergrund eines Bedurfnisses nach mehr Koharenz und Rechtssicherheit in ganz spezifischen Bereichen des Umweltvolkerrechts und zur Uberwindung von Fragmentierung herausgebildet. Die Kernfrage nach der rechtlichen Beschreibung und Einordnung dieser Kooperationsvereinbarungen fuhrt zu folgenden wesentlichen Untersuchungsschritten: Erstens zu der Frage der volkerrechtlichen Stellung der Sekretariate multilateraler Umweltschutzubereinkommen; zweitens zu einer moglichst reprasentativen Bestandsaufnahme der mit diesen Sekretariaten getroffenen Kooperationsvereinbarungen; drittens zu der Frage des normativen Potentials dieser Kooperationsvereinbarungen. Schliesslich erfolgt eine funktionale Einordnung dieser Vereinbarungen. Dabei werden auch die Grenzen dieses eigendynamischen institutionellen Rechts(norm)setzungsprozesses und die tatsachliche Wirkmacht der Staaten aufgezeigt, auch wenn - oder gerade weil - sich die Vereinbarungen weit uberwiegend den traditionellen Rechtsnormkategorien nicht eindeutig zuordnen lassen.

Reasons for Action and the Law


Author: M.C. Redondo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401591415

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 3191

A focus on reasons for action and practical reason is the perspective chosen by many contemporary legal philosophers for the analysis of some central questions of their discipline. This book offers a critical evaluation of that approach, by carefully examining the empirical, logical and normative problems hidden behind the concepts of `reason for action' and `practical reasoning'. Unlike most other works in this field, it is a meta-theoretical study which analyses and compares how different theories use the notion of reason in their reconstruction of problems concerning issues such as normativity, the acceptance of norms, or the justification of judicial decisions. This book is directed primarily to scholars specializing in legal theory and concerned with the contribution practical philosophy can make to it, but it also contains important arguments and insights for all those interested in the controversy between legal positivists and their critics, in the theory of human action or in reason-based practical theories in general.

Law, Institution and Legal Politics

Fundamental Problems of Legal Theory and Social Philosophy


Author: Ota Weinberger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401134588

Category: Philosophy

Page: 276

View: 1983

It gives me great pleasure to offer this foreword to the present work of my admired friend and respected colleague Ota Weinberger. Apart from the essays of his which were published in our joint work An Institutional Theory of Law: New Approaches to Legal Positivism in 1986, relatively little of Wein berger's work is available in English. This is the more to be regretted, since his is work of particular interest to jurists of the English-speaking world both in view of its origins and in respect of its content As to its origins, Weinberger war reared as a student of the Pure Theory of Law, a theory which in its Kelsenian form has aroused very great interest and has had considerable influence among anglophoone scholars -perhaps even more than in the Germanic countries. Less well known is the fact that the Pure Theory itself divided into two schools, that of Vienna and that of Brno. It was in the Brno school of Frantisek Weyr that Weinberger's legal theory found its early formation, and perhaps from that early influence one can trace his continuing insistence on the dual character of legal norms -both as genuinely normative and yet at the same time having real social existence.

Spinoza's Revolutions in Natural Law


Author: A. Campos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137005106

Category: Philosophy

Page: 205

View: 5420

This first analysis of Spinoza's philosophy of law shows that he revolutionizes modern philosophy from within by developing an entirely new natural law theory connecting his ontology to radically democratic political views.

Legal Directives and Practical Reasons


Author: Noam Gur

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191059064

Category: Law

Page: 235

View: 9347

This book investigates law's interaction with practical reasons. What difference can legal requirements-e.g. traffic rules, tax laws, or work safety regulations-make to normative reasons relevant to our action? Do they give reasons for action that should be weighed among all other reasons? Or can they, instead, exclude and take the place of some other reasons? The book critically examines some of the existing answers and puts forward an alternative understanding of law's interaction with practical reasons. At the outset, two competing positions are pitted against each other: Joseph Raz's view that (legitimate) legal authorities have pre-emptive force, namely that they give reasons for action that exclude some other reasons; and an antithesis, according to which law-making institutions (even those that meet prerequisites of legitimacy) can at most provide us with reasons that compete in weight with opposing reasons for action. These two positions are examined from several perspectives, such as justified disobedience cases, law's conduct-guiding function in contexts of bounded rationality, and the phenomenology associated with authority. It is found that, although each of the above positions offers insight into the conundrum at hand, both suffer from significant flaws. These observations form the basis on which an alternative position is put forward and defended. According to this position, the existence of a reasonably just and well-functioning legal system constitutes a reason that fits neither into a model of ordinary reasons for action nor into a pre-emptive paradigm-it constitutes a reason to adopt an (overridable) disposition that inclines its possessor towards compliance with the system's requirements.

China's New Governing Party Paradigm

Political Renewal and the Pursuit of National Rejuvenation


Author: Mr Timothy R Heath

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409462013

Category: Political Science

Page: 262

View: 3666

For the first time since its founding in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has adopted a new paradigm for its role in China. Abandoning its former identity as a 'revolutionary party', the CCP now regards itself as a 'governing party' committed to meeting the diverse needs of its people and realizing China’s revitalization as a great power. Few studies are available on the CCP's adoption of this new identity and of its political implications. This book remedies that oversight by explaining the historic context, drivers, and meaning of the governing party paradigm.

Problems in Historical Epistemology


Author: Jerzy Kmita

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400914210

Category: Science

Page: 194

View: 735

It was only after I had finished this volume that I came across the book by Barry Bames, Scientific Knowledge and Sociologi cal Theory (Routledge and Kegan Paul). I am in full ag, reement with certain ideas expounded in that book, although it also contains others that I must object to. I have decided to make some remarks about them at the beginning of my book, as I believe that they may prove useful by way of int, roduction to the English version of this volume. I hope that anyone who has professional reasons to turn his attention to this volume will have acquainted himself with Scientific Knowledge and Socio logical Theory before he proceeds any further. I fully share Barnes' view that it is possible and desirable to undertake descrtptive-sociological investigations of scientific research. The main subjeot of this research should be the na tural science, and, moreover, such findings in these sciences whose cognitive value has never been questioned by profession als. These investigations must avoid becoming entangled in epistemologtical controversies, and through epi:stemo}. ogy in, phi losophical controversies. They must not defend any of the contended theses and must not Hrterally, rely on evaluative pre mises that have been questicmed.