Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight

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Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262266680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 9333

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight

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Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262516105

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 359

View: 3004

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, aprogram alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrongresponded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring thecomputer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for atriumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famousmoment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers inthe Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control fromthe computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desireto control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From theearly days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to bemore than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and softwaredeveloped by engineers. Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollomoon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, andNASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems workedtogether to achieve the ultimate in flight--a lunar landing--traces and reframes the debate over thefuture of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in whichhuman roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or thefuture of exploration.David A. Mindell is Dibner Professor of the History of Engineering andManufacturing, Professor of Engineering Systems, and Director of the Program in Science, Technology,and Society at MIT. He is the author of Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computingbefore Cybernetics and War, Technology, and Experience aboard the USS Monitor.

Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight

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Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780262266673

Category: Astronautics

Page: 359

View: 2980

Digital Apollo

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Author: William Jayden

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781547291793

Category:

Page: 364

View: 4842

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine

The Apollo Guidance Computer

Architecture and Operation

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Author: Frank O'Brien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441908773

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 4749

The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.

Spacesuit

Fashioning Apollo

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Author: Nicholas De Monchaux

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026201520X

Category: Design

Page: 364

View: 7685

Chronicles the creation of the Apollo 11 spacesuits worn by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, which were designed by the women's undergarment-maker Playtex and consisted of 21 specialized layers, in a book that includes 140 cull-color illustrations.

Sunburst and Luminary

An Apollo Memoir

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Author: Don Eyles

Publisher: Fort Point Press, Boston

ISBN: 9780986385902

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 376

View: 3821

A New Perspective on the Space Program in the 1960s, written by the man responsible for the the Apollo mission's landing phase.

How Apollo Flew to the Moon

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Author: W. David Woods

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441971793

Category: Science

Page: 555

View: 1494

Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.

Failure Is Not an Option

Mission Control From Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond

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Author: Gene Kranz

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439148813

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 416

View: 7057

This memoir of a veteran NASA flight director tells riveting stories from the early days of the Mercury program through Apollo 11 (the moon landing) and Apollo 13, for both of which Kranz was flight director. Gene Kranz was present at the creation of America’s manned space program and was a key player in it for three decades. As a flight director in NASA’s Mission Control, Kranz witnessed firsthand the making of history. He participated in the space program from the early days of the Mercury program to the last Apollo mission, and beyond. He endured the disastrous first years when rockets blew up and the United States seemed to fall further behind the Soviet Union in the space race. He helped to launch Alan Shepard and John Glenn, then assumed the flight director’s role in the Gemini program, which he guided to fruition. With his teammates, he accepted the challenge to carry out President John F. Kennedy’s commitment to land a man on the Moon before the end of the 1960s. Kranz recounts these thrilling historic events and offers new information about the famous flights. What appeared as nearly flawless missions to the Moon were, in fact, a series of hair-raising near misses. When the space technology failed, as it sometimes did, the controllers’ only recourse was to rely on their skills and those of their teammates. He reveals behind-the-scenes details to demonstrate the leadership, discipline, trust, and teamwork that made the space program a success. A fascinating firsthand account by a veteran mission controller of one of America’s greatest achievements, Failure is Not an Option reflects on what has happened to the space program and offers his own bold suggestions about what we ought to be doing in space now.

Moonshot

The Flight of Apollo 11 (with audio recording)

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Author: Brian Floca

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1481409859

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 3654

Brilliantly illustrated, Moonshot tells the story of our first visit to the moon in 1969—an unforgettable story of home, seen whole, from far away. Simply told, grandly shown, here is the flight of Apollo 11. Here for a new generation of readers and explorers are the steady astronauts, clicking themselves into gloves and helmets, strapping themselves into sideways seats. Here are their great machines in all their detail and monumentality, the ROAR of rockets, and the silence of the Moon. Here is a story of adventure and discovery -- a story of leaving and returning during the summer of 1969, and a story of home, seen whole, from far away.

Thirteen

The Apollo Flight That Failed

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Author: Henry S. F. Cooper

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801850974

Category: Nature

Page: 199

View: 3175

An examination of the Apollo 13 mission focuses on the explosion that jeopardized the astronauts' lives and NASA's efforts to prevent disaster.

Apollo in the Age of Aquarius

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Author: Neil M. Maher

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 067497199X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3931

In summer 1969, astronauts landed on the moon and hippie hordes descended on Woodstock—two era-defining events that are not entirely coincidental. Neil M. Maher shows how NASA’s celestial aspirations were tethered to terrestrial concerns of the time: the civil rights struggle, the antiwar movement, environmentalism, feminism, and the culture wars.

Keys to Play

Music as a Ludic Medium from Apollo to Nintendo

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Author: Roger Moseley

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520291247

Category: Music

Page: 468

View: 7764

A free ebook version of this title is available through Luminos, University of California Press’s Open Access publishing program for monographs. Visit www.luminosoa.org to learn more. How do keyboards make music playable? Drawing on theories of media, systems, and cultural techniques, Keys to Play spans Greek myth and contemporary Japanese digital games to chart a genealogy of musical play and its animation via improvisation, performance, and recreation. As a paradigmatic digital interface, the keyboard forms a field of play on which the book’s diverse objects of inquiry—from clavichords to PCs and eighteenth-century musical dice games to the latest rhythm-action titles—enter into analogical relations. Remapping the keyboard’s topography by way of Mozart and Super Mario, who head an expansive cast of historical and virtual actors, Keys to Play invites readers to unlock ludic dimensions of music that are at once old and new.

Angle of Attack

Harrison Storms and the Race to the Moon

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Author: Mike Gray

Publisher: Penguin Group USA

ISBN: 9780140232806

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 304

View: 6095

As the world observes the 25th anniversary of the first man on the moon, this exciting book tells the gripping story of the engineers who answered President Kennedy's challenge and devoted their lives to accomplishing the impossible. "A fascinating book . . . about what Americans can achieve with vision and teamwork".--Buzz Aldrin.

Apollo

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Author: N.A

Publisher: SelfMadeHero

ISBN: 9781910593509

Category: Comics & Graphic Novels

Page: 160

View: 6574

In 1969, humankind set foot on the moon. Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and Michael Collins carried the fire for all the world. Backed by the brightest minds in engineering and science, the three boarded a rocket and flew through the void--just to know that we could. In Apollo, Matt Fitch, Chris Baker, and Mike Collins unpack the urban legends, the gossip, and the speculation to reveal a remarkable true story about life, death, dreams, and the reality of humanity's greatest exploratory achievement.

Apollo

An Eyewitness Account by Astronaut/explorer Artist/moonwalker Alan Bean

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Author: Alan Bean,Andrew Chaikin

Publisher: Artisan Books

ISBN: 9780867130508

Category: Art

Page: 176

View: 8089

Lunar missions chronicled in paintings by Apollo 12 astronaut Captain Alan Bean.

Adobe Apollo in Flight (Digital Short Cut)

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Author: Michael Tyler Givens

Publisher: Sams Publishing

ISBN: 0132714884

Category: Computers

Page: 60

View: 2597

This is the eBook version of the printed book. With the release of the Apollo alpha, the code name of Adobe's new technology, the next generation of rich desktop applications is already under way. At an accelerating rate, new Apollo applications are vying for your PC's desktop real estate. Combining the existing web technologies you already know (Flex, AJAX, HTML, and others) with the Apollo runtime allows you to create engaging experiences for both Windows and Mac platforms that function even while disconnected from the network. In this Digital Short Cut, you will learn about the Apollo alpha and see a sample workflow for taking your current web development and server-side skills and applying them to create a new kind of desktop application. After reading this Short Cut, you will be well on your way to creating a different kind of desktop experience. Beginning with a sample application, Hello Apollo World, and progressing to a real-world desktop application, Go Fly, you will learn about some of the most important aspects of this exciting new technology. Apollo in Flight is targeted for developers that want just the facts - no fluff, only stuff.

A Man on the Moon

The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts

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Author: Andrew Chaikin

Publisher: Penguin Books

ISBN: 9780141041834

Category: Astronauts

Page: 670

View: 2747

'Through the windows of the slowly turning spacecraft they looked out at the place where the sun had once been, and there was the moon: a huge, magnificent sphere bathed in the ceric blue light of earthshine, each crater rendered in ghostly detail.'

Moon Lander

How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module

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Author: Thomas J. Kelly

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588343618

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5088

Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.

The Hidden Oracle

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Author: Rick Riordan

Publisher: Trials of Apollo

ISBN: 9780606406055

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 416

View: 6702

How do you punish an immortal? By making him human. After angering his father Zeus, the god Apollo is cast down from Olympus. Weak and disoriented, he lands in New York City as a regular teenage boy. Now, without his godly powers, the four-thousand-year-old deity must learn to survive in the modern world until he can somehow find a way to regain Zeus's favor. But Apollo has many enemies-gods, monsters, and mortals who would love to see the former Olympian permanently destroyed. Apollo needs help, and he can think of only one place to go . . . an enclave of modern demigods known as Camp Half-Blood. Also included, a bonus short story: "Percy Jackson and the Singer of Apollo"