Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195122350

Category: Medical

Page: 794

View: 8733

West-Eberhard is widely recognized as one of the most incisive thinkers in evolutionary biology. This book assesses all the evidence for our current understanding of the role of changes in body plan and development for the process of speciation. The process of evolution is systematically reassessed to integrate the insights coming from developmental genetics. Every serious student of evolution, and a substantial share of developmental biologists and geneticists, will need to take note of this contribution. The timing is clearly ripe for the synthesis that this work will help bring about.

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198028567

Category: Science

Page: 916

View: 7371

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199880735

Category: Science

Page: 816

View: 9313

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Phenotypic Plasticity

Beyond Nature and Nurture

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Author: Massimo Pigliucci,Professor of Ecology and Evolution Department of Botany Massimo Pigliucci

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801867880

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 6917

"The most comprehensive book on this topic. It provides both a solid basis for understanding the subject and an inspiring synthesis of the current state of the discipline." -- Nature

Phenotypic Plasticity

Functional and Conceptual Approaches

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Author: Thomas J. DeWitt,Samuel M. Scheiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195138961

Category: Science

Page: 247

View: 9739

Genetic, evolution, adaptation, environment, genotype.

Phenotypic Evolution

A Reaction Norm Perspective

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Author: Carl Schlichting,Massimo Pigliucci

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878937998

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 9942

Phenotypic expression has variously been attributed to developmental, genetic and environmental factors. This book presents a cohesive view of how adaptive phenotypes evolve, recognizing organisms as complex genetic-epigenetic systems that develop in response to changing environments.

Developmental Plasticity

Behavioral and Biological Aspects of Variations in Development

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Author: Eugene Gollin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323157203

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 1728

Developmental Plasticity: Behavioral and Biological Aspects of Variations in Development explores the behavioral and biological aspects of variations in development from a variety of theoretical viewpoints and research contexts. Topics covered include evolution and genetic variability; sensory bases of infant perception; and learning and ethology. The infancy of human learning processes is also discussed, along with epistemology and developmental psychology. Comprised of eight chapters, this book opens with a review of the broad evolutionary landscape and the specific genetic mechanisms implicated in biological and behavioral development. It then describes the sensory apparatus available to neonatal human beings and analyzes the similarities and differences between ethological theory and learning theory. Developmental plasticity is also examined in interdisciplinary contexts, while the acquisition of behavior patterns during early postnatal development is explored from a traditional learning theory point of view. The remaining chapters focus on the role played by asymmetry in general and by cerebral asymmetry in particular in the generation of individuality; cultural and biological instances of plasticity in development; and the barriers separating epistemology from developmental psychology and psycholinguistics. This monograph will be a useful resource for developmental psychologists and other professionals devoted to child development and learning, as well as those in the fields of genetics and behavioral and biological sciences.

Environment, Development, and Evolution

Toward a Synthesis

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Author: Katrin Schäfer,Thomas Pradeu

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262083195

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 841

Leading researchers in evolutionary developmental biology seek linkages between, and a synthesis of, development, physiology, endocrinology, ecology, and evolution. Evolutionary developmental biology, also known as evo-devo or EDB, seeks to find links between development and evolution by opening the "black box" of development's role in evolution and in the evolution of developmental mechanisms. In particular, this volume emphasizes the roles of the environment and of hormonal signaling in evo-devo. It brings together a group of leading researchers to analyze the dynamic interaction of environmental factors with developmental and physiological processes and to examine how environmental signals are translated into phenotypic change, from the molecular and cellular level to organisms and groups of organisms. Taken together, these chapters demonstrate the crucial roles of those processes of genetic, developmental, physiological, and hormonal change that underpin evolutionary change in development, morphology, physiology, behavior, and life-history. Part I investigates links between environmental signals and developmental processes that could be preserved over evolutionary time. Several contributors evaluate the work of the late Ryuichi Matsuda, especially his emphasis on the role of the external environment in genetic change and variability ("pan-environmentalism"). Other contributors in part I analyze different aspects of environmental-genetic-evolutionary linkages, including the importance of alternate ontogenies in evolution and the paradox of stability over long periods of evolutionary time. Part II examines the plasticity that characterizes much of development, with contributors discussing such topics as gene regulatory networks and heterochronicity. Part III analyzes the role of hormones and metamorphosis in the evolution of such organisms with alternate life-history stages as lampreys, amphibians, and insects.

Epigenetics

Linking Genotype and Phenotype in Development and Evolution

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Author: Benedikt Hallgrimsson Ph.D.,Brian K. Hall Ph.D.

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520948823

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 7927

Illuminating the processes and patterns that link genotype to phenotype, epigenetics seeks to explain features, characters, and developmental mechanisms that can only be understood in terms of interactions that arise above the level of the gene. With chapters written by leading authorities, this volume offers a broad integrative survey of epigenetics. Approaching this complex subject from a variety of perspectives, it presents a broad, historically grounded view that demonstrates the utility of this approach for understanding complex biological systems in development, disease, and evolution. Chapters cover such topics as morphogenesis and organ formation, conceptual foundations, and cell differentiation, and together demonstrate that the integration of epigenetics into mainstream developmental biology is essential for answering fundamental questions about how phenotypic traits are produced.

Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects

Mechanisms and Consequences

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Author: Douglas Whitman,T. N. Ananthakrishnan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 894

View: 3812

This book explores the profound importance of phenotypic plasticity as a central organizing theme for understanding biology. Chapters take a broad, integrative approach to explain how physical and biological environmental stimuli (temperature, photoperiod, nutrition, population density, predator presence, etc.), influence insect biochemical, physiological, learning, and developmental processes, altering phenotype, which then influences performance, ecology, life-history, survival, fitness, and subsequent evolution. Topics include endocrinology, development, body size, allometry, polyphenism, reproduction, reproductive and life-history tradeoffs, alternative mating and life-history strategies, density-dependent prophylaxis, physiological adaptation, acclimation, homeostasis, heat-shock proteins, learning, adaptive anti-predator behavior, and evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

Evolution

A Developmental Approach

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Author: Wallace Arthur

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444392255

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 1123

This book is aimed at students taking courses on evolution in universities and colleges. Its approach and its structure are very different from previously-published evolution texts. The core theme in this book is how evolution works by changing the course of embryonic and post-embryonic development. In other words, it is an evolution text that has been very much influenced by the new approach of evolutionary developmental biology, or 'evo-devo'. Key themes include the following: developmental repatterning; adaptation and coadaptation; gene co-option; developmental plasticity; the origins of evolutionary novelties and body plans; and evolutionary changes in the complexity of organisms. As can be seen from this list, the book includes information across the levels of the gene, the organism, and the population. It also includes the issue of mapping developmental changes onto evolutionary trees. The examples used to illustrate particular points range widely, including animals, plants and fossils. "I have really enjoyed reading this book. One of the strengths of the book is the almost conversational style. I found the style easy to read, but also feel that it will be invaluable in teaching. One of our tasks in university level teaching is to develop students' critical thinking skills. We need to support them in their intellectual development from a "just the facts" approach to being able to make critical judgements based on available evidence. The openness and honesty with which Arthur speaks to uncertainty in science is refreshing and will be a baseline for discussions with students." -Professor Patricia Moore, Exeter University "This book, written as an undergraduate text, is a really most impressive book. Given the burgeoning interest in the role of developmental change in evolution in recent times, this will be a very timely publication. The book is well structured and, like the author's other books, very well written. He communicates with a clear, lucid style and has the ability to explain even the more difficult concepts in an accessible manner." ---Professor Kenneth McNamara, University of Cambridge The companion site can be found at www.wiley.com/go/arthur/evolution. Here you download all figures from the book, captions, tables, and table of contents.

Relentless Evolution

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Author: John N. Thompson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022601861X

Category: Science

Page: 499

View: 9915

At a glance, most species seem adapted to the environment in which they live. Yet species relentlessly evolve, and populations within species evolve in different ways. Evolution, as it turns out, is much more dynamic than biologists realized just a few decades ago. In Relentless Evolution, John N. Thompson explores why adaptive evolution never ceases and why natural selection acts on species in so many different ways. Thompson presents a view of life in which ongoing evolution is essential and inevitable. Each chapter focuses on one of the major problems in adaptive evolution: How fast is evolution? How strong is natural selection? How do species co-opt the genomes of other species as they adapt? Why does adaptive evolution sometimes lead to more, rather than less, genetic variation within populations? How does the process of adaptation drive the evolution of new species? How does coevolution among species continually reshape the web of life? And, more generally, how are our views of adaptive evolution changing? Relentless Evolution draws on studies of all the major forms of life—from microbes that evolve in microcosms within a few weeks to plants and animals that sometimes evolve in detectable ways within a few decades. It shows evolution not as a slow and stately process, but rather as a continual and sometimes frenetic process that favors yet more evolutionary change.

Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution

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Author: Patrick Bateson,Peter Gluckman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949628X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6214

How do we understand and explain the apparent dichotomy between plasticity and robustness in the context of development? Can we identify these complex processes without resorting to 'either/or' solutions? Written by two leaders in the field, this is the first book to fully unravel the complexity of the subject, explaining that the epigenetic processes generating plasticity and robustness are in fact deeply intertwined. It identifies the different mechanisms that generate robustness and the various forms of plasticity, before considering the functional significance of the integrated mechanisms and how the component processes might have evolved. Finally, it highlights the ways in which epigenetic mechanisms could be instrumental in driving evolutionary change. Essential reading for biologists and psychologists interested in epigenetics and evolution, this book is also a valuable resource for biological anthropologists, sociobiologists, child psychologists and paediatricians.

Developmental Biology

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Author: Scott F. Gilbert,Michael J. F. Barresi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781605357386

Category:

Page: 500

View: 3215

Published by Sinauer Associates, an imprint of Oxford University Press. A classic gets a new coauthor and a new approach: Developmental Biology, Eleventh Edition, keeps the excellent writing, accuracy, and enthusiasm of the Gilbert Developmental Biology book, streamlines it, adds innovative electronic supplements, and creates a new textbook for those teaching Developmental Biology to a new generation. Several new modes of teaching are employed in the new Gilbert and Barresi textbook.

The Flexible Phenotype

A Body-Centred Integration of Ecology, Physiology, and Behaviour

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Author: Theunis Piersma,Jan A. van Gils

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199233721

Category: Medical

Page: 238

View: 9031

This book attempts a true synthesis of animal physiology, behaviour, and ecology by developing an empirical argument that describes the intimate connections between animal phenotype and environment, using the results of a long-term research programme on migrant shorebirds and their invertebrate prey.

Phenotypic Integration

Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes

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Author: Massimo Pigliucci

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195160436

Category: Science

Page: 443

View: 4842

The interface of evolution and development has attracted the attention of evolutionary and developmental biologists, geneticists, and organismal biologists. Pigliucci (ecology, evolutionary biology, University of Tennessee) and Preston (botany, Standford University) bring together work by experts in the field of phenotype integration, shedding ligh.

The Evolution of Parental Care

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Author: Nick J. Royle,Per T. Smiseth,Mathias Kölliker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199692572

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 3823

Parental care includes a wide variety of traits that enhance offspring development and survival. This novel book provides a fresh perspective on the current state of the study of the evolution of parental care, written by some of the top researchers in the field, and taking a broad taxonomic approach.

Forms of Becoming

The Evolutionary Biology of Development

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Author: Alessandro Minelli

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691135687

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 2858

What comes first, form or function? Evolutionary developmental biology (or "evo-devo") answers this fundamental question by showing how evolution controls the development of organisms. Alessandro Minelli takes an in-depth and comprehensive look at the history and key issues of evo-devo, focusing on the innovative ways animal organisms evolve through competition and cooperation. Minelli provides a complete overview of conceptual developments--from the fierce nineteenth-century debates between the French biologists Geoffroy and Cuvier, who fought over questions of form versus function--to modern theories of how genes dictate body formation. The book's wide-ranging topics include expression patterns of genes, developmental bias, the role of developmental genes, and genetic determinism. Drawing from diverse examples, such as the anatomy of butterflies, giraffes, Siamese twins, and corals, Minelli extends and reformulates important concepts from development, evolution, and the interplay between the two.

Evolution's Wedge

Competition and the Origins of Diversity

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Author: David Pfennig,Karin Pfennig

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520954041

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 8661

Evolutionary biology has long sought to explain how new traits and new species arise. Darwin maintained that competition is key to understanding this biodiversity and held that selection acting to minimize competition causes competitors to become increasingly different, thereby promoting new traits and new species. Despite Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s role in diversification remains controversial and largely underappreciated. In their synthetic and provocative book, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig explore competition's role in generating and maintaining biodiversity. The authors discuss how selection can lessen resource competition or costly reproductive interactions by promoting trait evolution through a process known as character displacement. They further describe character displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then consider character displacement’s myriad downstream effects, ranging from shaping ecological communities to promoting new traits and new species and even fueling large-scale evolutionary trends. Drawing on numerous studies from natural populations, and written for a broad audience, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to inspire future research into character displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.

Cycles of Contingency

Developmental Systems and Evolution

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Author: Susan Oyama,Paul E. Griffiths,Russell D. Gray

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262650632

Category: Psychology

Page: 391

View: 6521

The nature/nurture debate is not dead. Dichotomous views of development still underlie many fundamental debates in the biological and social sciences. Developmental systems theory (DST) offers a new conceptual framework with which to resolve such debates. DST views ontogeny as contingent cycles of interaction among a varied set of developmental resources, no one of which controls the process. These factors include DNA, cellular and organismic structure, and social and ecological interactions. DST has excited interest from a wide range of researchers, from molecular biologists to anthropologists, because of its ability to integrate evolutionary theory and other disciplines without falling into traditional oppositions.The book provides historical background to DST, recent theoretical findings on the mechanisms of heredity, applications of the DST framework to behavioral development, implications of DST for the philosophy of biology, and critical reactions to DST.