Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195122350

Category: Medical

Page: 794

View: 4216

West-Eberhard is widely recognized as one of the most incisive thinkers in evolutionary biology. This book assesses all the evidence for our current understanding of the role of changes in body plan and development for the process of speciation. The process of evolution is systematically reassessed to integrate the insights coming from developmental genetics. Every serious student of evolution, and a substantial share of developmental biologists and geneticists, will need to take note of this contribution. The timing is clearly ripe for the synthesis that this work will help bring about.

Phenotypic Plasticity

Beyond Nature and Nurture

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Author: Massimo Pigliucci,Professor of Ecology and Evolution Department of Botany Massimo Pigliucci

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801867880

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 2762

"The most comprehensive book on this topic. It provides both a solid basis for understanding the subject and an inspiring synthesis of the current state of the discipline." -- Nature

Die Dreifachhelix

Gen, Organismus und Umwelt

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Author: Richard Lewontin

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642561632

Category: Science

Page: 135

View: 9231

Dieses allgemein verständliche Buch eines weltbekannten Evolutionsbiologen gibt einen brilliant geschriebenen Überblick über die Auswirkungen der Evolutionsbiologie und Genforschung auf die menschliche Gesellschaft. Ausführlich analysiert und kommentiert der Autor insbesondere weit verbreitete falsche Vorstellungen, die oft das Verständnis von Biologie und Evolution behindern. Der Titel "Die Dreifachhelix" bezieht sich auf die drei Komponenten, die bei der Evolution eine Rolle spielen: Gen, Organismus, Umwelt. Alle wissenschaftlichen Interessierten, die sich mit politischen Fragen im Zusammenhang mit Genforschung befassen sowie Mathematiker und Informatiker, die sich in biologischen Fragen einarbeiten wollen, finden in dem Buch eine hervorragende Grundlage. "...das Nachdenken eines ganzen wissenschaftlichen Lebens über Genetik und Evolution ist in diesem kleinen, eleganten und Maßstäbe setzenden Buch konzentriert..." Nature Nov. 2000

Environment, Development, and Evolution

Toward a Synthesis

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Author: Katrin Schäfer,Thomas Pradeu

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262083195

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 9447

Leading researchers in evolutionary developmental biology seek linkages between, and a synthesis of, development, physiology, endocrinology, ecology, and evolution. Evolutionary developmental biology, also known as evo-devo or EDB, seeks to find links between development and evolution by opening the "black box" of development's role in evolution and in the evolution of developmental mechanisms. In particular, this volume emphasizes the roles of the environment and of hormonal signaling in evo-devo. It brings together a group of leading researchers to analyze the dynamic interaction of environmental factors with developmental and physiological processes and to examine how environmental signals are translated into phenotypic change, from the molecular and cellular level to organisms and groups of organisms. Taken together, these chapters demonstrate the crucial roles of those processes of genetic, developmental, physiological, and hormonal change that underpin evolutionary change in development, morphology, physiology, behavior, and life-history. Part I investigates links between environmental signals and developmental processes that could be preserved over evolutionary time. Several contributors evaluate the work of the late Ryuichi Matsuda, especially his emphasis on the role of the external environment in genetic change and variability ("pan-environmentalism"). Other contributors in part I analyze different aspects of environmental-genetic-evolutionary linkages, including the importance of alternate ontogenies in evolution and the paradox of stability over long periods of evolutionary time. Part II examines the plasticity that characterizes much of development, with contributors discussing such topics as gene regulatory networks and heterochronicity. Part III analyzes the role of hormones and metamorphosis in the evolution of such organisms with alternate life-history stages as lampreys, amphibians, and insects.

Die Evolution des Fliegens – Ein Fotoshooting

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Author: Georg Glaeser,Hannes F. Paulus,Werner Nachtigall

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662498995

Category: Science

Page: 249

View: 6706

Dieser Band nimmt sie mit auf eine spannende Reise in Bildern und Texten. Spektakuläre, großformatige Fotos auf Doppelseiten mit einem Erklärungstext machen die Leser neugierig auf das, was die Evolution im Bereich des Fliegens hervorgebracht hat: von der pflanzlichen Luftflotte (Pollenkörner, Flugsamen,...) über fliegende Schlangen und Fische, unter Wasser fliegende Pinguine bis zum Menschen, der sich in die Lüfte erhebt. Das Buch kann in beliebiger Reihenfolge, Doppelseite für Doppelseite, gelesen werden. Querverweise sorgen für bequemes Umspringen auf andere Doppelseiten. Die Textpassagen sind zumeist - abgesehen von der fundierten Einleitung - unabhängig von einander und besprechen besondere Highlights im evolutionären Prozess. Ergänzt wird die Doppelseite mit Literaturhinweisen und Verweisen auf instruktive Internet-Seiten.

Development and Environment

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Author: Warren Burggren,Benjamin Dubansky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319759353

Category: Science

Page: 467

View: 712

Rather than a loosely connected list of facts/topics, this book addresses virtually every field that involves the use of developing animals in environmental science. In doing so, it will help define the scientific collective within these fields to both those readers who are "outside" of a particular field (students and professionals alike) and those who work within said field, where multiple iterations of the same job description exist. Both the content and choice of authors fully support this goal, as the editors and contributing authors represent contemporary thought and experimentation in their respective fields – ranging from developmental physiology through environmental toxicology to medicine. As such, this work will appeal to a broad audience, including any scientist or trainee interested in the nexus of environment, development and physiology.

Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution

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Author: Patrick Bateson,Peter Gluckman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949628X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 3892

How do we understand and explain the apparent dichotomy between plasticity and robustness in the context of development? Can we identify these complex processes without resorting to 'either/or' solutions? Written by two leaders in the field, this is the first book to fully unravel the complexity of the subject, explaining that the epigenetic processes generating plasticity and robustness are in fact deeply intertwined. It identifies the different mechanisms that generate robustness and the various forms of plasticity, before considering the functional significance of the integrated mechanisms and how the component processes might have evolved. Finally, it highlights the ways in which epigenetic mechanisms could be instrumental in driving evolutionary change. Essential reading for biologists and psychologists interested in epigenetics and evolution, this book is also a valuable resource for biological anthropologists, sociobiologists, child psychologists and paediatricians.

Ecological Genomics

Ecology and the Evolution of Genes and Genomes

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Author: Christian R. Landry,Nadia Aubin-Horth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400773471

Category: Science

Page: 359

View: 9840

Researchers in the field of ecological genomics aim to determine how a genome or a population of genomes interacts with its environment across ecological and evolutionary timescales. Ecological genomics is trans-disciplinary by nature. Ecologists have turned to genomics to be able to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the biodiversity their research tries to understand. Genomicists have turned to ecology in order to better explain the functional cellular and molecular variation they observed in their model organisms. We provide an advanced-level book that covers this recent research and proposes future development for this field. A synthesis of the field of ecological genomics emerges from this volume. Ecological Genomics covers a wide array of organisms (microbes, plants and animals) in order to be able to identify central concepts that motivate and derive from recent investigations in different branches of the tree of life. Ecological Genomics covers 3 fields of research that have most benefited from the recent technological and conceptual developments in the field of ecological genomics: the study of life-history evolution and its impact of genome architectures; the study of the genomic bases of phenotypic plasticity and the study of the genomic bases of adaptation and speciation.

Der Körper vergißt nicht

Gehirn, Geist & Körper bei der Heilung von Traumata

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Author: Bessel van der Kolk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783944476131

Category:

Page: 480

View: 1942

Biologie und Ökologie der Insekten

ein Taschenlexikon

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Author: Werner Jacobs,Maximilian Renner,Klaus Honomichl

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783827407993

Category: Entomology

Page: 678

View: 1109

Biosystematik

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Author: Guillaume Lecointre,Hervé Le Guyader

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540299793

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 6117

Wussten Sie, dass Sie mit einem Röhrling näher verwandt sind als mit einem Gänseblümchen oder Vögel den Krokodilen näher sind als Eidechsen? In den letzten 30 Jahren sind die Methoden der Klassifikation des Lebens völlig neu überdacht worden. Das Resultat stellt die bisherige Einteilung der mehr als 2 Millionen bekannten Arten auf den Kopf. Das Buch hilft, die organismische Vielfalt zu bewältigen, indem wesentliche Einteilungs- und Ordnungskriterien vorgestellt und bedeutende stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklungslinien diskutiert werden.

Die soziale Eroberung der Erde

Eine biologische Geschichte des Menschen

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Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406645313

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 8272

Woher kommen wir? Was sind wir? Wohin gehen wir? Der große Biologe E. O. Wilson entschlüsselt die Evolution des Menschen Die soziale Eroberung der Erde ist die Summe lebenslanger innovativer Forschung, die Krönung des Lebenswerkes von Edward O. Wilson. Seine weitreichende These: Die soziale Gruppe und nicht das egoistische Gen war der entscheidende Faktor der Menschwerdung. "Keinem außer Edward O. Wilson konnte eine derart brillante Synthese aus Biologie und Geisteswissenschaften gelingen, die Licht wirft auf den Ursprung von Sprache, Religion, Kunst und der gesamten menschlichen Kultur." Oliver Sacks "Eine große, doch einfache Fragestellung, überzeugende Erklärungen, eine meisterhafte Beherrschung der Wissenschaft und eine anschauliche, verständliche Darstellung einmal mehr hat E.O. Wilson ein Buch geschrieben mit den Qualitäten, die ihm Pulitzerpreise und ein Millionenpublikum eingebracht haben." Jared Diamond "Ein fabelhaftes Buch." Bill Clinton

Freaks of Nature

What Anomalies Tell Us About Development and Evolution

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Author: Mark Blumberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198043430

Category: Psychology

Page: 344

View: 491

In most respects, Abigail and Brittany Hensel are normal American twins. Born and raised in a small town, they enjoy a close relationship, though each has her own tastes and personality. But the Hensels also share a body. Their two heads sit side-by-side on a single torso, with two arms and two legs. They have not only survived, but have developed into athletic, graceful young women. And that, writes Mark S. Blumberg, opens an extraordinary window onto human development and evolution. In Freaks of Nature, Blumberg turns a scientist's eye on the oddities of nature, showing how a subject once relegated to the sideshow can help explain some of the deepest complexities of biology. Why, for example, does a two-headed human so resemble a two-headed minnow? What we need to understand, Blumberg argues, is that anomalies are the natural products of development, and it is through developmental mechanisms that evolution works. Freaks of Nature induces a kind of intellectual vertigo as it upends our intuitive understanding of biology. What really is an anomaly? Why is a limbless human a "freak," but a limbless reptile-a snake-a successful variation? What we see as deformities, Blumberg writes, are merely alternative paths for development, which challenge both the creature itself and our ability to fit it into our familiar categories. Rather than mere dead-ends, many anomalies prove surprisingly survivable-as in the case of the goat without forelimbs that learned to walk upright. Blumberg explains how such variations occur, and points to the success of the Hensel sisters and the goat as examples of the extraordinary flexibility inherent in individual development. In taking seriously a subject that has often been shunned as discomfiting and embarrassing, Mark Blumberg sheds new light on how individuals-and entire species-develop, survive, and evolve.

Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition

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Author: Adam Miklosi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191045721

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 5818

This is the first book to collate and synthesize the recent burgeoning primary research literature on dog behaviour, evolution, and cognition. The author presents a new ecological approach to the understanding of dog behaviour, demonstrating how dogs can be the subject of rigorous and productive scientific study without the need to confine them to a laboratory environment. This second, fully updated edition of Dog Behaviour, Evolution and Cognition starts with an overview of the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the study of the dog, followed by a brief description of their role in human society. An evolutionary perspective is then introduced with a summary of current research into the process of domestication. The central part of the book is devoted to issues relating to the cognitive aspects of behaviour which have received particular attention in recent years from both psychologists and ethologists. The book's final chapters introduce the reader to many novel approaches to dog behaviour, set in the context of behavioural development and genetics. This second edition recognises and discusses the fact that dogs are increasingly being used as model organisms for studying aspects of human biology, such as genetic diseases and ageing. Specific attention is also given in this edition to attachment behaviour which emerges between humans and dogs, the importance of inter-specific communication in the success of dogs in human communities and the broad aspects of social cognition and how this may contribute to human-dog cooperation Directions for future research are highlighted throughout the text which also incorporates links to human and primate research by drawing on homologies and analogies in both evolution and behaviour. The book will therefore be of relevance and use to anyone with an interest in behavioural ecology including graduate students of animal behaviour and cognition, as well as a more general audience of dog enthusiasts, biologists, psychologists, veterinarians, and sociologists.

Die Evolution der Tiere

Begleittext zum Poster "Die Evolution der Tiere", mit dem Text der Hörbuch-Doppel-CD: "Die Evolution"

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Author: Manfred Grasshoff,Michael Gudo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783510613861

Category:

Page: 47

View: 8280

Evolution und Entwicklung

Reflexionen eines Biologen

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Author: John Tyler Bonner

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663019705

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 4969

Ich bin mir des vernichtenden Kommentars bewußt, der hinter den Ku lissen getuschelt wird - nämlich, daß ich wie ein Professor klinge -, aber nach all den professoralen Jahren ist es mir fast unmöglich, die Hauptbe schäftigung meines Lebens zu verbergen. Seit über vierzig Jahren habe ich den Kursus "allgemeine Biologie" für Anfänger und Fortgeschrittene Eines Tages besuchte mich eine an der Universität Princeton gelehrt. Soziologiestudentin und bat mich um ein Interview im Rahmen ihrer Diplomarbeit. Es stellte sich heraus, daß sie Lehren mit Schauspielen vergleichen wollte. Da hatte ich mehr Fragen an sie als sie an mich. Sie machte die interessante Bemerkung, daß beide, Lehrer wie Schauspieler, um ihre Wirkung auf das Publikum besorgt sind. Trotzdem haben sie ein unterschiedliches Problem; der Schauspieler gibt jedesmal die gleiche Vorstellung vor wechselnden Zuschauern, während der Lehrer Tag ein, Tag aus vor den selben Zuhörern etwas Verschiedenes bringen muß (und hoffentlich Spannendes). Manchmal hinterlassen die unmöglichsten Dinge den größten Eindruck im Kopf der Zuhörer. Ich machte diese Er fahrung, als ich die allererste Vorlesung in Princeton vor Erstsemester studenten (damals gab es keine Studentinnen) hielt. In der Mitte der Vorlesung stürzte ich vom Podium und setzte mich unsanft auf den Bo den. Es gab großen Beifall, offenbar der Höhepunkt der Lektion.