Democracy and Its Crisis

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Author: A. C. Grayling

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1786072904

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 6653

Prompted by events in recent years in the UK and the USA, in Latin America, Russia and the Middle East, A. C. Grayling investigates why the institutions of representative democracy seem unable to sustain themselves against forces they were designed to manage, and why it matters. In each of five short chapters, he considers a moment in history in which the challenges we face today were first encountered, how they were overcome – or not – and with what consequences. With the advent of authoritarian leaders and the simultaneous rise of populism, representative democracy appears to be caught between a rock and a hard place, yet it is this space that it must occupy, argues Grayling, if a civilized society, that looks after all its people, is to flourish.

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können

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Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641222915

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 2204

Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Democracy and Inequalities in India

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Author: Zoya Hasan

Publisher: Primus Books

ISBN: 9789380607894

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 4581

There are several important themes that define India's contemporary politics. The essays in this anthology focus on some of the critical developments and the ways in which long-standing structures of society and the working of democracy have reconfigured Indian political society. Many of them examine important aspects of democratic politics after Nehru. Many look at the debates over secularism, representation, redistribution, social justice, and caste, class and gender, and the changing nature of the State in the wake of globalization and liberalization. Besides, they explore the politics and policy of group differentiated rights, regional politics, caste assertion, minority rights and women's rights and how these endeavours have impacted the pursuit of equality in India. India is famous for its democracy; its government's are elected by its citizens at regular intervals. India has consolidated a democratic system despite the absence of the preconditions often associated with democracy in the 1950s when India first became a democratic, secular republic. From the late 1980s legislatures have become more socially representative contributing to a shift in the balance of political power in the state and society. But in the process Indian democracy has also become predominantly a means of electoral empowerment of different groups--lower castes, dalits, or even majoritarian Hindus who claim to have been weakened by the privileges accorded to religious minorities. India has not been successful in reducing inequalities between its citizens. The inequalities in wealth and income have not been reduced; an unconscionably large number of people are poor even by the most modest standards of living; universal literacy is yet to be realized; a high dropout rate from schools and a very small proportion of the population go on to higher education. This leads into another related aspect of socioeconomic and political asymmetries: regionalism and the growing importance of states in the political system after economic liberalization. India is undeniably one of the world's most unequal societies. Social inequality revolves around the axes of class, caste, religion and gender. These inequalities are rooted in the caste system, property, income, employment and education. The upper castes are the most advantaged in India and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes among the poorest and most disadvantaged. However, the Indian state has made significant attempts to address these pressing concerns through constitutional provisions and above all, through the policy of mandatory reservation for these two groups since 1950 and for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) following the implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission from 1990 onwards. Whilst the constitutional effort to reduce social inequalities has met with considerable success, it also created many new problems because it did not enable governments to ensure substantive equality. The political leadership is more representative but only in respect of caste. Change is limited to the institutions of representation and to caste groups who have gained from it; it does not extend to Muslims and women. Some of the aforesaid developments have transformed the tenor and quality of democratic politics and whether this will lead to a greater social deepening of democracy broadly hinges on efforts to resolve three key issues. How will the political system, now more than ever based on egalitarian democratic values, accommodate the changes taking place in its social arrangements? How will the state balance the need to ensure social good by defining an overarching vision for a country that, on the one hand, is galloping ahead on a high growth path just as the state acts to promote private business, and on the other, is divided by huge inequalities in economy and society? And, in the face of the declining legitimacy of the state and the continuing expansion of civil society, can the state redevelop and revive its legitimacy, and if it is to do so, how should it redefine the boundaries between state and society and state and capital? These issues, with their built-in tensions, will continue to serve as sources of change in the continuing transformation of Indian democracy.

Der Weg in die Unfreiheit

Russland - Europa - Amerika

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Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406725023

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 5780

Gleichheit oder Oligarchie, Individualismus oder Unfreiheit, Wahrheit oder Fake News – die Welt, wie wir sie kannten, steht am Scheideweg. Viel hat der Westen selbst dazu beigetragen. Aber er hat auch mächtige Feinde, die seine Institutionen mit allen Mitteln – von der Finanzierung des Rechtspopulismus in Europa bis zum Cyberwar – untergraben wollen. Wer diese Gegner sind, wie sie vorgehen und wie bedrohlich die Lage ist, das beschreibt das aufsehenerregende neue Buch von Tim Snyder. Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges hatten die liberalen Demokratien des Westens gesiegt. Von nun an würde die Menschheit eine friedvolle, globalisierte Zukunft erwarten. Doch das war ein Irrtum. Seit Putin seine Macht in Russland etabliert hat, rollt eine Welle des Autoritarismus von Osten nach Westen, die Europ... a erfasst hat und mit Donald Trump auch im Weißen Haus angekommen ist. Tim Snyder, Autor des Weltbestsellers «Über Tyrannei», beschreibt in seinem Buch den Aufstieg dieser neuen «rechten Internationalen», schildert ihre bedrohlichen Ziele und zeigt, wie sehr die Grundlagen unserer Demokratie in Gefahr sind.

When Might Becomes Human Right

Essays on Democracy and the Crisis of Rationality

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Author: Janne Haaland Matlary

Publisher: Gracewing Publishing

ISBN: 9780852440315

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 4210

Europadämmerung

Ein Essay

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Author: Ivan Krastev

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518752189

Category: Political Science

Page: 143

View: 4583

Nach 1989 waren Landkarten plötzlich nicht länger in Mode. Die Grenzen sollten geöffnet werden für Menschen, Güter, Kapital und Ideen. An die Stelle der alten Karten traten Graphiken, welche die ökonomische Verflechtung innerhalb der EU illustrierten. Heute erleben wir einen ideologischen Gezeitenwechsel: Wo die Mehrheit der Europäer noch vor einigen Jahren optimistisch auf die Globalisierung blickte, empfinden sie Migration und die Rückkehr der Geopolitik als Quelle der Unsicherheit. Ivan Krastev untersucht die Ursachen für diesen Wandel und erörtert, welche Formen die europäische Desintegration annehmen könnte. Ein Zerfall der EU, so Krastev, wäre eine Tragödie, die den Kontinent zu internationaler Bedeutungslosigkeit verurteilen würde.

Broken Promises?

The Argentine Crisis and Argentine Democracy

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Author: Edward Epstein,David Pion-Berlin

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739109281

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 8175

This collection examines Argentina's recent economic and political crisis by looking at the events leading up to the crisis, the reaction by both security forces and the people, and the relations between Argentina and its foreign allies. Finally the book looks to the future, asking how this crisis will affect the nation.

The Crisis of Russian Democracy

The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession

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Author: Richard Sakwa

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494910

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3887

The view that Russia has taken a decisive shift towards authoritarianism may be premature, but there is no doubt that its democracy is in crisis. In this original and dynamic analysis of the fundamental processes shaping contemporary Russian politics, Richard Sakwa applies a new model based on the concept of Russia as a dual state. Russia's constitutional state is challenged by an administrative regime that subverts the rule of law and genuine electoral competitiveness. This has created a situation of permanent stalemate: the country is unable to move towards genuine pluralist democracy but, equally, its shift towards full-scale authoritarianism is inhibited. Sakwa argues that the dual state could be transcended either by strengthening the democratic state or by the consolidation of the arbitrary power of the administrative system. The future of the country remains open.

Television And The Crisis Of Democracy

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Author: Douglas Kellner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429972598

Category: Political Science

Page: 303

View: 9119

Douglas Kellner offers a systematic, critically informed political and institutional study of television in the United States. Focusing on the relationship among television, the state, and business, he traces the history of television broadcasting, emphasizing its socioeconomic impact and its growing political power. Acknowledging that television has long served the interests of the powerful, he points out that it has dramatized conflicts within society and has on occasion led to valuable social criticism.Kellner's examination of television in the 1980s and, in particular, its role in the 1988 presidential election yields the conclusion that in our time television has worked increasingly to further conservative hegemony. In so doing, Kellner argues, contemporary television has helped produce a crisis of democracy.But Television and the Crisis of Democracy goes beyond description and diagnosis. In a discussion that is both analytical and comparative, Kellner presents alternative models to the existing structure of commercial broadcasting and shows how new technologies might be used to create a more democratic future for television,one that could enhance political knowledge and participation.

Die neuen Paten

Trump, Putin, Erdogan, Orbán & Co. - Wie die autoritären Herrscher und ihre mafiosen Clans uns bedrohen

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Author: Jürgen Roth

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641220513

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 523

Wenn Mafiamethoden offizielle Regierungspolitik werden Sie sind die »neuen Paten«: rechtspopulistische und rechtsradikale Politiker wie Viktor Orbán in Ungarn, Recep Tayyip Erdogan in der Türkei, Wladimir Putin in Russland, Donald Trump in den USA. Ihr Ziel: eine neue politische Ordnung. Ihr ideologisches Arsenal: Nationalismus, Rassismus und Religion. Sie sind demokratisch gewählt, doch sie unterwerfen den Staat und seine Institutionen, um sich selbst, ihre Familien und Gefolgsleute hemmungslos zu bereichern – mit Mafiamethoden. Die Grenze zwischen den klassischen Aktivitäten des Staates und denen des organisierten Verbrechens verschwimmt, Mafia-Staaten entstehen. Weit nach Deutschland hinein reichen die Verbindungen: Hier werden Allianzen geschmiedet, Geschäfte gemacht, Profite eingestrichen. Erstmals deckt Jürgen Roth die Strukturen und Hintergründe auf – und die Verflechtungen dieser autoritären Herrscher mit der Mafia und der organisierten Kriminalität.

Global Capitalism and the Crisis of Democracy

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Author: Jerry Harris

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780986085321

Category:

Page: 245

View: 2942

Democracy is in crisis, from the streets of Ferguson to the struggle in Greece. Throughout the world millions suffer under neo-liberalism and austerity but are unable to force their governments to address their needs. Fundamentally, democracy is about the relationships between the state, markets and civil society. Attempts to artificially repress the functions of any of these institutions result in political, social and economic problems that lead to irresolvable contradictions and eventual failure. This book undertakes the examination of capitalist democracy, globalization, and the emergence of a transnational capitalist class needed to develop a strategy for implementing democracy beyond its current impasse. Early capitalism contained the contradiction between property rights and popular democracy. The American and French revolutions saw an alliance between the capitalist class, farmers, craft workers and laborers. Democracy was a class compromise, based on the political balance between the masses and the new ruling elite. This tension has set in motion the continual conflict over democratic rights. As the transnational capitalist class coalesced into a hegemonic bloc, their project was to reengineer the national state to serve global markets and suppress democratic input from civil society. This has led to a growing social crisis that cannot be resolved by global capitalism.Socialism emerged as the alternative to capitalism, promising economic equality and social justice. But the Soviet system centralized power into the state, suppressing both civil society and the market. This created fundamental economic and social contradictions. Eventually the failure of an internal transformation led to collapse. As for anarchism, its theory ignores the role of the state and rejects the market, creating a limited ideology of social change that fails to create a viable alternative.A successor system must recognize the relationships between the state, markets and civil society, seeking to balance naturally occurring contradictions through the practice and renewal of democratic institutions. Conflicts are not an indication of a dysfunctional society, but of a vibrant, adaptable and open society. The key is recognizing horizontal democracy as the structure for resolving conflicts. Worker ownership and cooperatives may be the first step in constructing such a society, alongside sustainable economics, protagonistic democracy and governmental public financing.

Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989

Chinese and American Reflections

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Author: LOU NING

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791412695

Category: History

Page: 371

View: 2000

This study examines the process of democratization in China, taking as a focal point the recent crisis of 1989 in Tiananmen Square, but providing broader historical perspectives from both Chinese and American scholars. The authors evaluate China's political heritage, from theories of despotism in Chinese civilization to evidence for China's own democratic traditions. They also analyze the more recent political and social crises of the 1980s leading to the massive urban demonstrations in the spring of 1989, with the conflicts that have divided the rural masses, the state, the army, the cultural elite, and the media in China; and they discuss what these events tell us about China's cultural and political future.

Postdemokratie

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Author: Colin Crouch

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518785303

Category: Political Science

Page: 159

View: 4979

"Postdemokratie": Dieser Begriff des Politikwissenschaftlers Colin Crouch wurde nach dem Erscheinen der Originalausgabe seines Buches zum Kristallisationspunkt der Debatte um Politikverdrossenheit, Sozialabbau und Privatisierung. Crouch hat dabei ein politisches System im Auge, dessen demokratische Institutionen zwar weiterhin formal existieren, das von Bürgern und Politikern aber nicht länger mit Leben gefüllt wird. Der polemische Essay, der in Italien und Großbritannien bereits als Klassiker der Gegenwartsdiagnose gilt, liegt nun endlich auch in deutscher Übersetzung vor.

Democracy and Crisis

Democratising Governance in the Twenty-First Century

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Author: B. Isakhan,S. Slaughter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137326042

Category: Political Science

Page: 273

View: 5074

Recent years have seen constant reports on the failures of governance and the crisis of democracy. By examining cases like Global Financial Crisis, the Arab Revolutions and Wikileaks this volume highlights tensions between governance and democracy during times of crisis and examines the prospects of democratising governance in the 21st Century.

Take Back Higher Education

Race, Youth, and the Crisis of Democracy in the Post-Civil Rights Era

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Author: H. Giroux

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 140398266X

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 8838

At the beginning for the new millennium, higher education is under siege. No longer viewed as a public good, higher education increasingly is besieged by corporate, right-wing and conservative ideologies that want to decouple higher education from its legacy of educating students to be critical and autonomous citizens, imbued with democratic and public values. The greatest danger faced by higher education comes from the focus of global neo-liberalism and the return of educational apartheid. Through the power of racial backlash, the war on youth, deregulation, commercialism, and privatization, neo-liberalism wages a vicious assault on all of those public spheres and goods not controlled by the logic of market relations and profit margins. Take Back Higher Education argues that if higher education is going to meet the challenges of a democratic future, it will have to confront neo-liberalism, racism, and the shredding of the social contract.

Identität

Wie der Verlust der Würde unsere Demokratie gefährdet

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Author: Francis Fukuyama

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455005292

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 2091

In den letzten zehn Jahren ist die Anzahl der demokratischen Staaten weltweit erschreckend schnell zurückgegangen. Erleben wir gerade das Ende der liberalen Demokratie? Der US-amerikanische Politikwissenschaftler Francis Fukuyama, Autor des Weltbestsellers Das Ende der Geschichte, sucht in seinem neuen Buch nach den Gründen, warum sich immer mehr Menschen antidemokratischen Strömungen zuwenden und den Liberalismus ablehnen. Er zeigt, warum die Politik der Stunde geprägt ist von Nationalismus und Wut, welche Rolle linke und recht Parteien bei dieser Entwicklung spielen, und was wir tun können, um unsere gesellschaftliche Identität und damit die liberale Demokratie wieder zu beleben. »Intelligent und klar – wir brauchen mehr Denker, die so weise sind wie Fukuyama.« THE NEW YORK TIMES »Einer der bedeutendsten Politikwissenschaftler der westlichen Welt.« DIE WELT

The Crisis of Social Democratic Trade Unionism in Western Europe

The Search for Alternatives

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Author: Martin Upchurch,Graham Taylor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317036905

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 244

View: 8925

There is a developing crisis of social democratic trade unionism in Western Europe; this volume outlines the crisis and examines the emerging alternatives. The authors define 'social democratic trade unionism' and its associated party-union nexus and explain how this traditional model has been threatened by social democracy's accommodation to neo-liberal restructuring and public service reform. Examining the experience of Sweden, Germany, Britain and France, the volume explores the historical rise and fall of social democratic trade unionism in each of these countries and probes the policy and practice of the European Trade Union Confederation. The authors critically examine the possibilities for a revival of social democratic unionism in terms of strategic policy and identity, offering suggestions for an alternative, radicalized political unionism. The research value of the book is highlighted by its focus on contemporary developments and its authors' intimate knowledge of the chosen countries.

Populism and the Crisis of Democracy

Volume 1: Concepts and Theory

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Author: Gregor Fitzi,Juergen Mackert,Bryan S. Turner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351608975

Category: Social Science

Page: 178

View: 1560

There is no threat to Western democracies today comparable to the rise of right-wing populism. While it has played an increasing role at least since the 1990s, only the social consequences of the global financial crises in 2008 have given it its break that led to UK’s ‘Brexit’ and the election of Donald Trump as US President in 2016, as well as promoting what has been called left populism in countries that were hit the hardest by both the banking crisis and consequential neo-liberal austerity politics in the EU, such as Greece and Portugal. In 2017, the French Front National (FN) attracted many voters in the French Presidential elections; we have seen the radicalization of the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) in Germany and the formation of centre-right government in Austria. Further, we have witnessed the consolidation of autocratic regimes, as in the EU member states Poland and Greece. All these manifestations of right-wing populism share a common feature: they attack or even compromise the core elements of democratic societies such as the separation of powers, protection of minorities, or the rule of law. Despite a broad debate on the re-emergence of ‘populism’ in the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century that has brought forth many interesting findings, a lack of sociological reasoning cannot be denied, as sociology itself withdrew from theorising populism decades ago and largely left the field to political sciences and history. In a sense, Populism and the Crisis of Democracy considers itself a contribution to begin filling this lacuna. Written in a direct and clear style, this set of volumes will be an invaluable reference for students and scholars in the field of political theory, political sociology and European Studies. This volume Concepts and Theory offers new and fresh perspectives on the debate on populism. Starting from complaints about the problems of conceptualising populism that in recent years have begun to revolve around themselves, the chapters offer a fundamental critique of the term and concept of populism, theoretically inspired typologies and descriptions of currently dominant concepts, and ways to elaborate on them. With regard to theory, the volume offers approaches that exceed the disciplinary horizon of political science that so far has dominated the debate. As sociological theory so far has been more or less absent in the debate on populism, only few efforts have been made to discuss populism more intensely within different theoretical contexts in order to explain its dynamics and processes. Thus, this volume offers critical views on the debate on populism from the perspectives of political economy and the analysis of critical historical events, the links of analyses of populism with social movement mobilisation, the significance of ‘superfluous populations’ in the rise of populism and an analysis of the exclusionary character of populism from the perspective of the theory of social closure.

Mein Kampf

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Author: Adolf Hitler

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781911417682

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9336

Als glUckliche Bestimmung gilt es mir heute, da das Schicksal mir zum Geburtsort gerade Braunau am Inn zuwies. Liegt doch dieses StAdtchen an der Grenze jener zwei deutschen Staaten, deren Wiedervereinigung mindestens uns JUngeren als eine mit allen Mitteln durchzufUhrende Lebensaufgabe erscheint! DeutschOsterreich mu wieder zurUck zum groen deutschen Mutterlande, und zwar nicht aus GrUnden irgendwelcher wirtschaftlichen ErwAgungen heraus. Nein, nein: Auch wenn diese Vereinigung, wirtschaftlich gedacht, gleichgUltig, ja selbst wenn sie schAdlich wAre, sie mUte dennoch stattfinden. Gleiches Blut gehOrt in ein gemeinsames Reich. Das deutsche Volk besitzt solange kein moralisches Recht zu kolonialpolitischer TAtigkeit, solange es nicht einmal seine eigenen SOhne in einem gemeinsamen Staat zu fassen vermag. Erst wenn des Reiches Grenze auch den letzten Deutschen umschliet, ohne mehr die Sicherheit seiner ErnAhrung bieten zu kOnnen, ersteht aus der Not des eigenen Volkes das moralische Recht zur Erwerbung fremden Grund und Bodens. Der Pflug ist dann das Schwert, und aus den TrAnen des Krieges erwAchst fUr die Nach welt das tAgliche Brot. So scheint mir dieses kleine GrenzstAdtchen das Symbol einer groen Aufgabe zu sein.