Culture and Cultural Entities

Toward a New Unity of Science

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Author: Joseph Margolis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401576947

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 2367

viii choice and these include efforts to provide logical frameworks within which wecan make senseof these notions. This series will attempt to bring together work from allof these approaches to the history and philosophy of science and technology in the belief that each has something to add to our understanding. The volumes of this series have emerged either from lectures given by an author while serving as an honorary visiting professor at The City Collegeof New York or from a conference sponsored by that institution. The City College Program in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology oversees and directs these lectures and conferences with the financial aid of the Association for Philosophy ofScience, Psychotherapy, and Ethics. MARTIN TAMNY RAPHAEL STERN TABLE OF CONTENTS EDITO RS' PR EFACE vii PR EFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii I. NATUR E, CULTUR E, AND PERSONS 2. THE CONCEPT OF CONSCIOUSNESS 20 3. ANIMAL AND HUMAN MINDS 42 4 . ACTION AND CAUSALITY 64 5. PUZZLES ABOUT TH E CAUSAL EXPLANATION OF HUMAN ACTIONS 83 6. COGNITIVISM AND THE PROBLEM OF EXPLAINING HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 101 7. WITTGENSTEIN AND NATURAL LANGUAGES : AN ALTERNATIV E TO RATIONALIST AND EMPIRICIST THEO RIE S 133 INDEX 163 PREFACE I have tried to make a fresh beginning on the theory of cultural phenomena, largely from the perspectives of Anglo-American analytic philosophy.

Kultur statt Wissenschaft?

Gegen eine kulturalistisch reformierte Epistemologie

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Author: Dariusz Aleksandrowicz

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3865963978

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 8189

Die der sogenannten „kulturalistischen Wende“ entspringende Herangehensweise zeichnet sich durch die Verwendung eines bestimmten Vokabulars aus, dem eine universale Erklärungskraft zugeschrieben wird. Es wird dort ge-turnt, performiert, konstruiert sowie dekonstruiert und der Kulturbegriff als theoretische Allzweckwaffe eingesetzt. Wenn dies auf die Fragen der menschlichen Erkenntnis angewandt wird, ist der Ertrag bestenfalls trivial, oftmals absurd und häufig ein Rückschritt zum primitiven Denken. Wie die Erkenntnis zustande kommt, hinsichtlich der Wahrheit bewertet werden kann und warum es kontraproduktiv ist, sie im Nebel der „Kultur“ aufgehen zu lassen, wird in Anknüpfung an ein breites Spektrum aktueller und klassischer Literatur behandelt.

Handbuch Pragmatismus

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Author: Michael G. Festl

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3476045579

Category: Philosophy

Page: 390

View: 1554

Das Handbuch bietet einen umfassenden und verlässlichen Überblick über die Philosophie des Pragmatismus. Als eine jeglichem Dogmatismus feindlich gegenüberstehende Denkhaltung kann man den Pragmatismus als besonders geeignet ansehen, einen philosophischen Beitrag zur Lösung vielschichtiger Probleme der globalisierten Welt zu leisten. Das Handbuch ist in sechs inhaltliche Teile gegliedert. Ausgehend von den klassischen Denkern und damit den philosophischen Grundlagen des Pragmatismus, stehen inhaltlich-thematische Fragestellungen im Fokus sowie Positionen vor allem gegenwärtiger pragmatistischer Denkerinnen und Denker. Das Handbuch wird durch ein Kapitel beschlossen, das sich mit ausgewählten aktuellen philosophischen und gesellschaftlichen Themen und Herausforderungen beschäftigt und das die theoretischen Beiträge skizziert, die auf Basis des Pragmatismus hierzu gerade entwickelt werden.

Technik und Kultur

Bedingungs- und Beeinflussungsverhältnisse

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Author: Gerhard Banse

Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing

ISBN: 3866444672

Category:

Page: 238

View: 5037

In der Publikation werden zunächst allgemeine Begriffsklärungen von "Technik" und "Kultur" sowie deren generelle Wechselwirkungen behandelt. Daran schliessen sich Beiträge an, die an konkreten Bereichen oder Beispielen die Verwobenheit von Technik und Kultur darstellen. Einschliesslich der den Band abschliessenden Auswahlbibliografie werden so gewichtige "Standort-Koordinaten" deutlich gemacht, die in den nachfolgenden Bänden dieser Reihe detaillierter gekennzeichnet werden.

Reference, Truth and Conceptual Schemes

A Defense of Internal Realism

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Author: G. Forrai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401728682

Category: Philosophy

Page: 163

View: 6412

1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The purpose of the book is to develop internal realism, the metaphysical-episte mological doctrine initiated by Hilary Putnam (Reason, Truth and History, "Introduction", Many Faces). In doing so I shall rely - sometimes quite heavily - on the notion of conceptual scheme. I shall use the notion in a somewhat idiosyncratic way, which, however, has some affinities with the ways the notion has been used during its history. So I shall start by sketching the history of the notion. This will provide some background, and it will also give opportunity to raise some of the most important problems I will have to solve in the later chapters. The story starts with Kant. Kant thought that the world as we know it, the world of tables, chairs and hippopotami, is constituted in part by the human mind. His cen tral argument relied on an analysis of space and time, and presupposed his famous doctrine that knowledge cannot extend beyond all possible experience. It is a central property of experience - he claimed - that it is structured spatially and temporally. However, for various reasons, space and time cannot be features of the world, as it is independently of our experience. So he concluded that they must be the forms of human sensibility, i. e. necessary ingredients of the way things appear to our senses.

Logic, Truth and the Modalities

From a Phenomenological Perspective

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Author: J.N. Mohanty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401721130

Category: Philosophy

Page: 238

View: 860

This volume is a collection of my essays on philosophy of logic from a phenomenological perspective. They deal with the four kinds of logic I have been concerned with: formal logic, transcendental logic, speculative logic and hermeneutic logic. Of these, only one, the essay on Hegel, touches upon 'speculative logic', and two, those on Heidegger and Konig, are concerned with hermeneutic logic. The rest have to do with Husser! and Kant. I have not tried to show that the four logics are compatible. I believe, they are--once they are given a phenomenological underpinning. The original plan of writing an Introduction in which the issues would have to be formulated, developed and brought together, was abandoned in favor of writing an Introductory Essay on the 'origin'- in the phenomenological sense -of logic. J.N.M. Philadelphia INTRODUCTION: THE ORIGIN OF LOGIC The question of the origin of logic may pertain to historical origin (When did it all begin? Who founded the science of logic?), psychological origin (When, in the course of its mental development, does the child learn logical operations?), cultural origin (What cultural - theological, metaphysical and linguisti- conditions make such a discipline as logic possible?), or transcendental constitutive origin (What sorts of acts and/or practices make logic possible?).

Language, Mind, and Art

Essays in Appreciation and Analysis, in Honor of Paul Ziff

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Author: D. Jamieson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401583137

Category: Philosophy

Page: 220

View: 6477

This book is a collection of essays in honor of Paul Ziff written by his col leagues, students, and friends. Many of the authors address topics that Ziff has discussed in his writings: understanding, rules and regularities, proper names, the feelings of machines, expression, and aesthetic experience. Paul Ziff began his professional career as an artist, went on to study painting with J. M. Hanson at Cornell, and then studied for the Ph. D. in philosophy, also at Cornell, with Max Black. Over the next three decades he produced a series of remarkable papers in philosophy of art, culminating in 1984 with the publica tion of Antiaesthetics: An Appreciation of the Cow with the Subtile Nose. In 1960 he published Semantic Analysis, his masterwork in philosophy of lan guage. Throughout his career he made important contributions to philosophy of mind in such papers as "The Simplicity of Other Minds" (1965) and "About Behaviourism" (1958). In addition to his work in these areas, his lec tures at Harvard on philosophy of religion are an underground classic; and throughout his career he has continued to make art and to search for the meaning of life in the properties of prime numbers. Although his interests are wide and deep, questions about language, art, and mind have dominated his philosophical work, and it is problems in these areas that provide the topics of most of the essays in this volume.

Causality in Sociological Research

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Author: Jakub Karpinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904959

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 8032

The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.

Rechtspositivismus und Wertbezug des Rechts

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Author: International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy. Deutsche Sektion. Tagung

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 192

View: 1436

Human action signs in cultural context

the visible and the invisible in movement and dance

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Author: Brenda Margaret Farnell

Publisher: Scarecrow Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 309

View: 1900

Despite the tremendous multi-disciplinary upsurge of interest in 'the body' of late, little or no attention has been given to the moving body or rather, the moving person, a situation that is remedied by this book. For the first time, leading scholars in the anthropology of dance and human movement come together to provide a rich sample of their current work, introducing theories and methods that move well beyond the more familiar 'proxemic' and 'kinesic' approaches to body movement and space. Chapter 1 consists of ethnographic studies as diverse as Hawaiian dance and poetry, Tai Chi Chuan, Ballet and the Roman Catholic Mass, Australian Aboriginal sign language, Plains Indians sign language, and African-American movement performance. Chapter 2 complements this ethnographic richness by providing an in-depth commentary, together with a critical examination of several fundamental philosophical and theoretical issues that have been raised.

Books in Series

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780835221092

Category: Monographic series

Page: 1756

View: 1403

Sociological Abstracts

Supplement

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Author: International Sociological Association

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Sociology

Page: N.A

View: 3495

The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology

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Author: Jaan Valsiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199366225

Category: Psychology

Page: 1136

View: 9158

The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.

Towards a Global Community

Educating for Tomorrow's World

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Author: Jack Campbell,Nick Baikaloff,Colin Power

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402043384

Category: Education

Page: 218

View: 4793

This book is the outcome of a global study undertaken on behalf of the World Education Fellowship (WEF) in collaboration with UNESCO. It provides education policy makers with evidence to support programs that address the major challenges faced by education systems in the next decade. It contains case studies, and it expands on the work done by UNESCO’s International Commission on Education for the 21st Century (the Delors Report).

Evolutionary Systems

Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self-Organization

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Author: G. Vijver,Stanley N. Salthe,M. Delpos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401715106

Category: Philosophy

Page: 438

View: 8509

The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.

Elite Cultures

Anthropological Perspectives

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Author: Cris Shore,Stephen L. Nugent

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415277952

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 3398

Drawing on a diverse, comparative ethnographic literature, this new volume examines the intimate spaces and cultural practices of those elites who occupy positions of power and authority across a variety of different settings. Using ethnographic case studies from a wide range of geographical areas, including Mexico, Peru, Amazonia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Europe, North America and Africa, the contributors explore the inner worlds of meaning and practice that define and sustain elite identities. They also provide insights into the cultural mechanisms that maintain elite status, and into the complex ways that elite groups relate to, and are embedded within, wider social and historical processes.

Religion and the Specter of the West

Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation

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Author: Arvind-Pal S. Mandair

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231147244

Category: Religion

Page: 536

View: 2056

Arguing that intellectual movements, such as deconstruction, postsecular theory, and political theology, have different implications for cultures and societies that live with the debilitating effects of past imperialisms, Arvind Mandair unsettles the politics of knowledge construction in which the category of "religion" continues to be central. Through a case study of Sikhism, he launches an extended critique of religion as a cultural universal. At the same time, he presents a portrait of how certain aspects of Sikh tradition were reinvented as "religion" during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. India's imperial elite subtly recast Sikh tradition as a sui generis religion, which robbed its teachings of their political force. In turn, Sikhs began to define themselves as a "nation" and a "world religion" that was separate from, but parallel to, the rise of the Indian state and global Hinduism. Rather than investigate these processes in isolation from Europe, Mandair shifts the focus closer to the political history of ideas, thereby recovering part of Europe's repressed colonial memory. Mandair rethinks the intersection of religion and the secular in discourses such as history of religions, postcolonial theory, and recent continental philosophy. Though seemingly unconnected, these discourses are shown to be linked to a philosophy of "generalized translation" that emerged as a key conceptual matrix in the colonial encounter between India and the West. In this riveting study, Mandair demonstrates how this philosophy of translation continues to influence the repetitions of religion and identity politics in the lives of South Asians, and the way the academy, state, and media have analyzed such phenomena.