Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

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Author: Thomas K. Gaisser,Ralph Engel,Elisa Resconi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316598438

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9114

Fully updated for the second edition, this book introduces the growing and dynamic field of particle astrophysics. It provides an overview of high-energy nuclei, photons and neutrinos, including their origins, their propagation in the cosmos, their detection on Earth and their relation to each other. Coverage is expanded to include new content on high energy physics, the propagation of protons and nuclei in cosmic background radiation, neutrino astronomy, high-energy and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sources and acceleration mechanisms, and atmospheric muons and neutrinos. Readers are able to master the fundamentals of particle astrophysics within the context of the most recent developments in the field. This book will benefit graduate students and established researchers alike, equipping them with the knowledge and tools needed to design and interpret their own experiments and, ultimately, to address a number of questions concerning the nature and origins of cosmic particles that have arisen in recent research.

Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

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Author: Thomas K. Gaisser

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521339315

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 1697

Cambridge English Worldwide offers an exciting new approach for students from ten to sixteen.

Cosmic Rays for Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Proceedings of the 12th Icatpp Conference

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Author: S. Giani,C. Leroy,P. G. Rancoita

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814329037

Category: Calorimetry

Page: 668

View: 1150

The conference was aimed at promoting contacts between scientists involved in solar-terrestrial physics, space physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology both from the theoretical and the experimental approach. The conference was devoted to physics and physics requirements, survey of theoretical models and performances of detectors employed (or to be employed) in experiments for fundamental physics, astroparticle physics, astrophysics research and space environment OCo including Earth magnetosphere and heliosphere and solar-terrestrial physics. Furthermore, cosmic rays have been used to extend the scientific research experience to teachers and students with air shower arrays and other techniques. Presentations included the following subjects: advances in physics from present and next generation ground and space experiments, dark matter, double beta decay, high-energy astrophysics, space environment, trapped particles, propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere, Heliosphere, Galaxy and broader impact activities in cosmic rays science. The open and flexible format of the Conference was conducive to fruitful exchanges of points of view among participants and permitted the evaluation of the progresses made and indicated future research directions. The participants were experienced researchers but also graduate students (MSc and PhD) and recent postdoctoral fellows."

Cosmic Rays at Earth

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Author: P.K.F. Grieder

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080530055

Category: Science

Page: 1112

View: 9830

In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological and medical aspects of the cosmic radiation because of it ionizing character and the inevitable irradiation to which we are exposed. This book is a reference manual for researchers and students of cosmic ray physics and associated fields and phenomena. It is not intended to be a tutorial. However, the book contains an adequate amount of background materials that its content should be useful to a broad community of scientists and professionals. The present book contains chiefly a data collection in compact form that covers the cosmic radiation in the vicinity of the Earth, in the Earth's atmosphere, at sea level and underground. Included are predominantly experimental but also theoretical data. In addition the book contains related data, definitions and important relations. The aim of this book is to offer the reader in a single volume a readily available comprehensive set of data that will save him the need of frequent time consuming literature searches.

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Multimessenger Astronomy and its Particle Physics Foundations

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Author: Alessandro De Angelis,Mário Pimenta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319781812

Category: Science

Page: 733

View: 7894

This book introduces particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Starting from an experimental perspective, it provides a unified view of these fields that reflects the very rapid advances being made. This new edition has a number of improvements and has been updated to describe the recent discovery of gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos, which started the new era of multimessenger astrophysics; it also includes new results on the Higgs particle. Astroparticle and particle physics share a common problem: we still don’t have a description of the main ingredients of the Universe from the point of view of its energy budget. Addressing these fascinating issues, and offering a balanced introduction to particle and astroparticle physics that requires only a basic understanding of quantum and classical physics, this book is a valuable resource, particularly for advanced undergraduate students and for those embarking on graduate courses. It includes exercises that offer readers practical insights. It can be used equally well as a self-study book, a reference and a textbook.

Physics and Astrophysics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

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Author: M. Lemoine,G. Sigl

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540456155

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 2348

The International School on Physics and Astrophysics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR2000) was held at the Observatoire de Paris–Meudon on June 26-29, 2000. This was the ?rst international school speci?cally dedicated to ultra high energy cosmic rays. Its aim was to familiarize with and attract students, physicists and astronomers into this quickly developing newresearch ?eld. The mysterious and currently unknown origin of the most energetic par- cles observed in Nature has triggered in recent years theoretical speculations ranging from electromagnetic acceleration to as yet undiscovered physics - yond the Standard Model. It has also lead to the development of several new detection concepts and experimental projects, some of which are currently - der construction. By its nature, the ?eld of ultra high energy cosmic rays is therefore highly interdisciplinary and borrows from astrophysics and cosmology, via particle physics, to experimental physics and observational astronomy. One main aspect of the school was to emphasize and take advantage of this interd- ciplinarity. The lectures were grouped into subtopics and are reproduced in this volume in the following order: After a general introductory lecture on cosmic rays follow two contributions on experimental detection techniques, followed by three lectures on acceleration in astrophysical objects. The next four contri- tions cover all major aspects of propagation and interactions of ultra high energy radiation, including speculative issues such as newinteractions.

High Energy Cosmic Rays

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Author: Todor Stanev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540851488

Category: Science

Page: 333

View: 1606

Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

High Energy Radiation from Black Holes

Gamma Rays, Cosmic Rays, and Neutrinos

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Author: Charles D. Dermer,Govind Menon

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691144087

Category: Science

Page: 538

View: 7971

Beginning with Einstein's special and general theories of relativity, the authors give a detailed mathematical description of fundamental astrophysical radiation processes, including Compton scattering of electrons and photons, synchrotron radiation of particles in magnetic fields, and much more.

Astroparticle Physics

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Author: Claus Grupen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354027670X

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 8885

Describes the branch of astronomy in which processes in the universe are investigated with experimental methods employed in particle-physics experiments. After a historical introduction the basics of elementary particles, Explains particle interactions and the relevant detection techniques, while modern aspects of astroparticle physics are described in a chapter on cosmology. Provides an orientation in the field of astroparticle physics that many beginners might seek and appreciate because the underlying physics fundamentals are presented with little mathematics, and the results are illustrated by many diagrams. Readers have a chance to enter this field of astronomy with a book that closes the gap between expert and popular level.

Introduction to Experimental Particle Physics

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Author: Richard C. Fernow,Richard Clinton Fernow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521379403

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1617

A concise, balanced overview of the most important topics in experimental particle physics of the past forty years is presented in this comprehensive study. Beginning with a review of particle physics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the book continues with a discussion of three nearly universal aspects of particle physics experiments: beams, targets and fast electrons. The second part of the text details the properties of various types of particle detectors, such as scintillation and Cerenkov counters, proportional and drift chambers, sampling calorimeters, and special detectors. The last chapter demonstrates how the various aspects of the previous chapters can be integrated in an experimental system. There are numerous references to the research literature, in addition to examples and workable problems.

A Thin Cosmic Rain

Particles from Outer Space

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Author: Michael W. Friedlander

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674009894

Category: History

Page: 241

View: 2215

A scientific history of "cosmic rays" chronicles the discovery of a steady "rain" of atomic nuclei, beginning with the birth of subatomic particle physics in the 1890s and moving through the subsequent uncovering of muons, pions, kaons, hyperons, and other particles.

Cosmic Rays

The Commonwealth and International Library: Selected Readings in Physics

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Author: A. M. Hillas

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483151921

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 7202

Cosmic Rays is a two-part book that first elucidates the discovery, nature, and particles produced by cosmic rays. This part also looks into the primary cosmic radiation; radio waves from the galaxy; extensive air showers; origin of cosmic rays; and other cosmic radiations. Part 2 consists of reprinted papers involving cosmic rays. Papers 1 to 10 treat the nature of the radiation, arranged chronologically; in Papers 11 to 16 the scene moves away from the Earth.

Detectors for Particle Radiation

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Author: Konrad Kleinknecht

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521648547

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 3217

This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to include all the latest developments in detector technology. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes several new chapters, covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicon strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibres, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This lucid textbook is well illustrated throughout with examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

Particle Physics at the Year of Centenary of Bruno Pontecorvo

Proceedings of the Sixteenth Lomonosov Conference on Elementary Particle Physics

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Author: Alexander I Studenikin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981466362X

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 8698

These proceedings are devoted to a wide variety of items, both in theory and experiment, of particle physics such as neutrino and astroparticle physics, tests of the standard model and beyond, and hadron physics. Also covered are gravitation and cosmology, and physics from present and future accelerators. Contents:Neutrino PhysicsPhysics at Accelerators and Studies in SM and BeyondAstroparticle Physics and CosmologyCP Violation and Rare DecaysHadron PhysicsNew Developments in Quantum Field TheoryProblems of Intelligentsia Readership: Advanced undergrads and graduate students, and professionals, both experimentalists and theoreticians, working in particle physics and high energy physics, gravitation and cosmology. Keywords:Neutrino Physics;High Energy Physics;Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology

Nonlinear Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theories

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Author: Andreas Shalchi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642003095

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 910

If charged particles move through the interplanetary or interstellar medium, they interact with a large-scale magnetic ?eld such as the magnetic ?eld of the Sun or the Galactic magnetic ?eld. As these background ?elds are usually nearly constant in time and space, they can be approximated by a homogeneous ?eld. If there are no additional ?elds, the particle trajectory is a perfect helix along which the par- cle moves at a constant speed. In reality, however, there are turbulent electric and magnetic?elds dueto the interstellaror solar wind plasma. These ?elds lead to sc- tering of the cosmic rays parallel and perpendicular to the background ?eld. These scattering effects, which usually are of diffusive nature, can be described by s- tial diffusion coef?cients or, alternatively, by mean free paths. The knowledge of these parameters is essential for describing cosmic ray propagation as well as d- fusive shock acceleration. The latter process is responsible for the high cosmic ray energies that have been observed. The layout of this book is as follows. In Chap. 1, the general physical scenario is presented. We discuss fundamental processes such as cosmic ray propagation and acceleration in different systems such as the solar system or the interst- lar space. These processes are a consequence of the interaction between charged cosmic particles and an astrophysical plasma (turbulence). The properties of such plasmas are therefore the subject of Chap. 2.

Cosmic Rays in the Earth’s Atmosphere and Underground

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Author: Lev Dorman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402021135

Category: Science

Page: 862

View: 674

The present monograph as well as the next one (Dorman, M2005) is a result of more than 50 years working in cosmic ray (CR) research. After graduation in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov State University (Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Division, the Team of Theoretical Physics), my supervisor Professor D. I. Blokhintsev planned for me, as a winner of a Red Diploma, to continue my education as an aspirant (a graduate student) to prepare for Ph. D. in his very secret Object in the framework of what was in those time called the Atomic Problem. To my regret the KGB withheld permission, and I, together with other Jewish students who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, were faced with a real prospect of being without any work. It was our good fortune that at that time there was being brought into being the new Cosmic Ray Project (what at that time was also very secret, but not as secret as the Atomic Problem), and after some time we were directed to work on this Project. It was organized and headed by Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union Section of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical part of the Project.

Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

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Author: Reinhard Schlickeiser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662048140

Category: Science

Page: 519

View: 7160

In the first part, the book gives an up-to-date summary of the observational data. In the second part, it deals with the kinetic description of cosmic ray plasma. The underlying diffusion-convection transport equation, which governs the coupling between cosmic rays and the background plasma, is derived and analyzed in detail. In the third part, several applications of the solutions of the transport equation are presented and how key observations in cosmic ray physics can be accounted for is demonstrated.

Particle Astrophysics

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Author: Donald H. Perkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198509523

Category: Science

Page: 256

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Recent years have seen a symbiosis of the fields of elementary particle physics and the astrophysics of the early universe. This text presents the background of the subjects and the latest developments at a level suitable for the average physics undergraduate. After introductory chapters in elementary particles and their interactions and role in the expanding universe, the problems and challenges of cosmological asymmetries, dark matter and dark energy are presented, followed by chapterson the growth of cosmic structure, on high energy cosmic rays and on particle processes in stars. A balance is maintained between theory and experiment and the text supplemented with over 100 problems, together with answers and model solutions.

From Ultra Rays to Astroparticles

A Historical Introduction to Astroparticle Physics

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Author: Brigitte Falkenburg,Wolfgang Rhode

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400754221

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 7737

The scope of the book is to give an overview of the history of astroparticle physics, starting with the discovery of cosmic rays (Victor Hess, 1912) and its background (X-ray, radioactivity). The book focusses on the ways in which physics changes in the course of this history. The following changes run parallel, overlap, and/or interact: - Discovery of effects like X-rays, radioactivity, cosmic rays, new particles but also progress through non-discoveries (monopoles) etc. - The change of the description of nature in physics, as consequence of new theoretical questions at the beginning of the 20th century, giving rise to quantum physics, relativity, etc. - The change of experimental methods, cooperations, disciplinary divisions. With regard to the latter change, a main topic of the book is to make the specific multi-diciplinary features of astroparticle physics clear.

Solar Cosmic Rays

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Author: Leonty Miroshnichenko

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401596468

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 4572

It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.