Contentious Politics in the Middle East

Popular Resistance and Marginalized Activism beyond the Arab Uprisings

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Author: Fawaz A. Gerges

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137530863

Category: Political Science

Page: 566

View: 6561

While the Arab people took center stage in the Arab Spring protests, academic studies have focused more on structural factors to understand the limitations of these popular uprisings. This book analyzes the role and complexities of popular agency in the Arab Spring through the framework of contentious politics and social movement theory.

The Arab Uprisings Explained

New Contentious Politics in the Middle East

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Author: Marc Lynch

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023115884X

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 7718

Why did Tunisian protests following the self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi lead to a massive wave of uprisings across the entire Arab world? Who participated in those protests, and what did they hope to achieve? Why did some leaders fall in the face of popular mobilization while others found ways to survive? And what have been the lasting results of the contentious politics of 2011 and 2012? The Arab uprisings pose stark challenges to the political science of the Middle East, which for decades had focused upon the resilience of entrenched authoritarianism, the relative weakness of civil society, and what seemed to be the largely contained diffusion of new norms and ideas through new information technologies. In this volume, leading scholars in the field take a sharp look at the causes, dynamics, and effects of the Arab uprisings. Compiled by one of the foremost experts on Middle East politics and society, The Arab Uprisings Explained offers a fresh rethinking of established theories and presents a new framework through which scholars and general readers can better grasp the fast-developing events remaking the region. These essays not only advance the study of political science in the Middle East but also integrate the subject seamlessly into the wider political science literature. Deeply committed to the study of this region and working out the kinks of the discipline, the contributors to this volume help scholars and policymakers across the world approach this unprecedented historical period smartly and effectively.

Islamist Politics in the Middle East

Movements and Change

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Author: Samer Shehata

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136455361

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 891

For over three decades, Islamist politics, or political Islam, has been one of the most dynamic and contentious political forces in the Middle East. Although there is broad consensus on the importance of political Islam, there is far less agreement on its character, the reasons for Islamist’s success, the role of Islamist movements in domestic and international affairs, or what these movements portend for the future. This volume addresses a number of central questions in the study of Islamist politics in the Middle East through detailed case studies of some of the region’s most important Islamist movements. Chapters by leading scholars in the field examine the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, Hizbullah, Morocco’s Justice and Benevolence, the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, the Sunni Insurgency in Iraq and Islamist politics in Turkey and Iran. The topics addressed within this volume include social networks and social welfare provision, Islamist groups as opposition actors, Islamist electoral participation, the intersection of Islam and national liberation struggles, the role of religion in Islamist politics, and Islam and state politics in Iran, among other topics. All of the contributing authors are specialists with deep knowledge of the subject matter who are committed to empirically based research. These scholars take Islamists seriously as modern, sophisticated, and strategic political players. Together, their work captures much of the diversity of Islamist politics in the region and will contribute to the scholarship on a topic that continues to be important for the Middle East and the world.

Popular Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East

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Author: John Chalcraft

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110700750X

Category: History

Page: 525

View: 4947

A ground-breaking account of popular protest in the Middle East and North Africa from the eighteenth century to the present. A work of unprecedented range and depth, this book will be welcomed by undergraduates and graduates studying protest in the region and beyond.

Egypt in a Time of Revolution

Contentious Politics and the Arab Spring

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Author: Neil Ketchley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316885852

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8932

This book considers the diverse forms of mass mobilization and contentious politics that emerged during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and its aftermath. Drawing on a catalogue of more than 8,000 protest events, as well as interviews, video footage and still photographs, Neil Ketchley provides the first systematic account of how Egyptians banded together to overthrow Husni Mubarak, and how old regime forces engineered a return to authoritarian rule. Eschewing top-down, structuralist and culturalist explanations, the author shows that the causes and consequences of Mubarak's ousting can only be understood by paying close attention to the evolving dynamics of contentious politics witnessed in Egypt since 2011. Setting these events within a larger social and political context, Ketchley sheds new light on the trajectories and legacies of the Arab Spring, as well as recurring patterns of contentious collective action found in the Middle East and beyond.

Youth Activism and Contentious Politics in Egypt

Dynamics of Continuity and Change

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Author: Nadine Sika

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108418805

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 1061

This book studies the role of youth movements in the Arab uprisings of 2010 and 2011, and the regime's responses to these movements.

Identity Politics in the Middle East

Liberal Discourse and Islamic Challenge in Egypt

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Author: Meir Hatina

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 085771340X

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 706

The role of Islam in the state has become one of the most contentious issues in modern Middle Eastern society. It holds a central position in every public debate over constitution, law and civil rights, as well as over the very essence of cultural identity. Here Meir Hatina sheds light on the issue of Islam in the state through the prism of Egypt during the twentieth century. He traces the continuity of Egyptian liberalism, from its emergence during the first half of the century through its repression following the July 1952 revolution, to the rise of secular liberalists such as Faraj Fuda in post-revolutionary Egypt. ‘Identity Politics’ reveals the assertive nature of the Islamic struggle, the desire to remake the state by fostering a close affinity between faith and power, worship and politics, which holds contemporary resonance for all Middle Eastern states.

Contentious Politics in the Middle East

Political Opposition Under Authoritarianism

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Author: Holger Albrecht

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 2768

"A fine collection of empirically rich and thoughtful studies on a topic of considerable interest. Its fine-grained analyses of individual countries, organizations, and episodes of regime-opposition interaction make an important contribution to our understanding of authoritarian rule in the Middle East and beyond."--David Waldner, University of Virginia "Clearly addresses a gap in the literature on Middle East politics by focusing on various oppositions within different countries of the region. Deepens understanding of the concepts of opposition and contentious politics within authoritarian political systems."--Nicola Pratt, University of Warwick Scholarship examining the governments in the Middle East and North Africa rarely focuses on opposition movements, since those countries tend to be ruled by a centralized, often authoritarian government. However, even in an oppressive state, there are civil society and oppositional forces at work. The contributors to Contentious Politics in the Middle East reveal how such forces emerge and are manifested in nondemocratic states across the region. In most cases, the essays offer a comparative perspective, highlighting similarities across political borders. Providing historical context for current events, they examine the sociopolitical situations in Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, and Algeria and analyze the role of Islam in Arab states' governments and in the opposition movements to them. They also demonstrate that not all opposition forces propose the overthrow of authority and point out the various forms opposition takes in societies that leave little room for political activism. The contributors to the volume are drawn from countries across three continents and bring backgrounds in political science, conflict resolution, and history. Challenging the assertion that state-society relations are limited to coercive top-down arrangements in authoritarian regimes, the book will inspire debate on the topic of contentious political participation within the region as well as in similar settings throughout the world.

New Opposition in the Middle East

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Author: Dara Conduit,Shahram Akbarzadeh

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9789811088209

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 2081

This book uses a Contentious Politics lens to examine patterns of contestation since 2009 and 2011 among the Middle East's most important opposition actors. The volume is comprised of seven chapters that ask questions in relation to the responsiveness of opposition groups to their political environments, the long-term legacies of authoritarianism, and whether the post-2009/2011 political environment is better or worse for Middle Eastern oppositions. It interrogates the ways in which oppositions have morphed in relation to this changed operating environment, subjectively interpreting the costs and benefits of contestation in order to maximise political opportunities. To some oppositions, changes in the power balance between regime structures and opposition agents led to unprecedented opportunity for political action, while for others, structures were galvanised to restrict opposition activities. In total, the volume shows that even though the Arab Uprisings and Green Movement achieved few of their overt goals, the events unleashed smaller shifts across the region that have led to a fundamental change in the politics of contestation amongst the region’s oppositions. These patterns echo experiences in other parts of the world, including the coloured revolutions in post-Soviet states, and the political environment in Chile after Pinochet.

Contemporary Politics in the Middle East

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Author: Beverley Milton-Edwards

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1509520864

Category: Political Science

Page: 388

View: 9005

The fourth edition of this dynamic and popular text provides a comprehensive introduction to contemporary politics in the Middle East. Fully revised and updated throughout, it features a new chapter on the Arab Spring and its aftermath, plus a wide range of vibrant case studies, data, questions for class discussion and suggestions for further reading. Purposefully employing a clear thematic structure, the book begins by introducing key concepts and contentious debates before outlining the impact of colonialism, and the rise and relevance of Arab nationalism in the region. Major political issues affecting the Middle East are then explored in full. These include political economy, conflict, political Islam, gender, the regional democracy deficit, and ethnicity and minorities. The book also examines the role of key foreign actors, such as the USA, Russia and the EU, and concludes with an in-depth analysis of the Arab uprisings and their impact in an era of uncertainty.

Microfoundations of the Arab Uprisings

mapping Interactions between Regimes and Protesters

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Author: Frédéric Volpi,James M. Jasper

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9048536162

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 5399

This book brings together a roster of prominent contributors to present a strategic interactionist perspective on the study of contentious politics in the Middle East in response to the Arab uprisings. The common thread among the contributions is an interest in the micro-level interactions between various strategic players, including not only the mobilisation of protestors during the uprisings but also the responses of regimes. The book also examines short to medium-term adaptations of the regimes and the collective action of opponents in the post-uprisings period, as well as the subsequent trajectories of the protesters themselves in the face of new forms of authoritarianism or democratisation.

Sectarian Politics in the Gulf

From the Iraq War to the Arab Uprisings

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Author: Frederic M. Wehrey

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231536100

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 1311

One of Foreign Policy's Best Five Books of 2013, chosen by Marc Lynch of The Middle East Channel Beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and concluding with the aftermath of the 2011 Arab uprisings, Frederic M. Wehrey investigates the roots of the Shi'a-Sunni divide now dominating the Persian Gulf's political landscape. Focusing on three Gulf states affected most by sectarian tensions—Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait—Wehrey identifies the factors that have exacerbated or tempered sectarianism, including domestic political institutions, the media, clerical establishments, and the contagion effect of external regional events, such as the Iraq war, the 2006 Lebanon conflict, the Arab uprisings, and Syria's civil war. In addition to his analysis, Wehrey builds a historical narrative of Shi'a activism in the Arab Gulf since 2003, linking regional events to the development of local Shi'a strategies and attitudes toward citizenship, political reform, and transnational identity. He finds that, while the Gulf Shi'a were inspired by their coreligionists in Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon, they ultimately pursued greater rights through a nonsectarian, nationalist approach. He also discovers that sectarianism in the region has largely been the product of the institutional weaknesses of Gulf states, leading to excessive alarm by entrenched Sunni elites and calculated attempts by regimes to discredit Shi'a political actors as proxies for Iran, Iraq, or Lebanese Hizballah. Wehrey conducts interviews with nearly every major Shi'a leader, opinion shaper, and activist in the Gulf Arab states, as well as prominent Sunni voices, and consults diverse Arabic-language sources.

Ein säkulares Zeitalter

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Author: Charles Taylor

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740407

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1297

View: 1932

Was heißt es, daß wir heute in einem säkularen Zeitalter leben? Was ist geschehen zwischen 1500 – als Gott noch seinen festen Platz im naturwissenschaftlichen Kosmos, im gesellschaftlichen Gefüge und im Alltag der Menschen hatte – und heute, da der Glaube an Gott, jedenfalls in der westlichen Welt, nur noch eine Option unter vielen ist? Um diesen Wandel zu bestimmen und in seinen Folgen für die gegenwärtige Gesellschaft auszuloten, muß die große Geschichte der Säkularisierung in der nordatlantischen Welt von der frühen Neuzeit bis in die Gegenwart erzählt werden – ein herkulisches Unterfangen, dem sich der kanadische Philosoph Charles Taylor in seinem mit Spannung erwarteten neuen Buch stellt. Mit einem Fokus auf dem »lateinischen Christentum«, dem vorherrschenden Glauben in Europa, rekonstruiert er in geradezu verschwenderischem Detail die entscheidenden Entwicklungslinien in den Naturwissenschaften, der Philosophie, der Staats- und Rechtstheorie und in den Künsten. Dem berühmten Diktum von der wissenschaftlich-technischen »Entzauberung der Welt« und anderen eingeschliffenen Säkularisierungstheorien setzt er die These entgegen, daß es die Religion selbst war, die das Säkulare hervorgebracht hat, und entfaltet eine komplexe Mentalitätsgeschichte des modernen Subjekts, das heute im Niemandsland zwischen Glauben und Atheismus gefangen ist.

Gerechte Freiheit

Ein moralischer Kompass für eine komplexe Welt

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Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740989

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 6693

Was heißt Freiheit heute – jenseits einer auf persönliche Interessendurchsetzung zielenden neoliberalen Marktfreiheit? Können wir noch ein Freiheitsverständnis entwickeln, das uns moralische Orientierung in einer immer komplexer werdenden Welt bietet? Philip Pettit, einer der meistdiskutierten Philosophen der Gegenwart, entwickelt in seinem mitreißenden Buch einen Freiheitsbegriff, der die Idee eines nichtbeherrschten Lebens in sein Zentrum stellt. Freiheit heißt ihm zufolge: sein eigener Herr sein, allen auf Augenhöhe begegnen können und den Einfluss anderer Menschen nicht fürchten müssen. Das hat weitreichende soziale, ökonomische und politische Konsequenzen. Ein unverzichtbarer Kompass für die Navigation im 21. Jahrhundert.

The Dynamics of Opposition Cooperation in the Arab World

Contentious Politics in Times of Change

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Author: Hendrik Jan Kraetzschmar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317967364

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5858

Within the democratisation literature, opposition unity is widely seen as an important requisite to successfully pressure authoritarian rulers into liberalising reforms and in bringing about democratic change. Taking up on this theme, this book examines the myriad ways in which opposition groups across the Arab world have sought to coalesce into broader reform coalitions at the local, national and transnational levels to challenge authoritarian incumbents and their policies. Drawing on original case studies from the region, it sheds light on the diverse nature and objectives of these reform coalitions, and explores the challenges opposition groups face in Arab states in uniting behind a common reform agenda and in driving this agenda forward. Be they electoral pacts, local government coalitions, broader opposition alliances or networks of resistance, this book demonstrates that, although widespread, the record of collective opposition activism in the Arab world is mixed, with many reform coalitions lacking the necessary cohesion and mass appeal to effectively mobilise for change. This book was originally published as a special issue of British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies

Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa

Second Edition

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Author: Joel Beinin,Frédéric Vairel

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804788030

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 5514

Before the 2011 uprisings, the Middle East and North Africa were frequently seen as a uniquely undemocratic region with little civic activism. The first edition of this volume, published at the start of the Arab Spring, challenged these views by revealing a region rich with social and political mobilizations. This fully revised second edition extends the earlier explorations of Egypt, Morocco, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, and adds new case studies on the uprisings in Tunisia, Syria, and Yemen. The case studies are inspired by social movement theory, but they also critique and expand the horizons of the theory's classical concepts of political opportunity structures, collective action frames, mobilization structures, and repertoires of contention based on intensive fieldwork. This strong empirical base allows for a nuanced understanding of contexts, culturally conditioned rationality, the strengths and weaknesses of local networks, and innovation in contentious action to give the reader a substantive understanding of events in the Arab world before and since 2011.

Salzstädte

Roman

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Author: ʿAbd-ar-Raḥmān Munīf,Magda Barakat

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783720524254

Category: Arab countries

Page: 559

View: 5065

Als in den 30er-Jahren in einer arabischen Oase eine Gruppe von Amerikanern auftaucht, die Vorhut der Ölgesellschaften, bedeutet dies das Ende einer traditionellen Lebensform.

Violent Protest, Contentious Politics, and the Neoliberal State

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Author: Seraphim Seferiades,Dr Hank Johnston

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409495205

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 8530

This volume of cutting-edge research comparatively analyzes violent protest and rioting, furthering our understanding of this increasingly prevalent form of claim making. Hank Johnston and Seraphim Seferiades bring together internationally recognized experts in the field of protest studies and contentious politics to analyze the causes and trajectories of violence as a protest tactic. Crossnational comparisons from North America, Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Iran, Thailand, and elsewhere contribute to the volume's theoretical elaboration, while several case studies add depth to the discussion. This title will be of key importance to scholars across the social sciences, including sociology, political science, geography and criminology. Johnston and Seferiades's exciting book is a significant contribution to the study of rioting and violent protest in the contemporary neoliberal state.

Policing and Prisons in the Middle East

Formations of Coercion

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Author: Laleh Khalili

Publisher: Hurst Publishers

ISBN: 1849040583

Category: Police

Page: 300

View: 5538

The emergence of the modern Middle East has been accompanied by a concentration of coercive power in the state. Although the region has encompassed numerous mukhabarat (secret police) states, extensive policing and carceral regimes, and widespread use of torture and spectacular punishments, and although its prisons and policing practices are regularly condemned by human rights organisations, surprisingly few analyses explore the emergence of these grim institutions. This volume is the first to examine systematically practices of policing and incarceration in the modern Middle East, the emergence of modern policing and prisons and their continued predominance.