Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften

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Author: Norman Braun,Nicole J. Saam

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658011645

Category: Social Science

Page: 1079

View: 708

Das Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften bietet in 37 Artikeln einen umfassenden Überblick über sozialwissenschaftliche Modellbildung und Simulation. Es vermittelt wissenschaftstheoretische und methodische Grundlagen sowie den Stand der Forschung in den wichtigsten Anwendungsgebieten. Behandelt werden realistische, strukturalistische und konstruktivistische Zugriffe auf Modellbildung und Simulation, bedeutende Methoden und Typen der Modellierung (u.a. stochastische Prozesse und Bayes-Verfahren, nutzen- und spieltheoretische Modellierungen) und Ansätze der Computersimulation (z.B. Multi-Agenten-Modelle, zelluläre Automaten, neuronale Netze, Small Worlds). Die Anwendungskapitel befassen sich u.a. mit sozialen Dilemmata, sozialen Normen, Innovation und Diffusion, Herrschaft und Organisation, Gewalt und Krieg.

Approaches to Geo-mathematical Modelling

New Tools for Complexity Science

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Author: Alan G. Wilson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118922271

Category: Mathematics

Page: 432

View: 1534

Geo-mathematical modelling: models from complexity science Sir Alan Wilson, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London Mathematical and computer models for a complexity science tool kit Geographical systems are characterised by locations, activities at locations, interactions between them and the infrastructures that carry these activities and flows. They can be described at a great variety of scales, from individuals and organisations to countries. Our understanding, often partial, of these entities, and in many cases this understanding is represented in theories and associated mathematical models. In this book, the main examples are models that represent elements of the global system covering such topics as trade, migration, security and development aid together with examples at finer scales. This provides an effective toolkit that can not only be applied to global systems, but more widely in the modelling of complex systems. All complex systems involve nonlinearities involving path dependence and the possibility of phase changes and this makes the mathematical aspects particularly interesting. It is through these mechanisms that new structures can be seen to ‘emerge’, and hence the current notion of ‘emergent behaviour’. The range of models demonstrated include account-based models and biproportional fitting, structural dynamics, space-time statistical analysis, real-time response models, Lotka-Volterra models representing ‘war’, agent-based models, epidemiology and reaction-diffusion approaches, game theory, network models and finally, integrated models. Geo-mathematical modelling: Presents mathematical models with spatial dimensions. Provides representations of path dependence and phase changes. Illustrates complexity science using models of trade, migration, security and development aid. Demonstrates how generic models from the complexity science tool kit can each be applied in a variety of situations This book is for practitioners and researchers in applied mathematics, geography, economics, and interdisciplinary fields such as regional science and complexity science. It can also be used as the basis of a modelling course for postgraduate students.

Analytical Sociology

Actions and Networks

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Author: Gianluca Manzo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118762738

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 2041

Demonstrates the power of the theoretical framework ofanalytical sociology in explaining a large array of social phenomena Analytical Sociology: Actions and Networks presents themost advanced theoretical discussion of analytical sociology, alongwith a unique set of examples on mechanism- based sociology. Leading scholars apply the theoretical principlesof analytical sociology to understand how puzzling social and historical phenomenaincluding crime, lynching, witch-hunts, tax behaviours, Web-based social movement andcommunication, restaurant reputation, job search and careers, social networkhomophily and instability, cooperation and trust are brought aboutby complex, multi-layered social mechanisms. The analysespresented in this book rely on a wide range of methods whichinclude qualitative observations, advanced statistical techniques,complex network tools, refined simulation methods and creativeexperimental protocols. This book ultimately demonstrates that sociology, like any otherscience, is at its best when it dissects the mechanisms at work by means of rigorous modelbuilding andtesting. Analytical Sociology: • Provides the most complete and up-to-date theoreticaltreatment of analytical sociology. • Looks at a wide range of complex social phenomenawithin a single and unitary theoretical framework. • Explores a variety of advanced methods to build andtest theoretical models. • Examines how both computational modelling andexperiments can be used to study the complex relation between norms, networks and socialactions. • Brings together research from leading global expertsin the field in order to present a unique set of examples on mechanism-basedsociology. Advanced graduate students and researchers working in sociology,methodology of social sciences, statistics, social networksanalysis and computer simulation will benefit from this book.

The economy as an evolving complex system II

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Author: W. Brian Arthur,Steven N. Durlauf,David A. Lane,SFI Economics Program

Publisher: Westview Press

ISBN: 9780201959888

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 583

View: 5805

This volume is a collection of articles that shape and define a new view of the economy as an evolving complex system. This view is one of the economy as emerging from the interactions of individual agents whose behavior constantly evolves, whose strategies and actions are always adapting.

Proceedings

... International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, ICMAS ...

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Author: IFMAS.

Publisher: IEEE

ISBN: 9780769506258

Category: Electronic data processing

Page: 474

View: 656

American Sociological Review

Official Journal of the American Sociological Association

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Author: American Sociological Association

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8231

Artificial Life VII

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life

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Author: Mark A. Bedau,John S. McCaskill,Norman H. Packard,Steen Rasmussen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 576

View: 5498

The term "artificial life" describes research into synthetic systems that possess some of the essential properties of life. This truly interdisciplinary field includes biologists, computer scientists, physicists, chemists, geneticists, and others. Artificial life may be viewed as an attempt to understand high-level behavior from low-level rules—for example, how the simple interactions between ants and their environment lead to complex trail-following behavior. An understanding of such relationships in particular systems can suggest novel solutions to complex real-world problems such as disease prevention, stock-market prediction, and data mining on the Internet. Since their inception in 1987, the Artificial Life meetings have grown from small workshops to truly international conferences, reflecting the field's increasing appeal to researchers in all areas of science.

Social Self-Organization

Agent-Based Simulations and Experiments to Study Emergent Social Behavior

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Author: Dirk Helbing

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642240046

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 3822

What are the principles that keep our society together? This question is even more difficult to answer than the long-standing question, what are the forces that keep our world together. However, the social challenges of humanity in the 21st century ranging from the financial crises to the impacts of globalization, require us to make fast progress in our understanding of how society works, and how our future can be managed in a resilient and sustainable way. This book can present only a few very first steps towards this ambitious goal. However, based on simple models of social interactions, one can already gain some surprising insights into the social, ``macro-level'' outcomes and dynamics that is implied by individual, ``micro-level'' interactions. Depending on the nature of these interactions, they may imply the spontaneous formation of social conventions or the birth of social cooperation, but also their sudden breakdown. This can end in deadly crowd disasters or tragedies of the commons (such as financial crises or environmental destruction). Furthermore, we demonstrate that classical modeling approaches (such as representative agent models) do not provide a sufficient understanding of the self-organization in social systems resulting from individual interactions. The consideration of randomness, spatial or network interdependencies, and nonlinear feedback effects turns out to be crucial to get fundamental insights into how social patterns and dynamics emerge. Given the explanation of sometimes counter-intuitive phenomena resulting from these features and their combination, our evolutionary modeling approach appears to be powerful and insightful. The chapters of this book range from a discussion of the modeling strategy for socio-economic systems over experimental issues up the right way of doing agent-based modeling. We furthermore discuss applications ranging from pedestrian and crowd dynamics over opinion formation, coordination, and cooperation up to conflict, and also address the response to information, issues of systemic risks in society and economics, and new approaches to manage complexity in socio-economic systems. Selected parts of this book had been previously published in peer reviewed journals.

GECCO ...

Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Genetic algorithms

Page: N.A

View: 8975

The Foundations of Evolutionary Institutional Economics

Generic Institutionalism

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Author: Manuel Scholz-Wäckerle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136008640

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 354

View: 4465

Generic institutionalism offers a new perspective on institutional economic change within an evolutionary framework. The institutional landscape shapes the social fabric and economic organization in manifold ways. The book elaborates on the ubiquity of such institutional forms with regards to their emergence, durability and exit in social agency-structure relations. Thereby institutions are considered as social learning environments changing the knowledge base of the economy along generic rule-sets in non-nomological ways from within. Specific attention is given to a theoretical structuring of the topic in ontology, heuristics and methodology. Part I introduces a generic naturalistic ontology by comparing prevalent ontological claims in evolutionary economics and preparing them for a broader pluralist and interdisciplinary discourse. Part II reconsiders these ontological claims and confronts it with prevalent heuristics, conceptualizations and projections of institutional change. In this respect the book revisits the institutional economic thought of Thorstein Veblen, Friedrich August von Hayek, Joseph Alois Schumpeter and Pierre Bourdieu. A synthesis is suggested in an application of the generic rule-based approach. Part III discusses the implementation of rule-based bottom-up models of institutional change and provides a basic prototype agent-based computational simulation. The evolution of power relations plays an important role in the programming of real-life communication networks. This notion characterizes the discussed policy realms (Part IV) of ecological and financial sustainability as tremendously complex areas of institutional change in political economy, leading to the concluding topic of democracy in practice. The novelty of this approach is given by its modular theoretical structure. It turns out that institutional change is carried substantially by affective social orders in contrast to rational orders as communicated in orthodox economic realms. The characteristics of affective orders are derived theoretically from intersections between ontology and heuristics, where interdependencies between instinct, cognition, rationality, reason, social practice, habit, routine or disposition are essential for the embodiment of knowledge. This kind of research indicates new generic directions to study social learning in particular and institutional evolution in general.

GECCO-99

Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference : a Joint Meeting of the Eighth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA-99) and the Fourth Annual Genetic Programming Conference (GP-99) : July 13-17, 1999, Orlando, Florida

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Evolutionary computation

Page: 1876

View: 5436

Co-Evolution

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Author: H. Zwölfer,Otto Kraus

Publisher: P. Parey

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 125

View: 1047

Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy

An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media

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Author: Paola Tubaro,Antonio A Casilli,Yasaman Sarabi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319024566

Category: Social Science

Page: 57

View: 1529

Several prominent public voices have advanced the hypothesis that networked communications erode the value of privacy in favor of a transparent connected existence. Especially younger generations are often described as prone to live "open digital lives". This hypothesis has raised considerable controversy, polarizing the reaction of its critics as well as of its partisans. But how likely is the "end of privacy"? Under which conditions might this scenario come to be? What are the business and policy implications? How to ethically assess risks and opportunities? To shed light on the co-evolution and mutual dependencies of networked structures and individual and collective strategies towards privacy, this book innovatively uses cutting-edge methods in computational social sciences to study the formation and maintenance of online social networks. The findings confound common arguments and clearly indicate that Internet and social media do not necessarily entail the end of privacy. Publicity is not "the new norm": quite to the contrary, the book makes the case that privacy is a resilient social force, resulting from a set of interconnected behaviors of Internet users.