Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften

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Author: Norman Braun,Nicole J. Saam

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658011645

Category: Social Science

Page: 1079

View: 5789

Das Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften bietet in 37 Artikeln einen umfassenden Überblick über sozialwissenschaftliche Modellbildung und Simulation. Es vermittelt wissenschaftstheoretische und methodische Grundlagen sowie den Stand der Forschung in den wichtigsten Anwendungsgebieten. Behandelt werden realistische, strukturalistische und konstruktivistische Zugriffe auf Modellbildung und Simulation, bedeutende Methoden und Typen der Modellierung (u.a. stochastische Prozesse und Bayes-Verfahren, nutzen- und spieltheoretische Modellierungen) und Ansätze der Computersimulation (z.B. Multi-Agenten-Modelle, zelluläre Automaten, neuronale Netze, Small Worlds). Die Anwendungskapitel befassen sich u.a. mit sozialen Dilemmata, sozialen Normen, Innovation und Diffusion, Herrschaft und Organisation, Gewalt und Krieg.

Approaches to Geo-mathematical Modelling

New Tools for Complexity Science

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Author: Alan G. Wilson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118922271

Category: Mathematics

Page: 432

View: 2925

Geo-mathematical modelling: models from complexity science Sir Alan Wilson, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London Mathematical and computer models for a complexity science tool kit Geographical systems are characterised by locations, activities at locations, interactions between them and the infrastructures that carry these activities and flows. They can be described at a great variety of scales, from individuals and organisations to countries. Our understanding, often partial, of these entities, and in many cases this understanding is represented in theories and associated mathematical models. In this book, the main examples are models that represent elements of the global system covering such topics as trade, migration, security and development aid together with examples at finer scales. This provides an effective toolkit that can not only be applied to global systems, but more widely in the modelling of complex systems. All complex systems involve nonlinearities involving path dependence and the possibility of phase changes and this makes the mathematical aspects particularly interesting. It is through these mechanisms that new structures can be seen to ‘emerge’, and hence the current notion of ‘emergent behaviour’. The range of models demonstrated include account-based models and biproportional fitting, structural dynamics, space-time statistical analysis, real-time response models, Lotka-Volterra models representing ‘war’, agent-based models, epidemiology and reaction-diffusion approaches, game theory, network models and finally, integrated models. Geo-mathematical modelling: Presents mathematical models with spatial dimensions. Provides representations of path dependence and phase changes. Illustrates complexity science using models of trade, migration, security and development aid. Demonstrates how generic models from the complexity science tool kit can each be applied in a variety of situations This book is for practitioners and researchers in applied mathematics, geography, economics, and interdisciplinary fields such as regional science and complexity science. It can also be used as the basis of a modelling course for postgraduate students.

Analytical Sociology

Actions and Networks

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Author: Gianluca Manzo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118762738

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 9006

Demonstrates the power of the theoretical framework ofanalytical sociology in explaining a large array of social phenomena Analytical Sociology: Actions and Networks presents themost advanced theoretical discussion of analytical sociology, alongwith a unique set of examples on mechanism- based sociology. Leading scholars apply the theoretical principlesof analytical sociology to understand how puzzling social and historical phenomenaincluding crime, lynching, witch-hunts, tax behaviours, Web-based social movement andcommunication, restaurant reputation, job search and careers, social networkhomophily and instability, cooperation and trust are brought aboutby complex, multi-layered social mechanisms. The analysespresented in this book rely on a wide range of methods whichinclude qualitative observations, advanced statistical techniques,complex network tools, refined simulation methods and creativeexperimental protocols. This book ultimately demonstrates that sociology, like any otherscience, is at its best when it dissects the mechanisms at work by means of rigorous modelbuilding andtesting. Analytical Sociology: • Provides the most complete and up-to-date theoreticaltreatment of analytical sociology. • Looks at a wide range of complex social phenomenawithin a single and unitary theoretical framework. • Explores a variety of advanced methods to build andtest theoretical models. • Examines how both computational modelling andexperiments can be used to study the complex relation between norms, networks and socialactions. • Brings together research from leading global expertsin the field in order to present a unique set of examples on mechanism-basedsociology. Advanced graduate students and researchers working in sociology,methodology of social sciences, statistics, social networksanalysis and computer simulation will benefit from this book.

The economy as an evolving complex system II

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Author: W. Brian Arthur,Steven N. Durlauf,David A. Lane,SFI Economics Program

Publisher: Westview Press

ISBN: 9780201959888

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 583

View: 6684

This volume is a collection of articles that shape and define a new view of the economy as an evolving complex system. This view is one of the economy as emerging from the interactions of individual agents whose behavior constantly evolves, whose strategies and actions are always adapting.

The Foundations of Evolutionary Institutional Economics

Generic Institutionalism

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Author: Manuel Scholz-Wäckerle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136008640

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 354

View: 4290

Generic institutionalism offers a new perspective on institutional economic change within an evolutionary framework. The institutional landscape shapes the social fabric and economic organization in manifold ways. The book elaborates on the ubiquity of such institutional forms with regards to their emergence, durability and exit in social agency-structure relations. Thereby institutions are considered as social learning environments changing the knowledge base of the economy along generic rule-sets in non-nomological ways from within. Specific attention is given to a theoretical structuring of the topic in ontology, heuristics and methodology. Part I introduces a generic naturalistic ontology by comparing prevalent ontological claims in evolutionary economics and preparing them for a broader pluralist and interdisciplinary discourse. Part II reconsiders these ontological claims and confronts it with prevalent heuristics, conceptualizations and projections of institutional change. In this respect the book revisits the institutional economic thought of Thorstein Veblen, Friedrich August von Hayek, Joseph Alois Schumpeter and Pierre Bourdieu. A synthesis is suggested in an application of the generic rule-based approach. Part III discusses the implementation of rule-based bottom-up models of institutional change and provides a basic prototype agent-based computational simulation. The evolution of power relations plays an important role in the programming of real-life communication networks. This notion characterizes the discussed policy realms (Part IV) of ecological and financial sustainability as tremendously complex areas of institutional change in political economy, leading to the concluding topic of democracy in practice. The novelty of this approach is given by its modular theoretical structure. It turns out that institutional change is carried substantially by affective social orders in contrast to rational orders as communicated in orthodox economic realms. The characteristics of affective orders are derived theoretically from intersections between ontology and heuristics, where interdependencies between instinct, cognition, rationality, reason, social practice, habit, routine or disposition are essential for the embodiment of knowledge. This kind of research indicates new generic directions to study social learning in particular and institutional evolution in general.

Proceedings

... International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, ICMAS ...

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Author: IFMAS.

Publisher: IEEE

ISBN: 9780769506258

Category: Electronic data processing

Page: 474

View: 3221

American Sociological Review

Official Journal of the American Sociological Association

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Author: American Sociological Association

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1585

Artificial Life VII

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life

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Author: Mark A. Bedau,John S. McCaskill,Norman H. Packard,Steen Rasmussen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 576

View: 4537

The term "artificial life" describes research into synthetic systems that possess some of the essential properties of life. This truly interdisciplinary field includes biologists, computer scientists, physicists, chemists, geneticists, and others. Artificial life may be viewed as an attempt to understand high-level behavior from low-level rules—for example, how the simple interactions between ants and their environment lead to complex trail-following behavior. An understanding of such relationships in particular systems can suggest novel solutions to complex real-world problems such as disease prevention, stock-market prediction, and data mining on the Internet. Since their inception in 1987, the Artificial Life meetings have grown from small workshops to truly international conferences, reflecting the field's increasing appeal to researchers in all areas of science.

Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy

An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media

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Author: Paola Tubaro,Antonio A Casilli,Yasaman Sarabi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319024566

Category: Social Science

Page: 57

View: 4687

Several prominent public voices have advanced the hypothesis that networked communications erode the value of privacy in favor of a transparent connected existence. Especially younger generations are often described as prone to live "open digital lives". This hypothesis has raised considerable controversy, polarizing the reaction of its critics as well as of its partisans. But how likely is the "end of privacy"? Under which conditions might this scenario come to be? What are the business and policy implications? How to ethically assess risks and opportunities? To shed light on the co-evolution and mutual dependencies of networked structures and individual and collective strategies towards privacy, this book innovatively uses cutting-edge methods in computational social sciences to study the formation and maintenance of online social networks. The findings confound common arguments and clearly indicate that Internet and social media do not necessarily entail the end of privacy. Publicity is not "the new norm": quite to the contrary, the book makes the case that privacy is a resilient social force, resulting from a set of interconnected behaviors of Internet users.

Simulated Evolution and Learning

7th International Conference, SEAL 2008, Melbourne, Australia, December 7-10, 2008, Proceedings

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Author: Xiaodong Li,Michael Kirley,Mengjie Zhang,Vic Ciesielski,Zbigniew Michalewicz,Tim Hendtlass,Kalyanmoy Deb,K. C. Tan,Jürgen Branke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540896937

Category: Computers

Page: 658

View: 4991

This volume constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning, SEAL 2008, held in Melbourne, Australia, during December 7-10, 2008. The 65 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 140 submissions. The topics covered are evolutionary learning; evolutionary optimisation; hybrid learning; adaptive systems; theoretical issues in evolutionary computation; and real-world applications of evolutionary computation techniques.

Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling

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Author: Joshua M. Epstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691125473

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 356

View: 5593

Agent-based computational modeling is changing the face of social science. This book argues that this powerful technique permits the social sciences to meet an explanation, in which one 'grows' the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors.

GECCO ...

Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Genetic algorithms

Page: N.A

View: 7445

Philosophy of Psychology

A Contemporary Introduction

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Author: José Luis Bermúdez

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415275941

Category: Philosophy

Page: 377

View: 4114

Philosophy of Psychology is an introduction to the nature and mechanisms of cognition and behaviour, aimed at students who have already done an introductory philosophy course.

GECCO-99

Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference : a Joint Meeting of the Eighth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA-99) and the Fourth Annual Genetic Programming Conference (GP-99) : July 13-17, 1999, Orlando, Florida

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Evolutionary computation

Page: 1876

View: 1092

Die Evolution der Kooperation

Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss

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Author: Robert Axelrod

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3486851748

Category: Philosophy

Page: 245

View: 2600

Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.