Cognition in Practice

Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life

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Author: Jean Lave

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521357340

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 9284

In this innovative study, Jean Lave moves the analysis of one particular form of cognitive activity--arithmetic problem-solving--out of the laboratory and into the domain of everyday life. In so doing, she shows how mathematics in the "real world", such as that entailed in grocery shopping or dieting, is, like all thinking, shaped by the dynamic encounter between the culturally-endowed mind and its total context, a subtle interaction that shapes both the human subject and the world within which it acts.

Diakonie in der Schule

theoretische Einordnung und praktische Konsequenzen auf der Grundlage einer Evaluationsstudie

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Author: Christoph Gramzow

Publisher: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt

ISBN: 3374027377

Category: Church work

Page: 636

View: 9878

Die Studie lasst sich von einem lerntheoretischen Verstandnis diakonischen Lernens leiten, das sich auf die aus den USA stammende Theorie des situated learning stutzt. Anlage und Durchfuhrung der Untersuchung berucksichtigen ferner den Ansatz eines kompetenzorientierten Lernens. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen den einmaligen Stellenwert des Diakonieunterrichts fur ein lebensnahes Lernen, das Schuler in die Begegnung mit haufig am Rande der Gesellschaft stehenden Menschen und zugleich mit sich selbst fuhrt. Deutlich werden auch die unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen, die Madchen und Jungen hinsichtlich des Zugangs zu diakonischen Projekten mitbringen und die im Sinne einer differenziellen Didaktik zu berucksichtigen sind.

Wie kleine Kinder schlau werden

selbständiges Lernen im Alltag

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Author: John Caldwell Holt

Publisher: Beltz

ISBN: 9783407228550

Category:

Page: 232

View: 4635

Ausgehend von der Beobachtung des kindlichen Spielens erläutert der Autor, wie Kinder denken und lernen.

Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice

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Author: Jean Lave

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226470725

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 198

View: 9954

In this extended meditation, Jean Lave interweaves analysis of the process of apprenticeship among the Vai and Gola tailors of Liberia with reflections on the evolution of her research on those tailors in the late 1970s. In so doing, she provides both a detailed account of her apprenticeship in the art of sustained fieldwork and an insightful overview of thirty years of changes in the empirical and theoretical facets of ethnographic practice. Examining the issues she confronted in her own work, Lave shows how the critical questions raised by ethnographic research erode conventional assumptions, altering the direction of the work that follows. As ethnography takes on increasing significance to an ever widening field of thinkers on topics from education to ecology, this erudite but accessible book will be essential to anyone tackling the question of what it means to undertake critical and conceptually challenging fieldwork. Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice explains how to seriously explore what it means to be human in a complex world—and why it is so important.

Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4

Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

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Author: John Comings,Barbara Garner,Cristine Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135622388

Category: Education

Page: 360

View: 7049

The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4 is the newest addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Volume 4 opens with an overview of significant recent developments in the field. Subsequent chapters cover a wide range of topics critical to the success of adult education and literacy services in the United States: *issues of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation; *the role of workplace education in building adults' basic skills; *the role of new learning technologies in adult education and literacy; *adult developmental theories and their implications for the teaching of adult basic education and English for speakers of other languages; and *traditional and contemporary adult learning theories, including an annotated bibliography of key resources. Intended for policymakers, scholars, and practitioners dedicated to improving the quality of adult basic education, adult English for speakers of other languages, and adult secondary education programs, Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4 is an essential resource for the field.

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

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Author: D. C. Phillips

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483364755

Category: Education

Page: 952

View: 9514

Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

How Students Learn

History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on How People Learn, A Targeted Report for Teachers

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309133033

Category: Education

Page: 632

View: 8645

How do you get a fourth-grader excited about history? How do you even begin to persuade high school students that mathematical functions are relevant to their everyday lives? In this volume, practical questions that confront every classroom teacher are addressed using the latest exciting research on cognition, teaching, and learning. How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom builds on the discoveries detailed in the bestselling How People Learn. Now, these findings are presented in a way that teachers can use immediately, to revitalize their work in the classroom for even greater effectiveness. Organized for utility, the book explores how the principles of learning can be applied in teaching history, science, and math topics at three levels: elementary, middle, and high school. Leading educators explain in detail how they developed successful curricula and teaching approaches, presenting strategies that serve as models for curriculum development and classroom instruction. Their recounting of personal teaching experiences lends strength and warmth to this volume. The book explores the importance of balancing students’ knowledge of historical fact against their understanding of concepts, such as change and cause, and their skills in assessing historical accounts. It discusses how to build straightforward science experiments into true understanding of scientific principles. And it shows how to overcome the difficulties in teaching math to generate real insight and reasoning in math students. It also features illustrated suggestions for classroom activities. How Students Learn offers a highly useful blend of principle and practice. It will be important not only to teachers, administrators, curriculum designers, and teacher educators, but also to parents and the larger community concerned about children’s education.

Basic and Applied Perspectives on Learning, Cognition, and Development

The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology

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Author: Charles A. Nelson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134792336

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 7506

Although current views of cognitive development owe a great deal to Jean Piaget, this field has undergone profound change in the years since Piaget's death. This can be witnessed both in the influence connectionist and dynamical system models have exerted on theories of cognition and language, and in how basic work in cognitive development has begun to influence those who work in applied (e.g., educational) settings. This volume brings together an eclectic group of distinguished experts who collectively represent the full spectrum of basic to applied aspects of cognitive development. This book begins with chapters on cognition and language that represent the current Zeitgeist in cognitive science approaches to cognitive development broadly defined. Following a brief commentary on this work, the next section turns to more applied issues. Although the focus here is on arithmetic learning, the research programs described have profound implications for virtually all aspects of education and learning. The last chapter views cognitive development from the perspective of ethology and evolutionary biology, and in so doing provides a theoretical perspective that is novel and in some ways, prescient: specifically, how can our views of cognition incorporate recent work in biology?

Religion in Contemporary China

Revitalization and Innovation

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Author: Adam Yuet Chau

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136892257

Category: Religion

Page: 264

View: 2593

Before the modernist transformations of the twentieth century, China had one of the richest and most diverse religious cultures in the world. The radical anti-traditionalist policies of both the Republican and Communist regimes as well as other socio-historical factors posed formidable challenges to China’s religious traditions but, this book argues, these conditions also presented new opportunities for re-generation and innovation. It shows that economic reforms and the concurrent relaxation of religious policies have provided fertile ground for the revitalization of a wide array of religious practices, including divination, ancestor worship, temple festivals, spirit mediumism, churchgoing, funeral rites, exorcism, pilgrimages, sectarianism, sutra chanting, and the printing and distribution of morality books. Equally new forms of religious practices have emerged such as lay Buddhist preachers, "Maoist shamans", and a range of qigong sects/schools. Written by an international, interdisciplinary team of experts who have all conducted in-depth fieldwork research in China, this book provides a wide-ranging survey of contemporary religious practices in China. It examines the different processes and mechanisms of religious revivals and innovations, and, more broadly, relates the Chinese example of religious revitalization to larger issues of social and cultural continuity and change.

The Sociocultural Turn in Psychology

The Contextual Emergence of Mind and Self

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Author: Suzanne Kirschner,Jack Martin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231519907

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 7554

The sociocultural turn in psychology treats psychological subjects, such as the mind and the self, as processes that are constituted, or "made up," within specific social and cultural practices. In other words, though one's distinct psychology is anchored by an embodied, biological existence, sociocultural interactions are integral to the evolution of the person. Only in the past two decades has the sociocultural turn truly established itself within disciplinary and professional psychology. Providing advanced students and practitioners with a definitive understanding of these theories, Suzanne R. Kirschner and Jack Martin, former presidents of the American Psychological Association's Division of the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, assemble a collection of essays that describes the discursive, hermeneutic, dialogical, and activity approaches of sociocultural psychology. Each contribution recognizes psychology as a human science and supports the individual's potential for agency and freedom. At the same time, they differ in their understanding of a person's psychological functioning and the best way to study it. Ultimately the sociocultural turn offers an alternative to overly biological or interiorized theories of the self, emphasizing instead the formation and transformation of our minds in relation to others and the world.

Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education

Innovations in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Learning and Teaching

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Author: Anthony E. Kelly,Richard A. Lesh,John Y. Baek

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317639634

Category: Education

Page: 560

View: 7922

This Handbook presents the latest thinking and current examples of design research in education. Design-based research involves introducing innovations into real-world practices (as opposed to constrained laboratory contexts) and examining the impact of those designs on the learning process. Designed prototype applications (e.g., instructional methods, software or materials) and the research findings are then cycled back into the next iteration of the design innovation in order to build evidence of the particular theories being researched, and to positively impact practice and the diffusion of the innovation. The Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education-- the defining book for the field -- fills a need in how to conduct design research by those doing so right now. The chapters represent a broad array of interpretations and examples of how today’s design researchers conceptualize this emergent methodology across areas as diverse as educational leadership, diffusion of innovations, complexity theory, and curriculum research. This volume is designed as a guide for doctoral students, early career researchers and cross-over researchers from fields outside of education interested in supporting innovation in educational settings through conducting design research.

Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analysis

Historical Origins and Modern Communities of Practice

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Author: Robert R. Hoffman,Laura G. Militello

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136678301

Category: Psychology

Page: 500

View: 9586

This volume is the first comprehensive history of task analysis, charting its origins from the earliest applied psychology through to modern forms of task analysis that focus on the study of cognitive work. Through this detailed historical analysis, it is made apparent how task analysis has always been cognitive. Chapters cover the histories, key ideas, and contributions to methodology of a number of communities of practice, including: Sociotechnics, European Work Analysis, Naturalistic Decision Making, Cognitive Systems Engineering, Ethnography, Human Factors. Further, integrative chapters focus on the purposes of cognitive task analysis. It is shown how all the various communities of practice are living in the same scientific universe, though are in many ways distinctive in terms of their key concerns and main theories. It is a historiography of task analysis, and the people who invented task analysis. It is also an explanatory primer on what cognitive task analysis is all about and what it can do. Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analyis will be of value to professionals in allied disciplines who might come to rely on cognitive task analysis in their system development programs. It will be invaluable to students who need to know what task analysis and cognitive task analysis are really all about. For practitioners of cognitive task analysis, this volume is a major presentation of what their scientific universe is all about.

Everyday and Academic Mathematics in the Classroom

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Author: Mary E. Brenner,Judit N. Moschkovich

Publisher: National Council of Teachers of English

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 153

View: 719

The monograph series is published by NCTM as a supplement to the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education (JRME). Each monograph has a single theme related to the learning or teaching of mathematics. Number 11 in the JRME monograph series, this monograph attempts to clarify what we mean by everyday and academic mathematics, to provide empirical analyses of what happens when we bring particular aspects of everyday practises into classrooms and to consider how workplace practises relate to school mathematics.

Discursive Practice in Language Learning and Teaching

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Author: Richard Young

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 267

View: 3263

Discursive Practice is a theory of the linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics of recurring episodes of face-to-face interaction; episodes that have social and cultural significance to a community of speakers. This book examines the discursive practice approach to language-in-interaction, explicating the consequences of grounding language use and language learning in a view of social realities as discursively constructed, of meanings as negotiated through interaction, of the context-bound nature of discourse, and of discourse as social action. The book also addresses how participants’ abilities in a specific discursive practice may be learned, taught, and assessed.

Grundlegung der Psychologie

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Author: Klaus Holzkamp

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783593335728

Category:

Page: 600

View: 1743

Dieses Buch hat in den 80er und 90er Jahren heftige Debatten ausgelöst und ist für die Entwicklung der Psychologie nicht ohne Folgen geblieben - ein Klassiker, der die theoretischen Grundlagen der Kritischen Psychologie zusammenfasst. Bis heute hat der Band nicht an Aktualität verloren. Klaus Holzkamp eröffnet hier neue Möglichkeiten zur Verständigung über die Situation des Menschen in der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft und liefert zugleich begriffliche und methodische Instrumente für eine psychologische Forschung und Praxis, die nicht mehr am Thema der menschlichen (Inter-)Subjektivität vorbeigehen. (Quelle: www.buchhandel.de).

Learning Mathematics

From Hierarchies to Networks

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Author: Prof Leone Burton,Leone Burton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135698481

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 5542

Learning Mathematics brings together a collection of interrelated and forward-looking chapters by internationally recognized experts that explores changes in the theories and practices of learning (and teaching) mathematics. The authors reject a traditional, transmission view of the teaching of mathematics which has proved so ineffective for learning. In its place they offer information gathered from research and from practice about effects on the learners seeking to create and negotiate meaning. Learners are presented as actively attempting to make sense of the mathematics they encounter, and learners, teachers and researchers are offered examples of ho such sense-making activities, incorporated into mathematics classrooms, impact on coming to know. The book celebrates both diversity, in the range of different perspectives, contributions and topics, and unity, in the linking chapters and themes, It will be fascinating reading for those mathematics educators who are eager to engage with a socio-cultural perspective in order to better understand the complexity of learning mathematics.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge

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Author: Norman Don

Publisher: Vahlen

ISBN: 3800648105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 6774

Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Der Zahlensinn oder Warum wir rechnen können

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Author: Stanislas Dehaene

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034878257

Category: Science

Page: 311

View: 8795

Wir sind umgeben von Zahlen. Ob auf Kreditkarten gestanzt oder auf Münzen geprägt, ob auf Schecks gedruckt oder in den Spalten computerisierter Tabellen aufgelistet, überall beherrschen Zahlen unser Leben. Sie sind auch der Kern unserer Technologie. Ohne Zahlen könnten wir weder Raketen starten, die das Sonnensystem erkunden, noch Brücken bauen, Güter austauschen oder Rech nungen bezahlen. In gewissem Sinn sind Zahlen also kulturelle Erfindungen, die sich ihrer Bedeutung nach nur mit der Landwirtschaft oder mit dem Rad vergleichen lassen. Aber sie könnten sogar noch tiefere Wurzeln haben. Tausende von Jahren vor Christus benutzten babylonische Wissenschaftler Zahlzeichen, um erstaun lich genaueastronomische Tabellen zu berechnen. Zehntausende von Jahren zuvor hatten Menschen der Steinzeit die ersten geschriebenen Zahlenreihen geschaffen, indem sie Knochen einkerbten oder Punkte auf Höhlenwände malten. Und, wie ich später überzeugend darzustellen hoffe, schon vor weiteren Millionen von Jahren, lange bevor es Menschen gab, nahmen Tiere aller Arten Zahlen zur Kenntnis und stellten mit ihnen einfache Kopfrechnungen an. Sind Zahlen also fast so alt wie das Leben selbst? Sind sie in der Struktur unseres Gehirns verankert? Besitzen wir einen Zahlensinn, eine spezielle Intuition, die uns hilft, Zahlen und Mathematik mit Sinn zu erfüllen? Ich wurde vor fünfzehn Jahren, während meiner Ausbildung zum Mathema tiker, fasziniert von den abstrakten Objekten, mit denen ich umzugehen lernte, vor allem von den einfachsten von ihnen- den Zahlen.

Mathematics in the Early Years

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Author: Juanita V. Copley

Publisher: National Council of Teachers of

ISBN: 9780873534697

Category: Education

Page: 230

View: 6555

This thought-provoking material shows that although children think differently from adults and although children construct their own informal mathematics, they are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning. The book presents historical, theoretical and social pictures of early childhood mathematics; discusses the mathematics content essential to the young child's understanding and zooms in on mathematics for the young child from the panoramic view of mathematics for everyone.

Die Macht der Gewohnheit: Warum wir tun, was wir tun

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Author: Charles Duhigg

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827070740

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 8912

Seit kurzem versuchen Hirnforscher, Verhaltenspsychologen und Soziologen gemeinsam neue Antworten auf eine uralte Frage zu finden: Warum tun wir eigentlich, was wir tun? Was genau prägt unsere Gewohnheiten? Anhand zahlreicher Beispiele aus der Forschung wie dem Alltag erzählt Charles Duhigg von der Macht der Routine und kommt dem Mechanismus, aber auch den dunklen Seiten der Gewohnheit auf die Spur. Er erklärt, warum einige Menschen es schaffen, über Nacht mit dem Rauchen aufzuhören (und andere nicht), weshalb das Geheimnis sportlicher Höchstleistung in antrainierten Automatismen liegt und wie sich die Anonymen Alkoholiker die Macht der Gewohnheit zunutze machen. Nicht zuletzt schildert er, wie Konzerne Millionen ausgeben, um unsere Angewohnheiten für ihre Zwecke zu manipulieren. Am Ende wird eines klar: Die Macht von Gewohnheiten prägt unser Leben weit mehr, als wir es ahnen.