Climate Change

Past, Present, and Future

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Author: Marie-Antoinette Méli?res,Chloé Maréchal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118708520

Category: Nature

Page: 416

View: 7759

The book use an approach that explains the mechanisms but is equation-free. It is written from the point of view of a physicist and treats the physical processes in detail providing a deep understanding in particular of the energy balance and the greenhouse effect. It avoids technical jargon and presents the issues in a simple and clear manner. In addition to the fuller explanations, the approach is innovative. The record of past climates is used as a benchmark to assess current climate changes and to apprehend the true magnitude of coming changes that stem from human activity. It is for this reason that such emphasis is given to understanding the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2) and the lessons from past climates (Part 3). The central subject of the book is thus that of Work Package 1 of IPCC, namely “Climate changes in the past and to come”. Although many topics are covered, the book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie climate equilibrium. These are discussed in depth and placed in a hierarchy, which provides a better perspective of the different factors, parameters and mechanisms that drive the variations in the average climate. One of its novelties is to present the notion of average climate in terms of energy required to maintain the climate. This allows the reader to understand the basic role of the available energy on the Earth and to generalise the concept of climate on the scale of the whole planet. In this way the fundamental importance of the greenhouse effect is introduced, as well as the average temperature as an indicator of climate change, i.e., the pertinence of the temperature – energy parameter. This is why it describes the average climate in terms of the three key components : temperature, rainfall and wind. Special attention is given to the energy balance of the planet in all its aspects and to understanding clearly the mechanism of the greenhouse effect and the physical notion of temperature. These last two form the basis of the perturbation generated by human activity and the means of quantifying its impact. By presenting the detailed climate archives over the last few million years (Part 3, Lessons of the Past), in particular the glacial - interglacial cycles of the Quaternary era, the mechanism that drives the natural climate changes is revealed, and the lessons to be learnt from the past follow naturally. Emphasis is laid on the means of characterizing and quantifying global climate change: -Global warming is accompanied by an average rise in temperature that increases with latitude. Mean latitudes experience a rise in temperature twice as great as that of the overall average (a finding that is confirmed by the recent warming and which is forecast in the models for the 21st century). -Throughout the whole of the Quaternary era (last few million years) the warm interglacial periods never encountered a rise in the average temperature greater than 2°C beyond the current warm period. This provides a reference for the global warming that is approaching. -Finally, with respect to biodiversity, the glacial - interglacial cycles of the past illustrate how the impact of large temperature changes can affect the biosphere, and promote greater biodiversity at lower latitudes. These points serve to circumscribe the magnitude of the changes, both in the climate and in the biosphere, that are in store in the 21st century. The whole of Part 4 (Recent evolution in the climate) summarizes the consequences of the recent global warming. The interest here is to illustrate the observed impact on the planet of a global climate change. This highlights the predictions of the models, which are entirely consistent with these observations (Part 5).

The Oceans and Rapid Climate Change

Past, Present, and Future

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Author: Dan Seidov,Bernd J. Haupt,Mark A. Maslin

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 3574

Explores the role of the ocean in fast climate changes in the past and conceivable future. The first half of the 16 papers present data interpretation, hypotheses based on data analyses, and ideas that shed new light on past climates and their evolution. The remaining papers describe climate system models that focus on the global ocean, starting with simpler, ocean-only models that develop into full, three-dimensional models of entire climate systems. Topics include the key climate transitions during the Quaternary period, stochastic resonance in the North Atlantic, and the relationship between glacial- to-interglacial changes of ocean circulation and eolian sediment transport. No index. c. Book News Inc.

Climate Change in Deserts

Past, Present and Future

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Author: Martin Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131606073X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2804

Reconstructing climatic changes in deserts and their margins at a variety of scales in space and time, this book draws upon evidence from land and sea, including desert dunes, wind-blown dust, river and lake sediments, glacial moraines, plant and animal fossils, isotope geochemistry, speleothems, soils, and prehistoric archaeology. The book summarises the Cenozoic evolution of the major deserts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa and Australia and the causes of historic floods and droughts. The book then considers the causes and consequences of desertification and proposes four key conditions for achieving ecologically sustainable use of natural resources in arid and semi-arid areas. Climate Change in Deserts is an invaluable reference for researchers and advanced students interested in the climate and geomorphology of deserts: geographers, geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, soil scientists, hydrologists, climatologists and natural resource managers.

It's Getting Hot in Here

The Past, Present, and Future of Climate Change

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Author: Bridget Heos

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0544750594

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 224

View: 2402

Tackling the issue of global warming head-on for a teen audience, Bridget Heos examines the science behind it, the history of climate change on our planet, and the ways in which humans have affected the current crisis we face. It’s Getting Hot in Here illustrates how interconnected we are not just with everyone else on the planet, but with the people who came before us and the ones who will inherit the planet after us. This eye-opening approach to one of today’s most pressing issues focuses on the past human influences, the current state of affairs, the grim picture for the future—and how young readers can help to make a positive change.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

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Author: Henry F. Diaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512523

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 9215

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

Increasing Climate Variability and Change

Reducing the Vulnerability of Agriculture and Forestry

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Author: James Salinger,Mannava VK Sivakumar,Raymond P. Motha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402041667

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 510

This book reviews the latest assessments of climate variability and climate change, and their impacts on agriculture and forestry, and recommends appropriate adaptation strategies for reducing the vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate variability and climate change. Among other solutions, the text offers management strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from different agroecosystems, and proposes the use of seasonal climate forecasts to reduce climate risk.

The Attacking Ocean

The Past, Present, and Future of Rising Sea Levels

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Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408836041

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 9638

The past fifteen thousand years - the entire span of human civilization - have witnessed dramatic sea level changes, which began with rapid global warming at the end of the Ice Age, when sea levels were more than 700 feet below modern levels. Over the next eleven millennia, the oceans climbed in fits and starts. These rapid changes had little effect on those humans who experienced them, partly because there were so few people on earth, and also because they were able to adjust readily to new coastlines. Global sea levels stabilised about six thousand years ago except for local adjustments that caused often quite significant changes to places like the Nile Delta. So the curve of inexorably rising seas flattened out as urban civilizations developed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and South Asia. The earth's population boomed, quintupling from the time of Christ to the Industrial Revolution. The threat from the oceans increased with our crowding along shores to live, fish, and trade. Since 1860, the world has warmed significantly and the ocean's climb has speeded. The sea level changes are cumulative and gradual; no one knows when they will end. The Attacking Ocean tells a tale of the rising complexity of the relationship between humans and the sea at their doorsteps, a complexity created not by the oceans, which have changed but little. What has changed is us, and the number of us on earth.

Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future

School of Environmental Research - Organized by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

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Author: Markus Quante,Ralf Ebinghaus,Götz Flöser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642174193

Category: Science

Page: 417

View: 6413

This book evolved from the 5th School of Environmental Research entitled „Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future", which has set a focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), heavy metals and aerosols. - reconstruction of past changes based on the scientific analysis of natural archives such as ice cores and peat deposits, - evaluation of the present environmental state by the integration of measurements and modelling and the establishment of cause-effect-patterns, - assessment of possible environmental future scenarios including emission and climate change perspectives.

The Human Impact on the Natural Environment

Past, Present, and Future

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Author: Andrew S. Goudie

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118688155

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 8093

The new edition of this classic student text provides an up-to-dateand comprehensive view of the major environmental issues facing theworld today, and is an essential introduction to the past, presentand future impact of humans on Earth. Explores the impact of humans upon vegetation, animals, soils,water, landforms, and the atmosphere. Updated extensively, with many new figures and up-to-datestatistics. Four completely new chapters explore the ways in which globalclimate change may have an impact on Earth in the future. A new design makes the text even more accessible and easy touse. Visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/humanimpactto access the artwork from the book.

Aviation and Climate Change

Lessons for European Policy

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Author: Alice Bows,Kevin Anderson,Paul Upham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134153759

Category: Science

Page: 14

View: 543

It is generally accepted – the US administration excepted - that the emissions reduction targets agreed in the Kyoto Protocol are only the beginning of what needs to be achieved in international climate negotiations. While studies suggest that major emission reductions by industrialized countries can be achieved at low economic cost, both these and early reductions by developing countries are inevitably a major political challenge. This book focuses on European policy toward climate change, specifically its ramifications for the aviation industry. With air travel predicted to grow enormously in the coming years, the issue of climate change is hugely topical for this important industry. Accessible to students, academics and practioners, this book is useful reading for all those with an interest in climate change, the aviation industry, or both.

Climate Change Archaeology

Building Resilience from Research in the World's Coastal Wetlands

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Author: Robert Van de Noort

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191023841

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8360

It is beyond doubt that the climate is changing, presenting us with one of the biggest challenges in the twenty-first-century. During the past 150 years, archaeologists have studied the impact of climate change on humanity; however, this information has not yet been used when considering the impact climate change will have on future human communities. This pioneering study addresses this major paradox in modern climate change research, and provides the theoretical basis for archaeological data to be included in climate change debates - an approach which uses archaeological research as a repository of ideas and concepts which can help build the resilience of modern communities against the background of rapid climate change. Applying this approach to four case study areas, which will be among the first to be significantly affected by climate change - the coastal wetlands of the North Sea, the Sundarbans, Florida's Gulf Coast, and the Iraqi Marshland, this comparative study illustrates the diversity of adaptive pathways implemented in times of climate change in the past and how these can help prepare modern communities.

Climate: Past, Present and Future

Volume 2: Climatic History and the Future

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Author: H. H. Lamb

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415682237

Category: Nature

Page: 870

View: 2509

First published in 1977, the second volume of Climate: Present, Past and Future covers parts III and IV of Professor Hubert Lambe(tm)s seminal and pioneering study of climatology. Part III provides a survey of evidence of types of climates over the last million years, and of methods of dating that evidence. Through the earlier stages of the Earthe(tm)s development the book traces what is known of the various geographies presented by the drifting continents and indicates what can be learnt about climatic regimes and the causes of climatic change. From the last ice age to the present our knowledge of the succession of climates is summarized, indicating prevailing temperatures, rainfalls, wind and ocean current patterns where possible. Part IV considers events during the fifteen years prior to the booke(tm)s initial publication, leading on to the problems ofestimating the most probable future course of climatic development, and the influence of Mane(tm)s activities on climate. Alongside the reissue of volume 1, this Routledge Revival will be essential reading for anyone interested in both the causes and workings of climate and in the history of climatology itself.

Climate Change

Biological and Human Aspects

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Author: Jonathan Cowie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139852132

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2455

The second edition of this acclaimed text has been fully updated and substantially expanded to include the considerable developments (since publication of the first edition) in our understanding of the science of climate change, its impacts on biological and human systems, and developments in climate policy. Written in an accessible style, it provides a broad review of past, present and likely future climate change from the viewpoints of biology, ecology, human ecology and Earth system science. It will again prove to be invaluable to a wide range of readers, from students in the life sciences who need a brief overview of the basics of climate science, to atmospheric science, geography, geoscience and environmental science students who need to understand the biological and human ecological implications of climate change. It is also a valuable reference text for those involved in environmental monitoring, conservation and policy making.

Rising Seas

Past, Present, Future

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Author: Vivien Gornitz

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231147384

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 2165

The Earth's climate is already warming due to increased concentrations of human-produced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and the specter of rising sea level is one of global warming's most far-reaching threats. Sea level will keep rising long after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, because of the delay in penetration of surface warming to the ocean depths and because of the slow dissipation of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Adopting a long perspective that interprets sea level changes both underway and expected in the near future, Vivien Gornitz completes a highly relevant and necessary study of an unprecedented age in Earth's history. Gornitz consults past climate archives to help better anticipate future developments and prepare for them more effectively. She focuses on several understudied historical events, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Anomaly, the Messinian salinity crisis, the rapid filling of the Black Sea (which may have inspired the story of Noah's flood), and the Storrega submarine slide, an incident possibly connected to a sea level occurrence roughly 8,000 years old. By examining dramatic variations in past sea level and climate, Gornitz concretizes the potential consequences of rapid, human-induced warming. She builds historical precedent for coastal hazards associated with a higher ocean level, such as increased damage from storm surge flooding, even if storm characteristics remain unchanged. Citing the examples of Rotterdam, London, New York City, and other forward-looking urban centers that are effectively preparing for higher sea level, Gornitz also delineates the difficult economic and political choices of curbing carbon emissions while underscoring, through past geological analysis, the urgent need to do so.

Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Bangladesh

Processes, Assessment and Effects

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Author: Md Aboul Fazal Younus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400754949

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 5161

The IPCC (2007) warned that the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) basin will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that the region’s poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. This book investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method technique comprising PRA and a questionnaire survey applied in the case study area ‘Islampur’ Upazila in Bangladesh. The study has four key approaches. First, it reviews the flood literature for Bangladesh from 1980 to 2014. Second, it examines farmers' crop adaptation processes in a case study area at Islampur, Bangladesh. Third, it assesses the vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in response to three extreme flood events (EFEs). Fourth, the book assesses the economic consequences of failure effects of autonomous crop adaptation in response to EFEs. The results show that Bangladeshi farmers are highly resilient to EFEs, but the economic consequences of failure effects of autonomous crop adaptation (FEACA) on marginal farmers are large. The book contributes to current knowledge by filling three important research gaps as follows, 1) farmers’ autonomous crop adaptation processes in response to various types of extreme floods; 2) methodological contribution for assessing vulnerability and adaptation through PRA; and 3) the economic consequences of the failure effects of autonomous crop adaptations. “This book provides a good account of ‘autonomous adaptation’ and its impact on fl ood vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Anyone wishing to fully understand the impact of climate change should read the book.” Professor Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Laureate, Yunus Centre, Bangladesh

Climate Change and Armed Conflict

Hot and Cold Wars

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Author: James R. Lee

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135211639

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 9616

This book examines the evolution of the relationship between climate change and conflict, and attempts to visualize future trends. Owing to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, current trends in climate change will not appreciably alter over the next half century even if drastic action is taken now. Changes in climate will produce unique types and modes of conflict, redefine the value of important resources, and create new challenges to maintaining social order and stability. This book examines the consequences of climate change and argues that it has and will produce two types of different types of conflict: 'cold wars' and 'hot wars'. Cold wars will occur in northern and southern latitudes as warming draws countries into possible conflict due to expanding interests in exploiting new resources and territories (inter-state conflict). Hot wars will break out around the equator as warming expands and intensifies dry areas, increasing competition for scarce resources (intra-state conflict). Conflict is not inevitable, but it will also be a consequence of how states, international institutions and people react to changes in climate. Climate change and conflict have always shaped human experiences. This book lays out the parameters of the relationship, shows its history, and forecasts its trends, offering future conditions and opportunities for changing the historical path we are on. This book will be of great interest for students of climate change and environmental security, peace and conflict studies, and IR/security studies in general. James R. Lee is a Professor in the School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC and Associate Director of American University's Center for Teaching Excellence. He is author of several books on international relations, including, most recently, Exploring the Gaps: Vital Links Between Trade, Environment and Culture (2000).