Categorically Unequal

The American Stratification System

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Author: Douglas S. Massey

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610443802

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 6678

The United States holds the dubious distinction of having the most unequal income distribution of any advanced industrialized nation. While other developed countries face similar challenges from globalization and technological change, none rivals America's singularly poor record for equitably distributing the benefits and burdens of recent economic shifts. In Categorically Unequal, Douglas Massey weaves together history, political economy, and even neuropsychology to provide a comprehensive explanation of how America's culture and political system perpetuates inequalities between different segments of the population. Categorically Unequal is striking both for its theoretical originality and for the breadth of topics it covers. Massey argues that social inequalities arise from the universal human tendency to place others into social categories. In America, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor have consistently been the targets of stereotyping, and as a result, they have been exploited and discriminated against throughout the nation's history. African-Americans continue to face discrimination in markets for jobs, housing, and credit. Meanwhile, the militarization of the U.S.-Mexican border has discouraged Mexican migrants from leaving the United States, creating a pool of exploitable workers who lack the legal rights of citizens. Massey also shows that women's advances in the labor market have been concentrated among the affluent and well-educated, while low-skilled female workers have been relegated to occupations that offer few chances for earnings mobility. At the same time, as the wages of low-income men have fallen, more working-class women are remaining unmarried and raising children on their own. Even as minorities and women continue to face these obstacles, the progressive legacy of the New Deal has come under frontal assault. The government has passed anti-union legislation, made taxes more regressive, allowed the real value of the federal minimum wage to decline, and drastically cut social welfare spending. As a result, the income gap between the richest and poorest has dramatically widened since 1980. Massey attributes these anti-poor policies in part to the increasing segregation of neighborhoods by income, which has insulated the affluent from the social consequences of poverty, and to the disenfranchisement of the poor, as the population of immigrants, prisoners, and ex-felons swells. America's unrivaled disparities are not simply the inevitable result of globalization and technological change. As Massey shows, privileged groups have systematically exploited and excluded many of their fellow Americans. By delving into the root causes of inequality in America, Categorically Unequal provides a compelling argument for the creation of a more equitable society. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Centennial Series

Family Economics and Public Policy, 1800s–Present

How Laws, Incentives, and Social Programs Drive Family Decision-Making and the US Economy

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Author: Megan McDonald Way

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137439637

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 315

View: 6049

This book explores family economic decision-making in the United States from the nineteenth century through present day, specifically looking at the relationship between family resource allocation decisions and government policy. It examines how families have responded to incentives and constraints established by diverse federal and state policies and laws, including the regulation of marriage and of female labor force participation, child labor and education policies—including segregation—social welfare programs, and more. The goal of this book is to present family economic decisions throughout US history in a way that contextualizes where the US economy and the families that drive it have been. It goes on to discuss the role public policies have played in that journey, where we need to go from here, and how public policies can help us get there. At a time when American families are more complex than ever before, this volume will educate readers on the often unrecognized role that government policies have on our family lives, and the uncelebrated role that family economic decision-making has on the future of the US economy.

Identities, Boundaries and Social Ties

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Author: Charles Tilly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317257871

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 3122

Identities, Boundaries and Social Ties offers a distinctive, coherent account of social processes and individuals' connections to their larger social and political worlds. It is novel in demonstrating the connections between inequality and de-democratization, between identities and social inequality, and between citizenship and identities. The book treats interpersonal transactions as the basic elements of larger social processes. Tilly shows how personal interactions compound into identities, create and transform social boundaries, and accumulate into durable social ties. He also shows how individual and group dispositions result from interpersonal transactions. Resisting the focus on deliberated individual action, the book repeatedly gives attention to incremental effects, indirect effects, environmental effects, feedback, mistakes, repairs, and unanticipated consequences. Social life is complicated. But, the book shows, it becomes comprehensible once you know how to look at it.

Collective Violence, Contentious Politics, and Social Change

A Charles Tilly Reader

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Author: Ernesto Castañeda,Cathy Lisa Schneider

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351792776

Category: Social Science

Page: 420

View: 5928

Charles Tilly is among the most influential American sociologists of the last century. For the first time, his pathbreaking work on a wide array of topics is available in one comprehensive reader. This manageable and readable volume brings together many highlights of Tilly’s large and important oeuvre, covering his contribution to the following areas: revolutions and social change; war, state making, and organized crime; democratization; durable inequality; political violence; migration, race, and ethnicity; narratives and explanations. The book connects Tilly’s work on large-scale social processes such as nation-building and war to his work on micro processes such as racial and gender discrimination. It includes selections from some of Tilly’s earliest, influential, and out of print writings, including The Vendée; Coercion, Capital and European States; the classic "War Making and State Making as Organized Crime;" and his more recent and lesser-known work, including that on durable inequality, democracy, poverty, economic development, and migration. Together, the collection reveals Tilly’s complex, compelling, and distinctive vision and helps place the contentious politics approach Tilly pioneered with Sidney Tarrow and Doug McAdam into broader context. The editors abridge key texts and, in their introductory essay, situate them within Tilly’s larger opus and contemporary intellectual debates. The chapters serve as guideposts for those who wish to study his work in greater depth or use his methodology to examine the pressing issues of our time. Read together, they provide a road map of Tilly’s work and his contribution to the fields of sociology, political science, history, and international studies. This book belongs in the classroom and in the library of social scientists, political analysts, cultural critics, and activists.

Still a House Divided

Race and Politics in Obama’s America

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Author: Desmond S. King,Rogers M. Smith

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400839769

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 5124

Why have American policies failed to reduce the racial inequalities still pervasive throughout the nation? Has President Barack Obama defined new political approaches to race that might spur unity and progress? Still a House Divided examines the enduring divisions of American racial politics and how these conflicts have been shaped by distinct political alliances and their competing race policies. Combining deep historical knowledge with a detailed exploration of such issues as housing, employment, criminal justice, multiracial census categories, immigration, voting in majority-minority districts, and school vouchers, Desmond King and Rogers Smith assess the significance of President Obama's election to the White House and the prospects for achieving constructive racial policies for America's future. Offering a fresh perspective on the networks of governing institutions, political groups, and political actors that influence the structure of American racial politics, King and Smith identify three distinct periods of opposing racial policy coalitions in American history. The authors investigate how today's alliances pit color-blind and race-conscious approaches against one another, contributing to political polarization and distorted policymaking. Contending that President Obama has so far inadequately confronted partisan divisions over race, the authors call for all sides to recognize the need for a balance of policy measures if America is to ever cease being a nation divided. Presenting a powerful account of American political alliances and their contending racial agendas, Still a House Divided sheds light on a policy path vital to the country's future.

Durable Inequality

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Author: Charles Tilly

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520221703

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 3225

Annotation Provides a fresh look at the causes and effects of inequality, drawing attention to the place of unequal categories in exploitation.

Race in a Bottle

The Story of BiDil and Racialized Medicine in a Post-Genomic Age

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Author: Jonathan Kahn

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231531273

Category: Medical

Page: 328

View: 9397

At a ceremony announcing the completion of the first draft of the human genome in 2000, President Bill Clinton declared, "I believe one of the great truths to emerge from this triumphant expedition inside the human genome is that in genetic terms, all human beings, regardless of race, are more than 99.9 percent the same." Yet despite this declaration of unity, biomedical research has focused increasingly on mapping that.1 percent of difference, particularly as it relates to race. This trend is exemplified by the drug BiDil. Approved by the FDA in 2005 as the first drug with a race-specific indication on its label, BiDil was originally touted as a pathbreaking therapy to treat heart failure in black patients and help underserved populations. Upon closer examination, however, Jonathan Kahn reveals a far more complex story. At the most basic level, BiDil became racial through legal maneuvering and commercial pressure as much as through medical understandings of how the drug worked. Using BiDil as a central case study, Kahn broadly examines the legal and commercial imperatives driving the expanding role of race in biomedicine, even as scientific advances in genomics could render the issue irrelevant. He surveys the distinct politics informing the use of race in medicine and the very real health disparities caused by racism and social injustice that are now being cast as a mere function of genetic difference. Calling for a more reasoned approach to using race in biomedical research and practice, Kahn asks readers to recognize that, just as genetics is a complex field requiring sensitivity and expertise, so too is race, particularly in the field of biomedicine.

The Safety-Net Health Care System

Health Care at the Margins

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Author: Gunnar Almgren, MSW, PhD,Taryn Lindhorst, MSW, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826105726

Category: Medical

Page: 408

View: 3206

"This is the only book currently available that fully addresses all aspects of the safety net for healthcare." Score: 96, 4 Stars--Doody's Medical Reviews "[T]his complex treatment of a complex topic represents a valuable contribution to the health services literature."--INQUIRY "The Safety-Net Health Care System offers a road map to help safety-net providers overcome personal prejudices, understand why certain patients become ìdifficultî or fail to adhere to treatment, and deal with the stress of working in safety-net environments."--Health Affairs A unique and authoritative guide to the US safety-net health care system, this book addresses how various populations and their difficult health and socio-economic issues are dealt with and impacted by the system. Drs. Gunnar Almgren and Taryn Lindhorst, experts in the fields of social work and public health, provide critical, much-needed insight into the safety-net system and how the recession, unemployment, and reform have accelerated its growth. Ideal for graduate students and early professionals in the health professions, this textbook: Includes narratives from patients and caregivers that help readers understand and empathize with the poor, homeless, and other vulnerable populations affected by the safety-net system Discusses various health issues, including: violence, chronic diseases, mental illness, victimization, and substance abuse/addiction Examines overlaps in US public health, social work, nursing, and medical education Analyzes the differences between the populations that depend on safety-net system providers and more advantaged populations that have access to the mainstream health care system

Social Perspective

The Missing Element in Mental Health Practice

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Author: Richard U'Ren

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442642963

Category: Social Science

Page: 219

View: 8172

Social Perspective explores the impact of social factors on individual health, a topic often overlooked in the practice of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine. Richard U'Ren synthesizes viewpoints and information usually dispersed among many disciplines to show how social roles, political-economic conditions, and the social stratification system all contribute to individual well-being or disorder. U'Ren investigates how access to income, education, and social affiliations buffers individuals against stress and facilitates coping. He demonstrates that those who lack access to such resources suffer the poorest health and the greatest mental distress — a problem that has only grown more challenging with rising inequality. Adding a new dimension to understandings of mental health, mental illness, and psychological distress, Social Perspective offers clinicians a concise account of society's impact on the individual.

Our Kids

The American Dream in Crisis

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Author: Robert D. Putnam

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476769915

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 5164

A New York Times bestseller and “a passionate, urgent” (The New Yorker) examination of the growing inequality gap from the bestselling author of Bowling Alone: why fewer Americans today have the opportunity for upward mobility. Central to the very idea of America is the principle that we are a nation of opportunity. But over the last quarter century we have seen a disturbing “opportunity gap” emerge. We Americans have always believed that those who have talent and try hard will succeed, but this central tenet of the American Dream seems no longer true or at the least, much less true than it was. In Our Kids, Robert Putnam offers a personal and authoritative look at this new American crisis, beginning with the example of his high school class of 1959 in Port Clinton, Ohio. The vast majority of those students went on to lives better than those of their parents. But their children and grandchildren have faced diminishing prospects. Putnam tells the tale of lessening opportunity through poignant life stories of rich, middle class, and poor kids from cities and suburbs across the country, brilliantly blended with the latest social-science research. “A truly masterful volume” (Financial Times), Our Kids provides a disturbing account of the American dream that is “thoughtful and persuasive” (The Economist). Our Kids offers a rare combination of individual testimony and rigorous evidence: “No one can finish this book and feel complacent about equal opportunity” (The New York Times Book Review).

The Immigration Crucible

Transforming Race, Nation, and the Limits of the Law

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Author: Philip Kretsedemas

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231527322

Category: Law

Page: 224

View: 4992

In the debate over U. S. immigration, all sides now support policy and practice that expand the parameters of enforcement. Philip Kretsedemas examines this development from several different perspectives, exploring recent trends in U.S. immigration policy, the rise in extralegal state power over the course of the twentieth century, and discourses on race, nation, and cultural difference that have influenced politics and academia. He also analyzes the recent expansion of local immigration law and explains how forms of extralegal discretionary authority have become more prevalent in federal immigration policy, making the dispersion of local immigration laws possible. While connecting such extralegal state powers to a free flow position on immigration, Kretsedemas also observes how these same discretionary powers have been used historically to control racial minority populations, particularly African Americans under Jim Crow. This kind of discretionary authority often appeals to "states rights" arguments, recently revived by immigration control advocates. Using these and other examples, Kretsedemas explains how both sides of the immigration debate have converged on the issue of enforcement and how, despite differing interests, each faction has shaped the commonsense assumptions defining the debate.

The Oxford Handbook of State and Local Government

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Author: Donald P. Haider-Markel

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191611964

Category: Political Science

Page: 976

View: 1398

The Oxford Handbook of State and Local Government is an historic undertaking. It contains a wide range of essays that define the important questions in the field, evaluate where we are in answering them, and set the direction and terms of discourse for future work. The Handbook will have a substantial influence in defining the field for years to come. The chapters critically assess both the key works of state and local politics literature and the ways in which the sub-field has developed. It covers the main areas of study in subnational politics by exploring the central contributions to the comparative study of institutions, behavior, and policy in the American context. Each chapter outlines an agenda for future research.

Raising Race Questions

Whiteness and Inquiry in Education

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Author: Ali Michael

Publisher: Teachers College Press

ISBN: 0807755990

Category: Education

Page: 175

View: 4200

Raising Race Questions explores the opportunities and challenges that arise when White teachers are willing to deal directly with race and the role it plays in their classrooms. Based on lessons gleaned from experienced White teachers in a variety of settings, it lays out a path for using inquiry to develop sustained, productive engagement with challenging, and common, questions about race. It suggests that guilt and conflict need not be the end point of raising race questions and offers alternative destinations: anti-racist classrooms, positive racial identities, and a restoration of the wholeness that racism undermines. This book features: new insight on race and equity in education; case studies of expert and experienced White teachers who still have questions about race; approaches for talking about race in the K - 12 classroom; strategies for facilitating race conversations among adults; a variety of different resources useful in the teacher inquiry groups described in the book; and research with teachers, not on teachers, including written responses from each teacher whose classroom is featured in the book.

The Ethics of Captivity

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Author: Lori Gruen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978026

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 6990

In the United States roughly 2 million people are incarcerated; billions of animals are held captive (and then killed) in the food industry every year; hundreds of thousands of animals are kept in laboratories; thousands are in zoos and aquaria; millions of "pets" are captive in our homes. Surprisingly, despite the rich ethical questions it raises, very little philosophical attention has been paid to questions raised by captivity. Though conditions of captivity vary widely for humans and for other animals, there are common ethical themes that imprisonment raises, including the value of liberty, the nature of autonomy, the meaning of dignity, and the impact of routine confinement on physical and psychological well-being. This volume brings together scholars, scientists, and sanctuary workers to address in fifteen new essays the ethical issues captivity raises. Section One contains chapters written by those with expert knowledge about particular conditions of captivity and includes discussion of how captivity is experienced by dogs, whales and dolphins, elephants, chimpanzees, rabbits, formerly farmed animals, and human prisoners. Section Two contains chapters by philosophers and social theorists that reflect on the social, political, and ethical issues raised by captivity, including discussions about confinement, domestication, captive breeding for conservation, the work of moral repair, dignity and an ethics of sight, and the role that coercion plays.

Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education

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Author: Marvin Lynn,Adrienne D. Dixson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136581405

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 9536

This handbook illustrates how education scholars employ Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework to bring attention to issues of race and racism in education. It is the first authoritative reference work to provide a truly comprehensive description and analysis of the topic, from the defining conceptual principles of CRT in the Law that gave shape to its radical underpinnings to the political and social implications of the field today. It is divided into three sections, covering innovations in educational research, policy and practice in both schools and in higher education, and the increasing interdisciplinary nature of critical race research. With 28 newly commissioned pieces written by the most renowned scholars in the field, this handbook provides the definitive statement on the state of critical race theory in education and on its possibilities for the future.

The American Dream and the Power of Wealth

Choosing Schools and Inheriting Inequality in the Land of Opportunity

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Author: Heather Beth Johnson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134728794

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 246

View: 7452

In contemporary America, the racial wealth gap is growing, with families transmitting race and class inequalities from generation to generation. Yet Americans continue to hold deep-rooted beliefs in the principles of individualism, equal opportunity, and meritocracy. Education, the "Great Equalizer," is supposed to level the playing field, ensuring that every child—regardless of family of origin—gets an equal chance at success. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 200 black and white families, The American Dream and the Power of Wealth starkly reveals the enormous extent to which parents defend their beliefs in the values that lie at the heart of the American Dream. Yet the way wealth is acquired and the way it is used categorically puts children from different families on vastly different educational trajectories, leaving them with uneven sets of opportunities.

Social Change in Contemporary China

C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion

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Author: Wenfang Tang,Burkart Holzner

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

ISBN: 9780822973065

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 1805

Social Change in Contemporary China offers a wide-ranging examination of Chinese institutional change in areas of education, religion, health care, economics, labor, family, and local communities in the post-Mao era. Based on the pioneering work of sociologist C. K. Yang (1911–1999), and his institutional diffusion theory, the essays analyze and develop the theory as it applies to both public and private institutions. The interrelationship of these institutions composes what Yang termed the Chinese “system,” and affects nearly every aspect of life. Yang examined the influence of external factors on each institution, such as the influence of Westernization and Communism on family, and the impact of industrialization on rural markets. He also analyzed the impact of public opinion and past culture on institutions, therein revealing the circular nature of diffusion. Perhaps most significant are Yang's insights on the role of religion in Chinese society. Despite the common perception that China had no religion, he uncovers the influence of classical Confucianism as the basis for many ethical value systems, and follows its diffusion into state and kinship systems, as well as Taoism and Buddhism. Writing in the early years of Communism, Yang had little hard data with which to test his theories. The contributors to this volume expand upon Yang's groundbreaking approach and apply the model of diffusion to a rapidly evolving contemporary China, providing a window into an increasingly modern Chinese society and its institutions.

(2009)

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Author: K. G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Company

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783598694523

Category:

Page: 2563

View: 3908

The IBR, published again since 1971 as an interdisciplinary, international bibliography of reviews, offers book reviews of literature dealing primarily with the humanities and social sciences published in 6,000 mainly European scholarly journals. This unique bibliography contains over 1.2 millions book reviews. 60,000 entries are added every year with details on the work reviewed and the review.

The production of privilege

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Author: Shamus Rahman Khan,The University of Wisconsin - Madison

Publisher: ProQuest

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 9716

This work explores contemporary American elites. Though sociologists tend to think of class as relational, most often we study one side of the relation: the poor, the marginalized, the dominated. I take a decidedly different tack: I look at the rich, the dominant, the privileged. To understand American inequality we must look more systematically at those at the top---how they got there, how they maintain their positions, and how they deal with those who attempt to enter their ranks. In order to do so I live and taught at one of the most elite boarding schools in the nation. Through this ethnographic study I ask, what does privilege look like in today society? Encapsulated in this are three more questions, (A) How is such privilege inflected in the American case? (B) How is this further inflected by the contemporary demands for openness by non-elites, non-whites, women, and the collective recognition of such openness? (C) And what are the unities and the disunities or inner tensions, discordancies, ambivalences, variations, and contradictions that emerge as elites confront democratizing demands? Extending Bourdieuian insights across the Atlantic I argue that instead of learning to make fine distinctions, American elites learn ambivalence to cultural markers. They develop a cognitive and interactional ease that allows them to freely navigate hierarchical relationships and approach the world as if it is an open space to realize one's potential. Yet contradictions emerge; these are most pronounced for those who have previously been excluded from elite institutions: the less wealthy, non-whites, and girls. These contradictions are between the experiences of everyday life---particularly durable inequality---and the embodiment of privilege which suggests the absence of such durability. Finally, I find that elites have been profoundly influenced by the democratizing demands of the last half century. Rather than emphasize their lineage elites learn to think of their position as a product of what they have done. In mobilizing this classical liberal frame of democracy, elites work to obscure durable inequality, thinking of such inequality as a product of personal and not categorical distinction.