Carl Friedrich Gauss

Titan of Science

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Author: G. Waldo Dunnington,Jeremy Gray,Fritz-Egbert Dohse

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883855478

Category: Mathematics

Page: 537

View: 8846

Classic biography of Gauss, updated with new introduction, bibliography and new material.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

A Biography. Transl. by Albert Froderberg

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Author: Tord Hall

Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematicians

Page: 175

View: 6874

Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

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Author: Carl Friedrich Gauss,William C. Waterhouse

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493975609

Category: Mathematics

Page: 472

View: 8236

Carl Friedrich Gauss’s textbook, Disquisitiones arithmeticae, published in 1801 (Latin), remains to this day a true masterpiece of mathematical examination. .

A Cultural History of Physics

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Author: Károly Simonyi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439865116

Category: Mathematics

Page: 636

View: 6295

While the physical sciences are a continuously evolving source of technology and of understanding about our world, they have become so specialized and rely on so much prerequisite knowledge that for many people today the divide between the sciences and the humanities seems even greater than it was when C. P. Snow delivered his famous 1959 lecture, "The Two Cultures." In A Cultural History of Physics, Hungarian scientist and educator Károly Simonyi succeeds in bridging this chasm by describing the experimental methods and theoretical interpretations that created scientific knowledge, from ancient times to the present day, within the cultural environment in which it was formed. Unlike any other work of its kind, Simonyi’s seminal opus explores the interplay of science and the humanities to convey the wonder and excitement of scientific development throughout the ages. These pages contain an abundance of excerpts from original resources, a wide array of clear and straightforward explanations, and an astonishing wealth of insight, revealing the historical progress of science and inviting readers into a dialogue with the great scientific minds that shaped our current understanding of physics. Beautifully illustrated, accurate in its scientific content and broad in its historical and cultural perspective, this book will be a valuable reference for scholars and an inspiration to aspiring scientists and humanists who believe that science is an integral part of our culture.

Capital as Power

A Study of Order and Creorder

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Author: Jonathan Nitzan,Shimshon Bichler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134022298

Category: Political Science

Page: 464

View: 3010

Conventional theories of capitalism are mired in a deep crisis: after centuries of debate, they are still unable to tell us what capital is. Liberals and Marxists both think of capital as an ‘economic’ entity that they count in universal units of ‘utils’ or ‘abstract labour’, respectively. But these units are totally fictitious. Nobody has ever been able to observe or measure them, and for a good reason: they don’t exist. Since liberalism and Marxism depend on these non-existing units, their theories hang in suspension. They cannot explain the process that matters most – the accumulation of capital. This book offers a radical alternative. According to the authors, capital is not a narrow economic entity, but a symbolic quantification of power. It has little to do with utility or abstract labour, and it extends far beyond machines and production lines. Capital, the authors claim, represents the organized power of dominant capital groups to reshape – or creorder – their society. Written in simple language, accessible to lay readers and experts alike, the book develops a novel political economy. It takes the reader through the history, assumptions and limitations of mainstream economics and its associated theories of politics. It examines the evolution of Marxist thinking on accumulation and the state. And it articulates an innovative theory of ‘capital as power’ and a new history of the ‘capitalist mode of power’.

Human Accomplishment

The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950

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Author: Charles Murray

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061745677

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 3303

A sweeping cultural survey reminiscent of Barzun's From Dawn to Decadence. "At irregular times and in scattered settings, human beings have achieved great things. Human Accomplishment is about those great things, falling in the domains known as the arts and sciences, and the people who did them.' So begins Charles Murray's unique account of human excellence, from the age of Homer to our own time. Employing techniques that historians have developed over the last century but that have rarely been applied to books written for the general public, Murray compiles inventories of the people who have been essential to the stories of literature, music, art, philosophy, and the sciences—a total of 4,002 men and women from around the world, ranked according to their eminence. The heart of Human Accomplishment is a series of enthralling descriptive chapters: on the giants in the arts and what sets them apart from the merely great; on the differences between great achievement in the arts and in the sciences; on the meta-inventions, 14 crucial leaps in human capacity to create great art and science; and on the patterns and trajectories of accomplishment across time and geography. Straightforwardly and undogmatically, Charles Murray takes on some controversial questions. Why has accomplishment been so concentrated in Europe? Among men? Since 1400? He presents evidence that the rate of great accomplishment has been declining in the last century, asks what it means, and offers a rich framework for thinking about the conditions under which the human spirit has expressed itself most gloriously. Eye-opening and humbling, Human Accomplishment is a fascinating work that describes what humans at their best can achieve, provides tools for exploring its wellsprings, and celebrates the continuing common quest of humans everywhere to discover truths, create beauty, and apprehend the good.

Gauss

A Biographical Study

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Author: W. K. Bühler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364249207X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 3986

Procreare iucundum, sed parturire molestum. (Gauss, sec. Eisenstein) The plan of this book was first conceived eight years ago. The manuscript developed slowly through several versions until it attained its present form in 1979. It would be inappropriate to list the names of all the friends and advisors with whom I discussed my various drafts but I should like to mention the name of Mr. Gary Cornell who, besides discussing with me numerous details of the manuscript, revised it stylistically. There is much interest among mathematicians to know more about Gauss's life, and the generous help I received has certainly more to do with this than with any individual, positive or negative, aspect of my manuscript. Any mistakes, errors of judgement, or other inadequacies are, of course, the author's responsi bility. The most incisive and, in a way, easiest decisions I had to make were those of personal taste in the choice and treatment of topics. Much had to be omitted or could only be discussed in a cursory way.

The Rise of Experimental Biology

An Illustrated History

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Author: Peter L. Lutz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591639

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 6834

Peter Lutz, PhD, brilliantly traverses the major milestones along the evolutionary path of biomedicine from earliest recorded times to the dawn of the 20th century. With an engaging narrative that will have you turning "just one more page" well into the night, this book revealingly demonstrates just how the modern scientific method has been shaped by the past. Along the way the reader is treated to some delightfully obscure anecdotes and a treasure trove of rich illustrations that chronicle the tortuous history of biomedical developments, ranging from the bizarre and amusing to the downright macabre. The reader will also be introduced to the major ideas shaping contemporary physiology and the social context of its development, and also gain an understanding of how advances in biological science have occasionally been improperly used to satisfy momentary social or political needs.

Scientific Babel

How Science Was Done Before and After Global English

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Author: Michael D. Gordin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022600032X

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 2974

English is the language of science today. No matter which languages you know, if you want your work seen, studied, and cited, you need to publish in English. But that hasn’t always been the case. Though there was a time when Latin dominated the field, for centuries science has been a polyglot enterprise, conducted in a number of languages whose importance waxed and waned over time—until the rise of English in the twentieth century. So how did we get from there to here? How did French, German, Latin, Russian, and even Esperanto give way to English? And what can we reconstruct of the experience of doing science in the polyglot past? With Scientific Babel, Michael D. Gordin resurrects that lost world, in part through an ingenious mechanism: the pages of his highly readable narrative account teem with footnotes—not offering background information, but presenting quoted material in its original language. The result is stunning: as we read about the rise and fall of languages, driven by politics, war, economics, and institutions, we actually see it happen in the ever-changing web of multilingual examples. The history of science, and of English as its dominant language, comes to life, and brings with it a new understanding not only of the frictions generated by a scientific community that spoke in many often mutually unintelligible voices, but also of the possibilities of the polyglot, and the losses that the dominance of English entails. Few historians of science write as well as Gordin, and Scientific Babel reveals his incredible command of the literature, language, and intellectual essence of science past and present. No reader who takes this linguistic journey with him will be disappointed.

Leonhard Euler

Mathematical Genius in the Enlightenment

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Author: Ronald S. Calinger

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866634

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 696

View: 5039

This is the first full-scale biography of Leonhard Euler (1707–83), one of the greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists of all time. In this comprehensive and authoritative account, Ronald Calinger connects the story of Euler's eventful life to the astonishing achievements that place him in the company of Archimedes, Newton, and Gauss. Drawing chiefly on Euler’s massive published works and correspondence, which fill more than eighty volumes so far, this biography sets Euler’s work in its multilayered context—personal, intellectual, institutional, political, cultural, religious, and social. It is a story of nearly incessant accomplishment, from Euler’s fundamental contributions to almost every area of pure and applied mathematics—especially calculus, number theory, notation, optics, and celestial, rational, and fluid mechanics—to his advancements in shipbuilding, telescopes, ballistics, cartography, chronology, and music theory. The narrative takes the reader from Euler’s childhood and education in Basel through his first period in St. Petersburg, 1727–41, where he gained a European reputation by solving the Basel problem and systematically developing analytical mechanics. Invited to Berlin by Frederick II, Euler published his famous Introductio in analysin infinitorum, devised continuum mechanics, and proposed a pulse theory of light. Returning to St. Petersburg in 1766, he created the analytical calculus of variations, developed the most precise lunar theory of the time that supported Newton’s dynamics, and published the best-selling Letters to a German Princess—all despite eye problems that ended in near-total blindness. In telling the remarkable story of Euler and how his achievements brought pan-European distinction to the Petersburg and Berlin academies of sciences, the book also demonstrates with new depth and detail the central role of mathematics in the Enlightenment. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Ludwig Boltzmann

The Man Who Trusted Atoms

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Author: Carlo Cercignani

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191606987

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 2481

This book presents the life and personality, the scientific and philosophical work of Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the great scientists who marked the passage from 19th- to 20th-Century physics. His rich and tragic life, ending by suicide at the age of 62, is described in detail. A substantial part of the book is devoted to discussing his scientific and philosophical ideas and placing them in the context of the second half of the 19th century. The fact that Boltzmann was the man who did most to establish that there is a microscopic, atomic structure underlying macroscopic bodies is documented, as is Boltzmann's influence on modern physics, especially through the work of Planck on light quanta and of Einstein on Brownian motion. Boltzmann was the centre of a scientific upheaval, and he has been proved right on many crucial issues. He anticipated Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions and proposed a theory of knowledge based on Darwin. His basic results, when properly understood, can also be stated as mathematical theorems. Some of these have been proved: others are still at the level of likely but unproven conjectures. The main text of this biography is written almost entirely without equations. Mathematical appendices deepen knowledge of some technical aspects of the subject.

The Shaping of Arithmetic after C.F. Gauss's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

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Author: Catherine Goldstein,Norbert Schappacher,Joachim Schwermer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540347208

Category: Mathematics

Page: 578

View: 2437

Since its publication, C.F. Gauss's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) has acquired an almost mythical reputation, standing as an ideal of exposition in notation, problems and methods; as a model of organisation and theory building; and as a source of mathematical inspiration. Eighteen authors - mathematicians, historians, philosophers - have collaborated in this volume to assess the impact of the Disquisitiones, in the two centuries since its publication.

A Fabulous Kingdom

The Exploration of the Arctic

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Author: Charles Officer,Jake Page

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199837805

Category: History

Page: 220

View: 8755

The second edition of A Fabulous Kingdom will explain the history of the arctic and describe the current scientific and environmental issues that threaten this fascinating region.

The Structure of Physics

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Author: Carl F. von Weizsäcker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402052359

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 2681

The book is a newly arranged and revised English version of "Aufbau der Physik" by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. Some original chapters and sections have been deleted, and a new chapter about further insights and results of ur-theoretic research of the late 1980’s and 1990’s has been included. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker combines the perspectives of science, philosophy, religion and politics with a view towards the challenges as well as the responsibilities of our time.

The End of the Dinosaurs

Chicxulub Crater and Mass Extinctions

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Author: Charles Frankel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521474474

Category: Science

Page: 223

View: 5174

Investigates the idea that the natural disaster many scientists suspect caused the extinction of the dinosaurs occurred near Puerto Chicxulub, Mexico, when an asteroid collided with Earth, releasing deadly amounts of energy.

A Good and Wise Measure

The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783-1842

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Author: Francis M. Carroll

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780802083586

Category: History

Page: 462

View: 8090

The story of the attempts to settle the original boundary between British North America and the United States. Though established by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the boundary was plagued by ambiguities and errors in the document.

An Idiot’s Fugitive Essays on Science

Methods, Criticism, Training, Circumstances

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Author: C. Truesdell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461381851

Category: Philosophy

Page: 654

View: 5808

When, after the agreeable fatigues of solicitation, Mrs Millamant set out a long bill of conditions subject to which she might by degrees dwindle into a wife, Mirabell offered in return the condition that he might not thereby be beyond measure enlarged into a husband. With age and experience in research come the twin dangers of dwindling into a philosopher of science while being enlarged into a dotard. The philosophy of science, I believe, should not be the preserve of senile scientists and of teachers of philosophy who have themselves never so much as understood the contents of a textbook of theoretical physics, let alone done a bit of mathematical research or even enjoyed the confidence of a creating scientist. On the latter count I run no risk: Any reader will see that I am untrained (though not altogether unread) in classroom philosophy. Of no ignorance of mine do I boast, indeed I regret it, but neither do I find this one ignorance fatal here, for few indeed of the great philosophers to explicate whose works hodiernal professors of phil osophy destroy forests of pulp were themselves so broadly and specially trained as are their scholiasts. In attempt to palliate the former count I have chosen to collect works written over the past thirty years, some of them not published before, and I include only a few very recent essays.

Euler

The Master of Us All

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Author: William Dunham

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883853283

Category: Mathematics

Page: 185

View: 492

Leonhard Euler was one of the most prolific mathematicians that have ever lived. This book examines the huge scope of mathematical areas explored and developed by Euler, which includes number theory, combinatorics, geometry, complex variables and many more. The information known to Euler over 300 years ago is discussed, and many of his advances are reconstructed. Readers will be left in no doubt about the brilliance and pervasive influence of Euler's work.

Studies of Pallas in the Early Nineteenth Century

Historical Studies in Asteroid Research

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Author: Clifford J. Cunningham

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319328484

Category: Science

Page: 477

View: 2847

Based on extensive primary sources, many never previously translated into English, this is the definitive account of the discovery of Pallas as it went from being classified as a new planet to reclassification as the second of a previously unknown group of celestial objects. Cunningham, a dedicated scholar of asteroids, includes a large set of newly translated correspondence as well as the many scientific papers about Pallas in addition to sections of Schroeter's 1805 book on the subject. It was Olbers who discovered Pallas, in 1802, the second of many asteroids that would be officially identified as such. From the Gold Medal offered by the Paris Academy to solve the mystery of Pallas' gravitational perturbations to Gauss' Pallas Anagram, the asteroid remained a lingering mystery to leading thinkers of the time. Representing an intersection of science, mathematics, and philosophy, the puzzle of Pallas occupied the thoughts of an amazing panorama of intellectual giants in Europe in the early 1800s.