Bouncers

Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy

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Author: Dick Hobbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199252244

Category: Law

Page: 323

View: 1616

In recent years, the expansion of night-time leisure has emerged as a key indicator of post-industrial urban prosperity, attracting investment, creating employment, and re-generating the built environment. These leisure economies are youth-dominated, focusing upon the sale and consumption of alcohol. Unprecedented numbers of young people now flock to town centres that are crammed with bars, pubs, and clubs, and the resulting violent disorder has over run police resources that remain geared to the drinking patterns and alcohol cultures of previous generations. Post-industrial re-structuring has spawned an increasingly complex mass of night-time leisure options through which numerous licit and illicit commercial opportunities flow. Yet, regardless of the fashionable and romantic notions of many contemporary urban theorists, it is alcohol, mass intoxication, and profit rather than 'cultural regeneration,' which lies at the heart of this rapidly expanding dimension of post-industrial urbanism. Private security in the bulky form of bouncers fills the void left by the public police. These men (only 7% are women), whose activities are barely regulated by the State, are dominated by a powerful subculture rooted in routine violence and intimidation. Using ethnography, participant observation, and extensive interviews with all the main players, this controversial book charts the emergence of the bouncer as one of the most graphic symbols in the iconography of post-industrial Britain.

The Ashgate Research Companion to Moral Panics

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Author: Charles Krinsky

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317042425

Category: Social Science

Page: 500

View: 7590

The Ashgate Research Companion to Moral Panics offers a comprehensive assemblage of cutting-edge critical and theoretical perspectives on the concept of moral panic. All chapters represent original research by many of the most influential theorists and researchers now working in the area of moral panic, including Nachman Ben-Yehuda and Erich Goode, Joel Best, Chas Critcher, Mary deYoung, Alan Hunt, Toby Miller, Willem Schinkel, Kenneth Thompson, Sheldon Ungar, and Grazyna Zajdow. Chapters come from a range of disciplines, including media studies, literary studies, history, legal studies, and sociology, with significant new elaborations on the concept of moral panic (and its future), informed and powerful critiques, and detailed empirical studies from several continents. A clear and comprehensive survey of a concept that is increasingly influential in a number of disciplines as well as in popular culture, this collection of the latest research in the field addresses themes including the evolution of the moral panic concept, sex panics, media panics, moral panics over children and youth, and the future of the moral panic concept.

ASBO Nation

The Criminalisation of Nuisance

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Author: Peter Squires

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1847420281

Category: Political Science

Page: 383

View: 2464

This collection brings together opinion, commentary, research evidence, professional guidance, debate and critique in order to understand the phenomenon of anti-social behaviour.

The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy

Essays in Honour of Roger Hood

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Author: Roger G. Hood,Lucia Zedner,Andrew Ashworth

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199265091

Category: Law

Page: 553

View: 4108

This book brings together leading international criminologist to examine the link between the fruits of criminological research and the development of criminal justice policy. This volume includes comparative discussions of the United States, Germany, Australia, England and Wales. It is divided into four parts: Part 1 discusses the theoretical issues surrounding the relationship between public policy and the discipline of criminology; Part 2 consists of three essays exploring historical aspects of that relationship. Part 3 then examines three distinct areas of penal policy: sentencing, policing and parole; Part 4 is devoted to international comparisons and considers the factors that distinguish research projects that influence criminal justice policy from those that appear not have any influence.

Nightlife and Crime

Social Order and Governance in International Perspective

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Author: Phil Hadfield

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 6048

Nightlife and Crime is a collection of scholarly reports on crime and disorder in the Night Time Economies (NTEs) of 17 countries. It includes contributions from an international and interdisciplinary team of experts who reflect on the challenges such crimes present to the economic and social life of towns.

The politics of crime control

essays in honour of David Downes

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Author: Tim Newburn,Paul Elliott Rock,David M. Downes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 333

View: 764

This book brings together ten leading British criminologists to explore the contemporary politics of crime and its control. The volume is produced in honour of Britain's most important criminological scholar - David Downes, of the London School of Economics. The essays are grouped around the three major themes that run through David Downes' work - sociological theory, crime and deviance; comparative penal policy; and, the politics of crime. The third theme also provides the overarching unifying thread for the volume. The contributions are broad ranging and cover such subjects as criminological theory and the new East End of London, the practice of comparative criminology including an analysis of variations in penal cultures within the United States, restorative justice in Colombia, New Labour's politics and policy in relation to dangerous personality-disordered offenders, the legal construction of torture, and the future for a social democratic criminology.

Policing and Security in Practice

Challenges and Achievements

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Author: T. Prenzler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137007788

Category: Social Science

Page: 227

View: 4513

This volume addresses critical questions about how to achieve the best outcomes from police and security providers by reviewing and critiquing the scientific literature and identifying best practice guidelines. Chapters cover a range of topical issues, including legitimacy, organised crime, public protests and intelligence and investigations.

Criminal Lives

Family Life, Employment, and Offending

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Author: Barry S. Godfrey,David J. Cox,Stephen Farrall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 213

View: 4296

This text examines the history of crime and uses historical data to analyse modern criminological debates. Drawing on criminology, history, and social policy, the book addresses important issues about offenders' persistence in crime, and questions the current theoretical framework used to explain offending patterns.

Desisting from Crime

Continuity and Change in Long-term Crime Patterns of Serious Chronic Offenders

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Author: Michael Eugene Ezell,Lawrence E. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199273812

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 5162

This groundbreaking study examines patterns of offending among persistent juvenile offenders. The authors address questions that have been the focus of criminological debate over the last two decades. Are there are multiple groups of offenders in the population with distinct age-crime patterns? Are between-person differences in criminal offending patterns stable throughout the offender's life? Is there a relationship between offending at one time and at a subsequent time of life, after time-stable differences in criminal propensity are controlled? Ezell and Cohen address these issues by examining three large, separately drawn samples of serious youthful offenders from California. Each sample was tracked over a long time-period, and sophisticated statistical models were used to test eight empirical hypotheses drawn from three major theories of crime: population heterogeneity, state dependence, and dual taxonomy. Each of these three perspectives offers different predictionsabout the relationship between age and crime, and the possibility of crime desistance over the life of serious chronic offenders. Despite the serious chronic criminality among the sample offenders, by the time they reached their mid- to late twenties and continuing into their thirties, each of the six latent classes of offender identified by the study had begun to demonstrate a declining number of arrests. This finding has profound implications for penal policies that impose life sentenceson multiple offenders, such as the Californian 'three strikes and you're out' which incarcerates inmates for 25 years to life with their 'third strike' conviction, at precisely the point when they have begun to grow out of serious crime.

Prisons and Their Moral Performance

A Study of Values, Quality, and Prison Life

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Author: Alison Liebling

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 549

View: 5254

This book constitutes a critical case study of the modern search for public sector reform. It includes a detailed account of a study aimed at developing a meaningful way of evaluating difficult-to-measure moral dimensions of the quality of prisons. Penal practices, values, and sensibilities have undergone important transformations over the period 1990-2003. Part of this transformation included a serious flirtation with a liberal penal project that went wrong. A significant factor in this unfortunate turn of events was a lack of clarity, by those working in and managing prisons, about important terms such as 'justice', 'liberal', and 'care', and how they might apply to daily penal life. Official measures of the prison seem to lack relevance to many who live and work in prison and to their critics. The author proposes that a truer test of the quality of prison life is what staff and prisoners have to say about those aspects of prison life that 'matter most': relationships, fairness, order, and the quality of their treatment. The book attempts a detailed analysis and measurement of these dimensions in five prisons. It finds significant differences between establishments in these areas of prison life, and some departures from the official vision of the prison supported by the performance framework. The information revolution has generated unprecedented levels of knowledge about individual prisons, as well as providing a management reach into establishments from adistance, and a capacity for 'chronic revision', that was unimaginable fifty years ago. Another major transformation - the modernisation project - brought with it a new, but flawed, 'craft' of performance monitoring and measurement aimed at solving some of the problems of prison management. This book explores the arrival and the impact of this concept of performance and the links apparently forged between managerialism and moral values.

The Eternal Recurrence of Crime and Control

Essays in Honour of Paul Rock

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Author: David M. Downes,Tim Newburn,Dick Hobbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199580231

Category: Law

Page: 292

View: 8104

This title features contributions from a distinguished group of criminologists from the UK, the US and Australia, brought together to honour the work of Paul Rock, former Professor of Social Institutions at the London School of Economics.

Constructing Victims' Rights

The Home Office, New Labour, and Victims

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Author: Paul Elliott Rock

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 583

View: 8717

Despite plentiful discussion at various times, the personal victim has traditionally been afforded almost no formal role in the criminal justice process. Victims' rights have always met with stout opposition from both judges and the Lord Chancellor, who have guarded defendants' rights; the maintenance of professionally-controlled and emotionally unencumbered trials; and the doctrine that crime is at heart an offence against society, State, or Sovereign. Constructing Victims' Rights provides a detailed account of how this opposition was overcome, and of the progressive redefinition of victims of crime, culminating in 2003 in proposals for awarding near-rights to victims of crime. Based upon extensive observation, primary papers, and interviews, Paul Rock examines changes in the forms of criminal justice policy-making within the New Labour Government, observing how they shaped political representations and activities centred on victims of crime. He reveals how the issues ofnew managerialism, restorative justice, human rights, race and racism (after the death of Stephen Lawrence), and the treatment of rape victims after the trial of Ralston Edwards came to form a critical mass that required ordering and reconstruction. Constructing Victims' Rights unpicks and explains the resultant battery of proposals and the deft policy manoeuvre contained in the Domestic Violence, Crime, and Victims Bill of 2003. This, the solution to a seemingly intractable problem, was awork of finesse, proposing on the one hand, the imposition of statutory duties on criminal justice agencies and the granting of access to an Ombudsman, and on the other, a National Victims' Advisory Panel that would afford victims a symbolic voice, and a symbolic champion: a Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses.

Punishing Persistent Offenders

Exploring Community and Offender Perspectives

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Author: Julian V. Roberts

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199283897

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 564

For many repeat offenders, previous convictions have more impact on their penalty than the seriousness of their current crime. Why do we punish reoffense more harshly? Should offenders be punished only for crimes they commit and not for crimes committed and paid for in the past? How does this practice affect the views of offenders and the public?

Policing the peace in Northern Ireland

politics, crime and security after the Belfast Agreement

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Author: Jon Moran

Publisher: Manchester Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 233

View: 5723

This timely and controversial book shows how crime, and the response of the authorities to it, became central to the peace process in Northern Ireland. The book covers the fast-moving and controversial aspects of paramilitary crime, police reform and the supposed demobilization of paramilitaries in Northern Ireland. It examines the loyalist paramilitary feuds of the early 1990s, involving Johnny Adair, the Northern Bank robbery, the Provisional IRA ending its "war" and moving to control crime, the republicans agreeing to support policing and the restoration of a devolved parliament in 2007. The book incorporates the first-hand research of the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI).

Understanding Criminal Careers

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Author: Keith Soothill,Claire Fitzpatrick,Brian Francis

Publisher: Willan Pub

ISBN: 9781843925026

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 5695

The study of criminal careers is of increasing interest in criminology. It is now generally recognised that it is important to try to understand criminal behaviour across the life-course rather than focusing on fragmented incidents which provide only a partial picture. This is an accessible text which clarifies the crucial theoretical and methodological debates surrounding the study of criminal careers. It focuses on some major longitudinal studies discussing the onset, persistence, desistance and the duration of a criminal career. The important topics of prediction, risk and specialisation are addressed. The challenging question of 'When do ex-offenders become like non-offenders?' points a way forward. The book concludes by proposing an even more ambitious approach to the topic of criminal careers.

Sex work

a risky business

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Author: Teela Sanders

Publisher: Willan Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 211

View: 6943

This is a richly detailed account of the way the sex industry works, and one of the few empirical studies that investigates the off street industry in Britain. The book seeks to advance a greater knowledge of the social organisation of the sex industry by uncovering the day to day activities of women involved in the indoor markets. What types of occupational risks do women experience in work of this kind? How do these hazards affect their personal lives?A key concern throughout the book is to assess whether women are passive victims of the circumstances of prostitution or whether they understand and calculate their responses to danger. Drawing upon both sociological and criminological theories, and on detailed research in the city of Birmingham, the author addresses these questions by estimating the rationality of those responses and by providing a measure of how women make sense of different risks.Sex Work: a risky business describes how women create complex psychological and emotional techniques to maintain their sanity while selling sex, and goes on to argue that the indoor sex markets in Britain have a distinct 'occupational culture' with a set of social norms, code of conduct and moral hierarchies that make it a high regulated workplace despite its illicit and sometimes illegal nature.

Crime and Security

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Author: Benjamin Jervis Goold,Lucia Zedner

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 508

View: 812

This volume brings together a wide range of contributions from leading scholars in the field and includes international and comparative perspectives on the challenges posed by the rise of the 'security society'.

Internationales Handbuch der Gewaltforschung

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Author: Wilhelm Heitmeyer,John Hagan

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322803767

Category: Social Science

Page: 1583

View: 2895

Die Forschung zur Gewalt in modernen westlichen Gesellschaften hat in den letzten Jahren zugenommen. Die Erklärungen dafür sind zahlreich: tatsächlicher Anstieg bei bestimmten Gewaltvarianten, neue Sensibilitäten, Rückkehr alter Gewaltformen, Verlagerung von Gewalt in andere gesellschaftliche Bereiche etc. Bisher fehlt jedoch ein systematischer Überblick über die tatsächlichen Entwicklungen. Das vorliegende Handbuch informiert umfassend über Gewalt als soziales Phänomen. Dabei wird fast allen Facetten dieses Themas Rechnung getragen: · Sozialstrukturelle Verhältnisse und Gewalt, · Sozialisation und Lernen von Gewalt, · Gewalterfahrungen und Gewalttätigkeit, · Gewaltopfer, · Gewalt in gesellschaftlichen Institutionen, · Gewalt durch politische Gruppen, · Gewaltdiskurse etc. In 62 Artikeln von Autorinnen und Autoren aus zehn Ländern liefert der Band ein komplexes, transdisziplinäres Bild eines Forschungsfeldes zwischen Ordnung, Zerstörung und Macht.

Community safety

critical perspectives on policy and practice

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Author: Peter Squires

Publisher: Policy Pr

ISBN: 9781861347305

Category: Political Science

Page: 255

View: 7134

Community safety emerged as a new approach to tackling and preventing UK local crime and disorder in the late 1980s and was adopted into mainstream policy by UK's New Labour in the late '90s. Twenty years on, it is important to ask how the community safety agenda has evolved and developed within local crime and disorder prevention strategies. Community Safety provides the first sustained critical and theoretically informed analysis of this topic, exploring the strengths and weaknesses of the community safety legacy, while posing challenging questions and examining a wide range of topics relating to community safety policy and practice, including: anti-social behavior strategies; victims' perspectives on community safety; race, racism, and policing; safety and social exclusion; domestic violence; substance misuse; community policing; and organized crime.